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VOL. I. 

$rtntrti for tlje SEorcestersljirc Historical Soctetg, 






TTENRY TOWNSHEND of Elmley Lovett, a Magistrate 
for Worcestershire, kept an Account of current events 
from 1640 1663. This account gives in detail a large number 
of the public orders and notices affecting the County, especially 
his own parish of Elmley Lovett, and also a fragmentary diary. 

The Diary is not in chronological order, the first part includes ten 
months, April 1 640 to February 1 641 ; the second nearly four years 
of the Commonwealth, April 1653 to January 1657; the third part 
the Restoration, April 1660 to April 1663; and the last and most 
important, an account of the siege of Worcester in 1 646. Towns- 
hend was in Worcester during the whole time of the siege, and his 
narrative is a most interesting record of that struggle. It is the 
only full account that has come down to us, and so far has not 
been published in full. Nash, in the Appendix to his History, 
gave a condensed account, but like most abbreviations it left out 
a large number of most interesting local details. This part of the 
manuscript is here published in full. This has only been possible 
by the generosity of Mr. Dyson Perrins. After passing through 
several hands, the MS. became the property of the late Sir 
Thomas Phillips, and was included in one of the periodical sales 
of his manuscripts. There was a well-grounded fear that this 
manuscript might be bought by some American collector and so 
lost to the county. The Worcestershire Historical Society 
brought the matter to Mr. Dyson Perrins' notice, and he at once 
purchased the MS. and placed it at the disposal of the Society 
for publication. The thanks, not merely of the Society but of 


the whole county, are due to him for enabling so important a 
source of Worcestershire History being made generally available. 

An attempt has been made to arrange the different docu- 
ments contained in the manuscript in chronological order, and to 
add a few explanatory notes, so as to make the Diary an account 
of the county during the Civil War and Commonwealth periods 
from the civil side, omitting all mention of military matters and 
the fighting except the siege of Worcester in 1646. 

Townshend's entries of matters during the Commonwealth 
are most fragmentary, and to have attempted to develop them 
into a story of the county during that period would have been 
quite inconsistent with editing the Diary. It may, however, be 
of some use to whoever undertakes a much-needed task in the 
history of Worcestershire a full account of the county from the 
surrender of the city in July 1646 to the restoration of the 
King in May 1660. 

The frontispiece to this Volume a drawing by Marlow of 
the old Bridge at Worcester which was pulled down when the 
present Bridge was completed in 1771 is, it is believed, the 
only drawing there is of the old Bridge looking down stream. 
It was exhibited at the visit of the Archaeological Institute to 
Worcester in 1862. The only other view of the Bridge is one 
looking up stream, a vignette on the title page of Green's 
" History of Worcester," 1796. The Society are also indebted 
to Mr. Dyson Perrins for presenting this plate. 

September, 1920. 



Introduction - - i cxi 

Index to Introduction - cxii cxxiv 



29 April 1640 to 24 February 1641 i 22 



20 April 1653 to January 1657 - - 23 34 


25 April 1660 to 8 April 1663 - 35 98 


Siege of Worcester. 

26 March 1646 to 26 July 1646 - - 99 197 


NOTE. A reference to Part I. is shewn by I., and Parts II. and III. by II. 

The so-called Diary of Henry Townshend of Elmley Lovett in the county 
of Worcester, now published in full for the first time, is an important record of 
the state of the county during the Civil War period. There is very little of 
the diary about it. Beginning in April 1640 at the time of the Scotch War, it 
gives us a slight insight into the way Charles raised his troops and their 
want of discipline. The first part roughly extends from 29 April 1640 to 
24 February 1641. It is mainly taken up with accounts of what took place 
in Parliament, and iu this respect does not add much to what was already 
known. Townshend was not himself a member of Parliament, so all he 
states on public affairs was second-hand information, and it reads, as it 
probably was, a collection of extracts from the newspapers or newsletters 
then in circulation. Still there are a few domestic incidents that are of 
interest. He tells us when his stable was pulled down, and when rebuilt, of 
stocking some of his water with fish carp, bream, tench, gudgeon and the 
price he paid for them. Store bream cost lod. the hundred, breeding bream 
3$. 4<Z. for four, tench are 3</. each. He states the price of hay, 60 cwt. ^14 los. 
His stable was pulled down on 29 April 1640, and the new one was 
finished on 3 August. He gives the price of articles for the house lately 
built : the wainscot of the dining-room cost 3.9. ^d. a yard, the chimney-piece 
50 shillings, the total cost being 36. 

Matters of much greater importance than these entries are contained in the 
book. Townshend made or caused to be made copies of a large number of 
miscellaneous county documents, some of which are not now to be found 
elsewhere. It is these documents that give the Diary its real importance. 
From this source we get a picture of the state of the county which only such 
documents can supply, so by the help of these and with other papers it is 
possible to construct a fairly impartial account of what was done, and by whom 
it was done, in the county during the civil war. 

A word should be said before dealing with the matters the papers disclose 
as to the position occupied by Henry Townshend in the county, and the 
condition of things when the Diary begins. 

Elmley Lovett is a parish in the Hundred of Half shire on the road from 
Droitwich to Kidderminster; it contains some 2,365 acres, of which about 700 
belonged to Townshend at the time of the Diary. The parish had 
formed part of the great estates of the Earl of Warwick, and on his attainder 
in the reign of Henry VII. (1499) they passed to the Crown. Henry VIII. 




granted Elmley Lovett to Sir Robert Acton, whose descendant Sir John 
Acton died without male issue, leaving four daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, 
married Henry Townshend ; of the other three, Eleanor married Thomas 
Thornborough, Anne married Walter Colles, and Penelope John Lench. The 
pedigree up to 1683, as given in the visitation of that year, is as 
follows : 

Elizabeth, dau.=?=Henry Townshend of=T=Dorothea, dau. of 
and coheiress of 
Sir John Acton of 
Elmley Lovett. 
ist wife. 

Elmley Lovett, who 
wrote the Diary ; b. 
1600 ; ob. 1663, aet. 

Henry Bright and 
widow of John Dob- 
bins, and wife. 

X V 

Elizabeth, ob. 


Henry Townshend of=pAnne, dau. of John Dobbins of Eves- 
Elmley Lovett, b. batch and Bishops Froome, co. 
1625; set. 57, 1682. Hereford. 

Dorothy, Robert 

unmar. hend, aet. 26, 
1682; Rector of 

of William 

Henry Townshend=pMary, dau. of 

of Elmley Lovett, 
aet. 29, 1682. 

Thos. Vernon, 
Registrar of 
the Diocese. 

Henry Townshend.^ 


Aune, ob. infant. 

Dorothy Townshend. 

Colonel Forester, M.P. for Wenlock, married Ann, daughter and coheiress 
of Robert Townshend. George Forester, their second son, assumed by Royal 
Licence the name of Townshend. He was of The Lodge, Elmley Lovett. He 
died without issue, and in 1859 the Elmley Lovett property was sold to 
W. Orme Foster of Stourton, and afterwards of Apley Park, Shropshire. He 
was succeeded by his son Captain James Foster, who in 1918 sold the estate 
in lots, so that the property is now broken up. 

The Diary contains some very important documents as to the government 
of the county. The first is a memorandum stating the mode in which any sum 
the county was to raise by way of tax should be levied. At that time 
some of the statutes that imposed a tax stated the total sum each 
county was to raise. For instance, the statute of 16 Car J., c. 32, which 
required a total sum of 400,000 to be raised, gave what sum each 
county was to provide towards the total : Worcestershire's contribution was 
5802. It does not appear how and when these totals were fixed, but 
they seem to have been the accepted sum for each of the counties. To raise 

1 The names in italics are not in the Visitation pedigree of 1683. 


the money a definite sum was placed on each hundred. How these sums 
were arrived at does not appear, but a varying charge was placed on different 
occasions for the share of each hundred. It is said to have been fixed by a 
jury impanelled for that purpose 24 September 1638, but it does not appear 
who impanelled it, under what authority, nor the mode by which the amount 
was arrived at. Townsheud gives the scale as follows 1 : 

*" The Hundred of Oswaldslow pays for every tax one third part through- 
out the county. 
Doddingtre pays one eighth. 
Blakenhurst a twelfth. 
Pershore a fourth. 
Halfshire a fifth and two shillings over in every pound." 

The rule as given by Nash 8 states : " Oswaldslow pays one-third, Pershore 
and Blakenhurst one-third, Halfshire and Doddingtre one-third. To raise 
the Pershore and Blakenhurst third, Pershore pays of the sum and Blaken- 
hurst . To raise the Halfshire and Doddingtre third, Halfshire pays f and 
Doddingtre . For the Halfshire the hundred is divided into two parts, 
Bromsgrove division and Kidderminster division. Bromsgrove pays| of ^, and 
Kidderminster -J of ." 

Nash gives an example : ! If for a year's aid the county was charged with 
2400 it would be raised in these proportions Oswaldslow J, &co ; Pershore 
and Blakenhurst 800, of which Pershore paid 6.40 and Blakenhurst 16; 
Halfshire and Doddingtre 800, of which Halfshire paid 500 and Doddingtre 
300. The Halfshire 500 was again divided into Kidderminster division 
300 and Bromsgrove division 100. It does not appear how and when these 
divisions were made. 4 The sum that any owner had to pay depended on the 
part of the county in which his property was situated. Elmley Lovctt was in 
the Bromsgrove division of the Halfshire hundred, and so had to raise its 
share of 300. This had to be divided among the parishes that made up the 
Bromsgrove division. By this mode the sum required from the parish of 
Elmley Lovett was for a single subsidy 4. i6s., and this the parish had to 
raise in three ways by assessing 

(1) All the landowners on the value of their lands as fixed by the assess- 


(2) All the persons who had goods over 3 in value, 

(3) All Roman Catholics at is. a. head. 

1 II., p. 5. 2 II., p. 284. 3 Hist. Worcestershire Introduction, p. Ixiii. 

4 A note of Townshend says : "The rates of the Hundred of Pershore agreed accord- 
ing to an order of Sessions made 6 October 22 J acobi as followeth : Pershore and Blaken- 
hurst Hundreds to bear a third part of the county with 3 parts subdivided, Blakenhurst 
one part and Pershore 3 parts in 4." 

No such order now exists among the Sessions papers for 1624, but all the miscel- 
laneous papers for that year except some jury lists are missing. 


The assessment of the parish was 24 ios., of which 21 ios. was 
from land, 3 from goods, and 2s. from 3 papists. 19 persons con- 
tributed 15 landowners, I from goods and 3 papists. Townshend was by far 
the largest landowner. He was assessed at 4 and paid 16*. One other land- 
owner, John Bourn, was assessed at 2 and paid is.; another assessed at 
i TOS. paid 6s., nine assessed at i each paid 45. each, and three at i 105. 
each paid 6s.. While Tyner, who was assessed at 3 in respect of goods, 
paid 8s. The three papists paid 8d. each. The total making 4 ios., being 
the sum the parish had to raise. 

It is rather difficult to see how the sums are arrived at. Townshend was 
charged 45. in the pound, and so were the other landowners. But Thomas 
Tyner, who was assessed on 3 for goods, only paid 8s. instead of i as., as he 
would have paid if the 4*. rate the landowners paid had been maintained 
throughout. The papists only paid 8d. each. A document of I629 1 entered 
in the Diary is of great interest on this point. It is entitled" The assessment 
of the Hundred of Halfshire," and gives the names of the parishes in the 
hundred, the sum they had to pay for a single subsidy in 17 Car. L, 1641 and 
in 1642. The left-hand column gives the sum that a single subsidy would 
raise, the middle and right-hand columns what a double subsidy produced. It 
would be expected that possibly the only changes would be if some man with 
a large estate in goods changed his residence between the dates, or that the 
number of papist recusants residing in or leaving the parish between the two 
dates would have made the differences ; but they cannot all be accounted for 
in this way; for instance, Bentley Pauncefoot for one subsidy yielded^ 95. 4<., 
but for two 2 i 145. and 20 135. 4<l. King's Norton in the single subsidy 
paid 14 as. 4<i., in the two double subsidies 8 19$. 4^. and 3 ijs. 4d. 
Elmley Lovet is put down as paying j us. 8d. for a single subsidy, while 
the real figure for this was 4 165.; a double subsidy is given here as ^9 us. 
and g 8s , a difference which an alteration in the residents might well 
account for. 

Some light is thrown on the position of the county with regard to the 
matter of ship money. Possibly no other English county gave such support 
to the levy of this celebrated imposition as Worcestershire. Three of her 
leading men the Solicitor-General, Sir Edward Lyttelton, who argued for the 
Crown in Hampden's case, Mr. Justice Berkeley of Spetchley, who was one 
of the judges who gave judgment for the Crown in the same case, and the 
Lord Keeper Coventry, who did his best to persuade and convince the twelve 
judges of its legality were strong upholders of the charge, and, in spite of all 
that has been said and written as to the illegality of the Crown's action in this 
case as opposed to the Crown's right in certain cases to impose the levy, it 
would be difficult on authority to prove they were legally wrong. One 
curious fact remains. The number of the Worcestershire families who took 
a leading part in the struggle between Charles and his Parliament and who 

1 ", P- 3. 


still hold the estates that their families then held may be counted on one's 
fingers, but of those that still do so the three most conspicuous now were in 
favour of the legality of ship money. 

Under Charles ship money was first levied in 16.34, but in that year it was 
confined to the ports and coast towns. In 1635 the tax was extended to the 
inland counties on the principle that as all were interested in the defence of 
the realm all should bear their share in the cost of defence, so writs were sent 
to the sheriffs of each county ordering them to raise their share of the sum of 
208,900, the amount required to provide a fleet. The legality of this 
levy was contested in Hampden's case in respect of Buckinghamshire. This 
contest, although decided in favour of the Crown, caused a great delay in 
payment of the tax. 

John Savage of Elmley, who was the sheriff, wrote to the Privy Council 
that to raise the 4000 he had thus assessed the county : the Hundred 
of Oswaldslow was to raise 1181 os. $\d. ; the Hundred of Pershore 
885 us. $\d.; Halfshire 272 3.?. 6frf. ; Doddingtre 393 i6s. 4!^. 
and Blakenhurst 136 ios.; the City of Worcester 266; the Borough of 
Evesham 84; Bewdley jo ; Droitwich 70; Kidderminster 30; the 
Bishop and Clergy 110 13*. 8</. The sheriff had received 2100 and 
proposed to give a final account and hand over the matter to the incoming 
sheriff, Sir William Russell, but Sir William did not accept his offer. 

There seems to have been the greatest difficulty in getting in the arrears 
for 1636. All sorts of excuses were put forward. The Mayor of Worcester 
sent up the names of the rectors of the various churches in the city who were 
assessed for ship money and the sums at which they were assessed. This 
had but little effect and the Council kept urging Sir William Russell to get in 
more of the arrears. He replied that he had waited at the city of Worcester 
upon this service, but received little or no money but on distresses taken or 
they that are refractory committed. That he had in his possession distresses 
he had taken which he was unable to sell, and which were unfit to be 
disposed of in the other way suggested by the Council sending them to the 
victualler of the Navy for provisions for the fleet. Like the mayor he com- 
plained of the negligence of the clergy, and asked for directions for quickening 

The resistance kept increasing, especially as to paying the arrears. A further 
demand was made in 1637, when a fresh sum of 1250 was asked for and 
also the arrears of 1636. Sir William Russell was reprimanded by the 
Privy Council for not getting more money paid. He had complained that 
the bailiffs of the Hundreds of Oswaldslow and Pershore would not 
distrain for ship money when he required them to do so, and asked what he 
was to do. The Council told him to quicken the constables and send up the 
names of the bailiffs for the Lords to take order with them. An incident then 
occurred that shews the difficulties the sheriff was under. The borough of 
Bewdley had to make up their 70. They had paid $o us. gd. and declared 
they could pay no more. Sir' William pressed them as instructed, and in 


order to help them out of the difficulty he lent their bailiff Boylson 10 los. $d. 
to clear off the balance. This Boylson promised to collect and pay at once ; 
instead of doing so he resigned the office of bailiff and said he had not had 
the money from those liable to pay and could not enforce it, so he could not 
pay it. This was too much for Sir William, who was a hot-tempered man, 
and he at once reported it to the Privy Council. On receipt of Sir William's 
report they immediately made an order that if Boylson did not " within three 
days after sight of the order pay the said sum of 10 los. yd. to Sir William 
Russell, Boylson should attend their Lordships on the 2Oth June 1637 an< ^ 
not depart until further order." 

Worcester had an escape from paying their arrears of ship money which 
they regarded as the direct interference of Providence. In June 1637 the 
plague broke out in Worcester and lasted for about a year. It is said that 
between June 1637 and April 1638 no less than 1551 persons died of it. It 
was a very real danger. Three parishes then in the county, now wholly or 
partly within the city, reported to Quarter Sessions : Claynes " That during 
this dreadful visitation unlicensed ale sellers might be suppressed." St. John's 
That they allowed "no loafers to go unpunished." St. Michael's That 
William Davies, who kept a common lodging-house, might be brought up and 
punished because " he took in all vagrant people, diseased or not diseased, in 
despite of us." The Privy Council were too much alarmed at the risk 
of spreading infection to send for defaulters to come to London to be dealt 
with, and so the arrears or some of them were treated as, at all events for a 
time, irrecoverable. They did not, however, finally desist, as on 23 June 1638 
there is an acknowledgment by Mr. Secretary Nicholas that he had received from 
Sir William Russell's clerk, Edward Fenn, 20 on account of arrears of ship 
money for 1636.! 

The sum asked for in 1638 was 1250, but, in addition to this, the 
outstanding arrears for 1637 were demanded. Townshend gives a copy of 
the sheriff's warrant to the constable of Hampton Lovett for the payment of 
these sums. 3 The actual sum Elmley Lovett had to pay in 1638 was 
6 31. id. A single subsidy on that parish produced 11 4s. od., so that for 
this year the ship money charge was about half the amount of a single 
subsidy. The writ winds up with a threat that if the constables did not 

"by way of distress or otherwise all the money that is yet in arrear and 
unpaid within your said constablewick towards the ship money in this 
last year in the time of Mr. Dingley's Shrievalty, and therof to make 
speedy payment likewise unto me, wherein if you remise or neglect any 
longer you will be assuredly bound over to answer the same to the 
Lords of His Majesty's Privy Council, when no devices or pretences 
will be accepted." 3 

Gardner points out* that the threat contained at the end of this warrant is 

1 S. P. Domettic, 1638, p. 527. 3 II., p . 7 . s IIif p 9 

* Hist. England, yiii., a8o. 


the result of the judgment in Hampden's case, and that the Government were 
now prepared to enforce the tax vigorously. When the judgment was 
pronounced the arrears of ship money were no less than 78,000 ; by the end 
of October 30,000 of this had been paid into the Exchequer. This is also 
shewn by the sums received from Worcestershire in 1639. The amount 
required to be paid was 3800, the sum actually received 3 189. In 1640 
the sum Worcestershire had to pay was 3500. Townshend's note on 
this is : 

"The ship money for the year 1640, John Winford, esq., High Sheriff, 
is 3500, whereof Elmley Lovett is taxed at 19 3.5. 4^. I am to pay 
4 thereof." 1 

This makes it fairly clear that the charge of ship money on the county 
was in effect the same sum as that raised by a single subsidy ; the sum that 
Townshend had to pay was 4 in both cases. It would therefore seem to be 
that the effect of Hampden's case in Worcestershire was that the King could 
at his own pleasure charge an annual sum on the county equal to the produce 
of a single subsidy, and that there was nothing more than the King's supposed 
apprehension of danger necessary to enable him to raise any sum of money he 
thought fit. There was no fetter on his royal ideas of danger; on his allegation 
of this he could take from the subject such annual sum as he pleased. 

It remains to state how the county was affected by ship money. The 
sums sought to be levied were : 

1635 4000. 

1636 35o- 

1637 "50. 

1638 125. 

1639 3800. 

1640 3500. 

An average of 2866 a year as nearly as can be made out. It amounts 
for Worcestershire to a halfpenny rate imposed solely by the King's arbitrary 
will without any reference whatever to any controlling authority. 

Although these figures do not appear very serious, and were much less 
than were afterwards charged on the county in other ways equally illegal, yet 
there never seems to have been such sn outcry against a tax as there was 
against ship money. It was not as much as a penny rate at the present time 
(1920) produces, 3 yet we have got so accustomed to taxing that Government 
departments, without any specific authority from Parliament, think nothing of 
forcing an expenditure on counties that Charles in his wildest dreams would 
never have imagined. 

1 II., p. 9. * A id. rate now (1920) produces S737- 


The Short Parliament met on 13 April 1640. They were face to face 
with an invasion from Scotland, and steps had to be taken to meet it. 
Charles asked for twelve subsidies. 1 The House refused, and demanded to be 
free from ship money, coat and conduct money, and other such military 
charges as pressing, coating and conducting soldiers who had been ordered to 
assemble at certain places ; who, if they failed to attend, would be taken by 
force. Orders were issued for pressing men and sending them on to Scotland 
now war had become a certainty. The Diary opens with an entry : 

"600 pressed for supplies in the Trayned Banns for Scottish wars; 
4 out of Elmley : Henry Powell, Richard Crow, Roland Edwards, Chris- 
topher Stutty ; only 3 went, Crowe went not."* 

Very special directions were given to the Lords-Lieutenant of the different 
counties as to levying these men. They were to cause the Deputy-Lieutenants 
to meet and to distribute the number of men to be raised in each hundred, and 
to take good care that a very good choice was made of the men out of the 
trained bands there, that they be of able bodies and years meet for the 
employment. To help in the choice of men the Earl of Northumberland, who 
was the Lord-General in command at Newcastle, was to send officers to assist 
the Deputy-Lieutenants. The men were to be paid by the King ;is soon as 
they left their county. The Deputy-Lieutenants were to take care that these 
men were coated and clothed at the cost of the county before they left it, as 
also for their keep as long as they remained in the county. 

A further letter was sent to the Lords- Lieutenant directing them to 
provide horses and carts for carriage of the train of artillery. The share of 
Worcestershire for this purpose was ,1200 to convoy 600 soldiers, and to 
provide 17 carts and 50 horses for the carts, a provision that shews the 
roads were not in the best order.- Out of -the 1200 Elmley Lovett 
paid 7 x<M. 8 

The soldiers drilled or trained one day a week ; for that they received "jd. 
which the county had to pay ; for the rest of the week they worked and made 
what they could. The training was to go on until 20 May. 100 soldiers 
were billeted at Droitwich, and were to be trained there for a week. There 
were others quartered at Worcester, Evesham, Pershore and Bewdley. 

Under these circumstances it was necessary to get rid of the soldiers as 
soon is possible. At first they were to march on or before 20 May. Their 
departure to join the army was then postponed till i July, but it was provided 
they should live at the old rate and cost till they had left, and not at the cost 
of the county ; obviously considerable discontent prevailed. This was shewn 
by the action of the soldiers. 

On I July the 600 pressed Worcestershire soldiers came to Worcester to 

1 Gardner, Hist. England, ix., 115. 

' '-i P- ' ' Rushworth, iii., 1088. 


march to the north with their Captains. Townshend says they had put the 
county to a great charge, and gives some details : 

"3 weeks' training at 8 a a soldier, being billeted at 100 a place, and 
marching and running away, fresh men arriving in, unnecessary charges 
might have been saved. Many running away, new supplies must be got, 
then the conduct money and clothing, which costs over 20* if they are well 
apparelled. Then, if the Deputy Lieut 3 do not like them, others are 
pressed, and this occurs sometimes 3 or 4 times after they have been 
pressed. Further, after they have been clothed they have to be watched 
to prevent them running away." 1 

To make matters worse in Berkshire, at Farringdon the men on the march 
to Scotland mutinied and killed one of their officers, Lieut. Mohun. What 
was, however, worse for Worcestershire, a serious mutiny broke out in 
Warwickshire among the men there, which was likely to increase, as the 
Deputy Lieutenants shewed so much remissness and backwardness in carrying 
out the law against the mutineers ; while on the other side Worcestershire, at 
Leominster, a serious disturbance between the pressed men marching to the 
north and the townsmen took place, when some of the soldiers were killed, 
many hurt, and 24 deserted. Complaints came also from other counties. 
At last, on 20 August, the Scotch army entered England. Townshend 
says : 

" 28"' August, the Scottish army, consisting of about 20,000 men and 
1000 women, with some light arms and 17 field pieces, came about six 
miles from Newcastle upon the river Tyne, and were met by some 
horse and some foot, which were accidentally, as they said, training with- 
out any show of powder or shot, yet for a while the English defended 
themselves, at last routed, and 100 horse killed with Sir John Digby 
and Cap* Wilmot prisoners. The Scotch lost few, their great ordnance 
defending them. Upon the 3d 111 , being Sunday, Newcastle was sur- 
rendered. The King's army lies at York, consisting of about 15,000 foot 
and horse besides train bands."" 

Such is Townshend's account of the disgraceful affair at Newburn and the 
consequent surrender of Newcastle. There is nothing to shew if the Wor- 
cestershire force had anything to do with it nor whether they were at Newburn, 
or even got as far as York, or whether they formed part of the force that Sir 
Jacob Astley, who commanded at Selby, where all the new levies arrived, 
described as the " arch knaves of the country." It is a matter for regret 
that Townshend tells us no more of the 600 Worcestershire men who 
formed the county force. It would have been of interest to have known 
why they all appear to have been selected from the south of the county 
Evesham, Pershorc, Worcester, Bewd ley and Droitwich why places like Kidder- 
minster and Bromsgrove were left out. The obvious reason is that the men 
were taken from the different hundreds, and for some reason Halfshire was 

1 I., P . 4. * I., p. 6. 


not selected ; but as Elmley Lovett is in Halfshire, and six men were pressed 
from it, this could not have been the whole explanation. 

The Long Parliament met on 3 November 1640. One of their early acts 
was to try to ascertain the number of Roman Catholics in the country. They 
did this by resolving on 7 December 1640 that an order should be sent to all 
justices of the peace in England and Wales to take steps to ascertain the 
number of papists in their area. The justices carried this out by obtaining 
from the constables for the different parishes a presentment as to the number 
in the county. At the Easter Quarter Sessions 1642 returns as to number of 
catholics were obtained from the following parishes 1 : 

Cliftou-on-Teme, 5. Hindlip, 10. 

Birlingham, 5. S l Cross (Pershore Holy Cross), 3. 

Hanley Castle, 22. Feckt-nham, I. 

Birts Morton, i. Ripple, 3. 

dailies, n. Dudley, 3. 

Oddingley, I. Mamble, I. 

Inkberrow, 16. Beoley, 7. 

Bromsgrove, 30. Powick, I. 

Redditchand Tardebigge, 37. Stoke Prior, 6. 

Huddington, i. Severn Stoke, 4. 

Chadsley Corbett, 6. Knighton, 4. 

Yardley, 10. Ombersley, i. 

Throckmorton, i. Upton Warren, 15. 

Allerton, 4. Wichbold and Dodderhill, 4. 

Walcot, i. Or a total of jjO in all. 

Parliament granted the King four subsidies. What this meant was that in 
Elmley Lovett, which was assessed at 24 ios., the parish had to pay 19 4.?., 
a heavy charge ; in Townshend's case his assessment was 4, and he had to 
pay 3 4s. Heavy as this was, the demands were still heavier. The Scotch 
army had to be paid, and this required according to the Scotch 850 a day. 

The levy on the Hundred of Halfshire was di\ided between the two 
divisions, the Bromsgrove division paid three parts and the Kidderminster 
division t\vo. If any person moved out of the division he was still to be taxed 
there notwithstanding his move, if he had lived for the largest part of the last 
year in Elmley Lovett. Townshend tried to get out of this and to be taxed 
elsewhere, probably because the Elmley Lovett rate was higher than else- 
where. In Elmley Lovett the sum required was is. in the pound on the 
assessment. This, however, did not produce a sufficient sum of money, so 
new rates of payment were set up, and the idea was acted upon that people 
should pay according to their rank. So, beginning with a duke, who had to pay 
in addition to his tax on his assessment ico, and other members of the 
peerage in a fixed proportion, till it icached an esquire who paid 10. All 

1 Sessions Records, I. (1642), 698. 


persons who could spend 100 a year paid 5. A widow paid one-third 
of what her husband would have paid ; Popish recusants paid double. If after 
demand the person did not pay within four days he had to pay double. 

The four subsidies were not all the burden ; in addition the unfortunate tax- 
payer had to pay poll money as well. For this Elrnley Lovett had to pay 
14 i2s. 6d. as against 19 4.?. paid for a subsidy. Kidderminster borough 
had to pay ,84 for the poll tax, but only paid ,35 for its rationed allowance. 
Droitwich paid 30 iis. to the subsidy, but 60 i$s. ^d. for poll money. Sir 
John Pakington, residing at Westwood, had to pay 30 us. subsidy and 
60 1 8s. 6d. for poll money. A baronet had to pay over and above his 
ordinary payments for the subsidy a sum of 30 3$. for poll money. 

These instances shew how the charges were going up and how incomes 
were being reduced by taxes. Assuming the figures are right for the normal 
assessment, 24 ios., any margin of rent disappears at once when the subsidy 
and poll tax are considered as well. 

To give some idea as to how this compares with the state of things at the 
present day, the assessable value of Elmley Lovett to the county rate is now 
(1920) 4287, and a penny rate produces ij ifs. $d. In 1631 the rateable 
value was ^24 ios., and the charges were two subsidies () I2s., and poll tax 
14 12s. 6d., a total of 24 45. 6d. 

People were not very ready to pay. Sir John Pakington, who hr.d to pay 
40, had not paid, nor had Sir Ralph Clare 30, nor John Wylde 20. 
These were all members of Parliament. George Wylde, a barrister, had not 
paid his 10, as he was doubtful where to pay, in London or in the county. 
The sheriff, Daniel Dobyns, had not paid his share, 10, and a Mr. Hopkins 
was doubtful if he had to pay here or in London. In the whole the sheriff 
had to account for 719 i6s. 8d. Whether this was owing either from 
favouritism of the collector or the dishonesty of the sheriff, Daniel Dobbins 
he was a connexion by marriage of Townshend or from " ignorance, forget- 
fulness, or sums not rightly cast up," does not appear, but if the officers in 
London were right, the sheriff had been misappropriating money. The 
Receivers made out that the sheriff was 6 4$. 4(1. in debt to the Treasury, but 
the Treasury made out he owed 720 $s. id. It is not clear, and it is 
impossible to make it clear from the MS. whether the Receivers or the Treasury 
were right. But two things must be remembered : first, that Dobbins was a 
near relation of Townshend's wife and was a Roundhead, and also that 
Dobbins was in serious financial difficulties, in which Townshend was also 
involved. 1 

When Dobbyns became sheriff he induced Townshend to join in a bond 
for 200 to meet the expenses of the shrievalty. To secure Townshend, 
Dobbyns authorized him to receive his Worcestershire rents. This Townshend 
was doing, and for a time the arrangement worked fairly well. This seems 
to have been the state of things at the time of collecting the poll tax. 
Dobbyns got into difficulties, and for some reason became a Roundhead. The 

1 II., P . 167. 


Government of that day had no mercy for turncoats, so Dobbyns was 
denounced as a delinquent, the result of which was that all the rents of his 
real estate went to the Crown. Townshend had been receiving these rents, 
and was applying them to discharge the money Dobbyus owed him for 
payments made during Dobbyns' shrievalty. Unfortunately for himself 
Townshend had some rents, 70 i6s. iod., lately received in hand. 
The Royalist Commissioners considered that this money belonged to the 
Crown ; they owed Francis Walker for the King's force in Worcestershire and 
the garrisons at Worcester and Hartlebury 244 i6s. 8d., for iron guns, bullets 
and grenades. Walker had assigned the sum due to him to Sir Robert 
Howard, and he, seeing a chance of getting some of his money back, claimed 
the 70 as due and owing to him on account of the 244 i6.f. 8d., and the 
Royalist Commissioners ordered this to be paid, and, what was worse, ordered 
Townshend to pay over his money to one who had no claim on Townshend 
and but very little on Dobbyns. Townshend, on hearing of the order of the 
Commissioners, was furious. He went to Rupert and put his case before him. 
Not only did Townshend not receive the rents, but also was left to make 
payments towards the support of Mrs. Dobbins and " her many small children." 
Rupert seems to have considered the case a hard one, and ordered the Com- 
missioners for delinquents' estates to enquire into the matter and report 
to him. 

There are two entries in the Diary that seem to have a bearing on the 
case. The one is a proclamation of the King's dated 5 August 1641 against 
the great charges 1 to which sheriffs were put by presents, entertainments and 
other provisions given and made to and for the judges, and fees paid to their 
servants, forbidding such payments to be demanded or made, and further 
ordering that no sheriff give any entertainment or keep house for the gentry 
of the county or for anyone but his own necessary attendants. The penalty 
is curious ; anyone doing contrary to the proclamation was to be esteemed by 
the House of Commons as a person giving example inconvenient to the 
public. What followed from this is not stated. The other entry is a much 
longer one. The great text-book on the rights and duties of sheriffs was 
written by a lawyer named " Dalton," and to this day Dalton is the great 
authority for the law as to sheriffs. Townshend seems to have studied it very 
closely, and a long analysis of the book and the law and duties of sheriffs 
form part of the Diary. There is nothing to shew how the dispute as to 
Dobbyns' rents ended, whether Townshend was able to reimburse himself or 
not. It is most probable he was not, as the public need for guns and shot 
would probably appeal more to the Commissioners than the private wrongs of 

The Dobbyns incident closes in a rather romantic way. Daniel Dobbyns, 
the ex-sheriff, died leaving his widow Dorothy and " her many small children," 
in fact there were only live. Townshend's wife, Elizabeth Acton, had also 
died, and the result of Townshend's management of the Dobbyns matter was 

1 II., p. 40. 


that he married the widow and became, as her husband, entitled to the 
Dobbyns property at Evesbatch and Bishops Froome in Herefordshire. 1 One 
of the five children of Mr. Dobbyns was a daughter Ann. Townshend had a 
son Henry who married this Ann Dobbyns, and on the marriage all the 
Herefordshire property and certain of the Worcestershire property were 
settled on them, and also the share of Lady Thornborough, the aunt of 
Henry Townshend, the youngest of the Acton coheiresses ; so that, so far as 
property went, the Townshend family seem to have been one of the few 
of the Worcestershire Royalist families who came out of the civil wars richer 
than they were at the beginning. 

To return to 1641. In October the remaining two subsidies which Parlia- 
ment had voted were levied. The one list is of interest, as it gives the sum 
that the Popish recusants had to pay separately. The total was 440 is. 8d. ; 
the recusants paid 8 i6s. They only appear in ten parishes : 

s. a. 

Belbroughton 094 

Bentley, Tardebigg and Redditch . . . I 6 o 
Bromsgrove . . . . l 9 4 

Chaddesley Corbett 068 

Elmley Lovett 040 

Kington . . . . . . . 040 

Upton Warren and Cooksey . . . . 4 10 8 

Then come the totals 

Subsidies '.'"' 431 6 8 

Recusants . . . . . . 8 16 o 

Total . . . . 440 a 8 

A note follows that is instructive. Of the sum of 440 there was paid 
into the Exchequer 411 12s. 8d. 

" Commissioners and clerks' fees at i d in the . I received 35' a d , 
abated I4 d , and received 34*." 2 

Tax collecting does not seem to have been a very remunerative occupation 
at that time. 

Money was only one of the things that excited the Long Parliament ; 
the other was religion, and the religious movement consisted mainly in 
action against the Roman Catholics and the party of Archbishop Laud, who 
were believed to be little better than Catholics. The Lord Keeper Littelton 
wrote to the Sheriff, Deputy-Lieutenants and Justices of the Peace in the 
county that the Popish recusants had appointed a day to assemble, aud that 
the Sheriff, Deputy-Lieutenants and Justices were to prevent any such 
assembling by the force of the county. 3 

Whatever may have been the Government information it proved to be 

MI., p. 298. MI., p. 43. II., p. 44. 


unreliable ; no such assembly took place, so it was not necessary to use any 
force in dispersing the people. But a petition was drawn up and brought 
before the Quarter Sessions at the Epiphany Sessions, 1642, for Church 
Government and the Liturgy. It contained a protest against 

" the divers sects, schisms, and dangerous doctrines publicly vented, the 
government of the Church by Bishops under those religious princes of 
ever blessed memory, Queen Elizabeth and King James traduced as anti- 
christian, the Liturgy depraved and in some places neglected, which 
insolences and extravagances do much discomfort your petitioners." 1 

It does not appear whether this petition was one drawn up for this county 
only, or whether it was a general petition sent down from London to all the 
counties to whom the Lord Keeper's notice had been sent. Whichever 
it was it obtained numerous signatures, but Townshend only gives the 
parishes in the Half shire Hundred, and only 16 of these out of the 35. 
Curiously enough in Ombersley, where the influence of the Sandys family 
was strong, the signatures were 133, Belbroughton came next with 119, 
Dodderhill, Elm Bridge and Upton Warren had together in, Tardebigg 109. 
None of the others Hartlebury and Northfield singly, or the three groups of 
Elmley Lovett, Rushock and Doverdale, Chaddesley Corbett and Stone, and 
Pedmore, Hagley and Churchill could reach 100. It is obvious that the 
paucity in the number of signatures was very distasteful to the Puritan party. 
The Speaker wrote to the Sheriff Edward Veruon, telling him that the 
declaration should be published and the protestation taken, and that the Sheriff 
and Justices of the peace should meet together and take the protestation 
themselves, and then 

" dispersing to your several divisions you will make the Minister, the 
Constables, the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor take the pro- 
testation in their presence, and make them call together all the inhabitants 
of the different parishes who were 18 and upwards, tender to them the 
protestation and make them take it in their presence, and take the names 
of those who refuse, and return the certificates to the local member of 
Parliament before the 12 th March." 2 

What the result was does not appear, but it is certainly a matter that does 
not appear in most histories, that coercive means had to be taken to get 
opinions expressed against the Laudian party. Unfortunately we have no 
return from Kidderminster itself, but that in Baxter's own district, where he 
had worked and laboured, and where one has been always told the Puritan 
element was far stronger than the Laudian, it is unexpected to find that Puritan 
feeling could only be manufactured under State pressure. 

Parliament were shewing that they, in carrying on the government, 
required money just as badly as the Royalists. Further money was wanted, 
and Parliament had to raise it. 1'he sum required was 400,000, and 
Parliament apportioned it among the counties. From Worcestershire no 
less than 5802 10?. 6d. was required,, and for Worcester City 356 45. gd. 

1 . P-4S- 3 1 1., p. 47. 


Compnred with the surrounding counties the charge on Worcestershire was 

moderate : 

s. d. 

Gloucestershire . v' , : , ' . . 99 7 8 5 5 

Gloucester City '>'".- " . V. . 1108 14 o 

Hereford . '.'- ". <'->.'.'.'. .-' , .". . 7146" 4 6 

Shropshire " *. '.'' T<*i' . ' -%-:'; . 4560 5 3 

Stafford '. . i V ' '.' . ; -. . :,';'-- 3743 10 3 

Warwick . . ; . '.''.' . . 5113 16 3 

Coventry . .' ... . . 653 2 6 

Worcestershire 5802 10 6 

Worcester City . . - .'^ . . . 356 4 9 

Only two counties are above Worcestershire, while Worcester City was the 
lowest of all. A curious note follows the list of the sums to be raised. The 
reason was Parliament went in accordance with the Book of subsidies of the 
35 Elizabeth. Some counties raising themselves more than others in subsidies, 
brought the greater burden on them. The ease now these counties do feel 
who had commissioners that loved their country more than ambition. 1 

The sum that the Hundred of Halfshire was to raise of the 5802 was 
1460 IQS. gd. The commissioners, of whom Townshend was one, finding 
there has been much inequality, raised Bromsgrove a I3th part more than 
Kidderminster, so in the tax 

'' Bromsgrove paid 758 los. 

that is 62 ^s. above what they had done before. 
Kidderminstf r ^382 
and Lord Shrewsbury paid for Grafton a particular 

and priviledged place of account 20 

Bromsgrove division is worth per annum with Grafton 

Manor 26,770 

Kidderminster division 14.050 


Bromsgrove is better than Kidderminster by 12,720" 

Instructions were given to the assessors as to how to subdivide the sum by 
parishes according to their extent and goodness. Every person who had 3 
in goods or 2os. in land must be solely assessed ; ecclesiastical persons are to 
be assessed on the tithe. 2 

It was agreed to divide the county into three parts : 

Oswaldslow, 3 parts. 

Halfshire and Doddingtre, 3 parts. 

Pershore and Blakenhurst, 3 parts. 

Elmley Lovett was assessed at 950 and the sum to be paid 20. But at 
the end of the list there is a note, So the parish is to pay 10, and a surplusage 
1 II., p. 51. * II., p, S3 . 



for recusants of 4*. id. Then follows the form of the Bond that the collector 
of the tax had to give for Halfshire, 580 5$. and 30 for surplusage for 
recusants according to the equal distribution laid on the county. 1 Then came 
the warrant from the justices requiring the collector to levy, and a notification 
to the Treasurer, the Lord Mayor of London, that Anthony Cole of Broms- 
grove had been appointed collector. Such was the machinery for getting in 
the money to be raised by direct taxation. Having got or rather having pro- 
vided the means for getting the money, the next thing to do was to provide 
how it was to be spent. Here the Parliament had a great advantage. The legal 
way of paying the money was to the Lord Mayor of London, but the Lord 
Mayor of London was a strong Parliamentarian, and if once the money got 
into his hands there was no hope of the Royalists getting any of it ; conse- 
quently the Royalists had from the outset to rely on irregular methods of 
getting money. Having the control of the ordinary methods gave Parliament 
an important advantage in the struggle. 

In January 1642 the question arose who had the right to control the 
military forces of the country the Crown or the Parliament ? Parliament 
practically admitted that legally it was the King's right, as they asked him to 
hand over to them the Tower of London, the chief forts in the country and the 
whole of the militia. Naturally the King refused to agree in this ; but as 
usual he temporized and wanted to know how and to whom the forts and 
militia should be disposed. As a concession he accepted Sir John Colliers in 
the place of Byron as Lieutenant of the Tower. 2 The Commons gave a list of 
the persons who they considered fit to be entrusted with the militia of the 
counties in place of the then lords lieutenant. Those for Worcestershire and 
the adjoining counties are as follows : 

Worcestershire and the city 

of Worcester. 
Gloucestershire and the city 

of Gloucester. 


Stafford and the city of Lich- 

Warwick and the city of 


1 II., P. 56. 

Lord Lieutenant. 

Tho. Lord Windsor. 

Lord Herbert of 

Lord Herbert of 

Lord Newport. 

Lord Lieutenant. 

Edward Lord Howard 

of Escrig. 
George Lord Chandos. 

Francis Lord Dacres. 

Edward Lord Littelton, 
Keeper of the Great 

Robert, Earl of Essex. 

Robert Lord Brooke. 

Earl of Northampton. Robert Lord Brooke. 

Viscount Falkland. William Lord Say and 

1 Rushworth, pt. iii., vol. i., p. 519. 


To this demand the King gave an evasive answer. 1 He would allow the 
recommendation only in the case of the city of London and to such corporations 
as by ancient charter had granted unto them the power of the militia. This 
the Commons naturally took as a refusal. After some further negotiation, on 
and March 1642 ~ Parliament resolved that the kingdom be forthwith put into 
a position of defence in such a way as is agreed upon by both Houses of 

On 5 March they made an ordinance for the militia, and appointed certain 
persons lords lieutenant of some of the counties. For some reason no one 
was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire, Lord Howard of Escrignow 
being appointed Lord Lieutenant of Bristol. 

Why no one was appointed to Worcestershire is not clear. In the first list 
that Parliament had presented to the King it was asked that the lieutenant for 
Worcestershire, should be appointed before Somerset. The reason for this and 
for afterwards leaving out Worcestershire does not appear. 

The new lords lieutenant were ordered at once to assemble, muster, arm, 
train, array and weapon such persons as should be necessary to keep the 
peace, or were fit for war ; to appoint deputy-lieutenants, to make colonels, 
captains and other officers, and to remove them. Negotiations went on for 
some time, but only led to the parties getting further and further apart. On 
a/th May the King issued a proclamation forbidding obedience to anv order of 
Parliament for mustering the trained bands, stating that he proposed to issue 
commissions of array in each county, and ordering the persons named in the 
commission to muster, array and arm men for his service. 

War was now certain, it was only a question how soon it would break 

On it June the King issued his commission of array for Leicestershire to 
the Ear! of Huntingdon, the Earl of Devon, Henry Hastings, Henry Berkeley 
and others, directing them or any three or more of them to army and train all 
rm-n to arms. With the commission was sent an explanatory letter stating the 
King's reason for issuing the commission. Parliament at once voted the com- 
mission illegal and 

" against the liberty and property of the subject, and all who put it into 
execution should be deemed disturbers of the peace and betrayers of the 
liberty of the subject." 

The King replied by a proclamation declaring the commission legal, and fol- 
lowed it up by another proclamation forbidding the forcible seizing or removing 
any magnzine or ammunition in any county. 

The commissions of array appear to have been issued at different dates. 
According to Townshend the one for Worcestershire was not issued until 
23 July 1642, but it seems likely from what took place at the Midsummer 

1 Rusliworth, iii., p. 522. a Ibid., iii., p. 526. 


Sessions that some commission was issued earlier, as the instructions for 
putting the commission of array into force, which are given in full by Towns- 
hend, are dated 23 July 1642. This is the more probable date. 1 It would 
certainly have been flattering to the county if it could be said that its loyalty 
was so strong that the order to array was put off as the Parliament could do 
nothing in the county. Townshend only gives the heading of the commis- 
sion, and for some reason did not copy it out into the Diary. This is to be 
regretted, for it would have been of interest to have had the names of the 
commissioners. We have, however, a very interesting account of one 
occurrence that took place, given in a tract that was issued soon after the 
Midsummer Sessions, and purports to describe what then occurred. Towns- 
hend does not refer to it. The following is the title : 

" A letter sent from M r Sergeant Wilde and Flumphrey Salway, Esq r , 
both members of the House of Commons, to the Honourable William 
Lenthall, Esq r , Speaker of the House of Commons, concerning divers 
passages at the Quarter Sessions in Worcester about the execution of the 
Commission of Array and the ordinance of the militia, at which Sessions 
was the greatest assembly that hath been seen for many years past, 
together with the humble petition of the Grand Jurymen of that Sessions 
to the Knights and Justices of that county, wherein it appears they are 
well satisfied of the illegality of the Commission of Array with their 
desires of the speedy execution of the militia by those who are intrusted 
therewith. Read in the House of Commons and ordered by them to be 
forthwith printed and published. H.Elsynge, Cler. Parl.D. Com. London: 
Printed by Luke Norton and John Field for Edward Husbands and John 
Franck, July 18, 1642." 

This tract purports to gire an account of the procedure at the Sessions : 

"We hold it our duties to render you this short account of our journey 
into Worcestershire, which fell out to be very necessary and seasonable, 
for we found by the way and after our arrival here at Worcester upon 
Monday night last (being the night before the Quarter Sessions) that 
great preparation had been made for the execution of the Commission of 
Array on this day, and great distempers raised in the Countie by the 
violent prosecution of Master Shenington Talbot (whose high contempts 
and oppositions against the Parliament shall be more particularly repre- 
sented to you hereafter), giving us just cause to believe that there was a 
design, hope and probability (with reference to other parts adjoyning) to 
have made this Countie a place of war. But (Blessed be God) our 
coming down by the command of the Honourable House wherof we are 
unworthy members hath wrought (we hope) so effectually that the 
Commission of Array was this day quite deserted by the whole countie. 
The declarations of the Parliament most joyfully and thankfully received, 
and the minds of the people (which before were, by mis-reports and 
publications of matters from York, full of anxiety and trouble) are now 
(we believe) fully settled, as may appear by this inclosed petition, which 
in a very full and great assemblie as ever we saw at any assizes or 
Sessions was by the Grand Jury presented to us and the rest of the 

1 H., p. 63. 


Justices with a great acclamation of the company then present, and 
further intimations of ten thousand hands more to have been added to it if 
time would have permitted. 

" Meanwhile Master Sherrington Talbot, having the night before at his 
house peremptorily refused to obey the arrest of the messenger, as the 
messenger can testifie with other his speeches and actions, and coming 
hither to the citie in a daring manner to have executed the Commission 
(finding his hopes fail and his apprehension like to follow), secretly fled 
away, and, as we hear, is gone again towards York with menaces in his 
mouth, leaving the Lord Dudley (one of the chief Commissioners) to 
manage the worke, who, being not seconded by the Commissioners whom 
he expected (or any other), the same day quitted the place leaving the 
citie and county (thanks be to God) in good peace and quietnesse, 
wherein we hope that by God's blessing it will continue faithfull and 
firme to the King and Parliament. And of other passages we shall be 
willing to give the House a more particular account at our returne, 
which we intend (God willing) shall be very speedily. Meanwhile and 
ever with our due respects and best service presented to you, we take our 
leave and rest 

" Your most humble and 

" affectionate servants, 

" John Wilde. 
" Humphrey Salway. 
" Wednesday, 13 July 1642." 

The tract then gives the following : 

" To the | Right Worshipful! | The Kings Majesties Justices | of the 
Peace | of the County of | Wigorn. | The humble petition of the 
Grand | Jury which doth now serve at this present Quarter | Sessions of 
the Peace holden this J2 of | July 1642 

" Sheweth 

" That with all thank | fulnesse even from the bottom of our hearts we 
acknowledge the exceeding great favour the Parliament hath beene pleased 
to shew unto us in declaring the illegality of the Commission of Array 
intended at this present to be executed among us. And we do most 
humbly beseech those to whom the Ordinance of the Militia for this 
Countie is intrusted that they would be pleased speedily to put the 
same in execution that so His Majestie's Royall person, the Parliament 
and Kingdom may be secured, which (as we are now fully persuaded) are 
in great danger by reason of the plots of a malignant party and Persons 
ill affected to the King and State. 

" And we shall dayly pray, etc." 

This very self-laudatory letter shews how anxious the Parliament was to 
keep Worcestershire quiet. Sending down the two members for Worcester- 
shire must have had some effect upon the county, but whether the success 
expected it is not easy to say. 

That the Grand Jury was packed appears obvious from reading the list of 
names that are given by Townshend. 1 Only 17 instead of 23 were em- 
pannelled, and although the names of some of them are those of families 

1 II., P . 65. 


still remaining in the county, yet they are all names of men in inferior 
position. Townshend adds a note : " To this petition there was not one 
gent, of the Jury." And it would seem he was very nearly right. The 
curious thing was that the sheriff Edward Vernon of Hanbury was in no 
respect a strong Royalist, but his under-sheriff Thomas Bund was a strong 
Parliament man, and quite capable of acting under Wylde's instructions. 
Whatever was the reason, the Royalists took active steps to disassociate 
themselves from the petition and the politics expressed in it. The Sessions 
had been held on 16 July; a fortnight later, 3 August, the Assizes were 
held, and the freeholders then assembled, headed, according to Townshend, by 
the sheriff Edward Vernon, who must have been responsible for calling the 
previous Jury, joined with Lord Coventry, tlie Baronets, Knights and gentle- 
men then assembled in disavowing the Petition, and stating it had been 
" framed by persons ill affected to the peace of the County." 

The Commission of Array met on i August before the Assizes, and treated 
the Grand Jury's protest as a nullity ; they proceeded at once to issue their 
warrant to the different High Constables of the Hundreds to send for all the 
petty constables, giving them notice and requiring them to give warning to all 
the trained, freehold and clergy bands, both horse and foot, to appear with their 
arms on Pitchcroft, the great meadow adjoining Worcester, completely 
arrayed. 1 

This order was issued from a well-known public house in Worcester, the 
" Talbot " in Sidbury, which then might be called the head-quarters of the 
Royalist party in the city. The reason being not that it was particularly noted 
for its loyalty, but that it was, if not the best, almost the only public house 
within the city walls which was in the jurisdiction of the County Justices, 
being in the parish of St. Michael's in Redwardine, a county parish. 
Townshend or some owner of the Dinry has carefully obliterated the names 
of the Commissioners who signed the warrant to the High Constables of the 
Hundreds directing them to take steps to call out the trained bands. Possibly 
it was too dangerous for those strong Royalists to allow it to be known how far 
their loyalty led them. They went a step further, and directed a certain number 
of gentlemen " to bring in such horses as they had, with arms and array, 
to the great meadow called Pitchcroft near the city, so that a full and exact 
review might be taken of the horse, and if necessary, they should be trained 
and exercised." Only 12 of the Commissioners signed the order as against 13 
who had signed the presentment at Sessions. Like the Sessions signatures 
these also have been very effectively obliterated. 

Charles must have found himself in great difficulties. As has been pointed 
out, all the money raised by taxes went to Parliament. When the King left 
London he cut himself off from all the trained forces and also from all the 
untrained, as he was absolutely without money to pay any troops or to 
provide arms and ammunition. Some writers blame Charles for his delay 

1 II., p. 66. 


in beginning the war and wasting the time between leaving London in March 
and beginning fighting in September. The truth is that one of the most 
wonderful things in the civil war was how Charles without money, without 
stores, without troops or ammunition was able to raise an army that eould 
not merely hold its own, but do more against the Parliament with its trained 
troops and its supplies. 

This could only be doue by the loyalty of the country gentry, conspicuous 
among whom was that Lord Heibert, who afterwards as Lord Glamorgan 
gave rise to so much controversy. During this period, from the time Charles 
left London to the time of the advance to Edgehill, Herbert is said to have 
found no less than 100,000. 

Charles was naturally very anxious to learn how matters were progressing, 
and the Secretary of State wrote inquiring what progress had been made in 
Worcestershire. The Commissioners of Array sent to find out what were 
" the first fruits of their obedience." l 

On 3 August the Assizes for the County were held, and the Sheriff, Lord 
Coventry, the Baronets, Knights, Justices of the Peace, Gentlemen and Free- 
holders of the County agreed oil a presentment that 2 

" if His Majesty would preserve the Freedom of Parliament and its just 
rights and privileges they would use all lawful ways to put the County in 
a posture of arms for the defence of His Majesty and the peace of the 
kingdom, and to adventure their lives and fortunes in defence of His 

Then, referring to the presentment of the Grand Jury at the last Sessions, 
they say * : 

" That as to their petition about the Militia, they utterly disavow it as 
not agreeable to the intents or desires of us or any considerable number 
of the County, and declare that by the information they had received from 
several of the persons on the Grand Jury that it was not their own 
framing, but contrived and prepared for them by some persons not well 
affected to the peace and quiet of this County." 

No less than 66 persons signed the declaration ; no doubt the Royalists 
packed the Assizes just as the Parliament, or rather, as Sergt. Wylde had 
packed the Sessions Grand Jury. 

A paper appears to have been shewn to the Grand Jury by Sir William 
Russell giving the details of what stores there were in the county for the 
King. The total amount in the county was 44 barrells of powder, i| tons of 
lead, and 2276 Ibs. of match. 

Wylde so distrusted the citizens of Worcester that he got the Sessions to 
make an order removing from Worcester to Droitwich all the ammunition in 
the Worcester magazine, and this is probably the reason why in his memo- 
randum Sir William Russell left out the City of Worcester. Steps were being 
taken to refill the magazine there. 

1 II., p. 67. II., p. 68. 


On one important point we have no information. Were there usually 
magazines at the five places mentioned, and, if so, what was supposed to be 
the proper quantity of ammunition to be kept in each ? 

The Worcester magazine seems to have been by far the largest. If all the 
barrels were the same size it had as much powder as all the other places 
together, and, although it had not so much match as all the others, it had 
considerably more than any other. It had also what none of the others had, 
a stock of 500 Ibs. of lead. If Wylde's order had been carried out and the 
magazine removed to Droitwich, the supply at Worcester was far greater than 
is usually supposed. 

To provide themselves with arms the Commissioners of Array issued 
warrants to search suspected houses for arms, and if they found any, or more 
" than were fitting for the rank and quality of the owner of the house, to take 
the said arms." ' 

They also required all Royalists to state what number of horses the 
signatories would agree to find. Lord Coventry heads the list with 10, Sir 
Thomas Littelton, Sir John Pakington, and Sir Edward Sebright 6 each. Sir 
Rowland Berkeley and Samuel Sandys 4 each, and John Washbourn and John 
Nanfan not over a each. Townshend himself and 21 other persons found only 
i apiece. 

This return is very instructive : 41 persons undertook to provide 95 
horses. If the King had to rely solely on what horses the county would 
supply his cavalry, it would not have proved very efficient, especially having 
regard to the conditions that the horses were to be disposed of within the 
county, and only to be provided for three months from 14 August 1642. 
Most probably the horses were more for transport than for cavalry, as all 
the transport when not done by bullocks had to be by horses. 

Notwithstanding all the efforts of the Royalists, it was not so much 
supplies, ammunition or horses they required, as men. The gentry were 
"very forward " to come to the King's help. Not so the working men, the 
labourers, the countrymen their experience in the march to the North 
against the Scots in 1640 seems to have prejudiced them against military 
service. All sorts of proposals were made to supply the deficiency. At a 
Council at Worcester on 17 August it was proposed to make every trained 
soldier bring a fresh soldier * 

" for supply in his room for neighbouring service, and that such persons 
as would voluntarily offer to serve the King should be enrolled and receive 
pay as the rest of the soldiers in the King's army." 3 

Certain most important questions were raised at this meeting, and the 
lords and gentlemen, while apologising for asking the questions, urged that they 
might have a reply at once. The questions went to the root of the matter, and 

1 ", P. 7- J 1L, p. 71. II., p. 72. 


prove better than anything else how just a month before hostilities actually 
began the Royalists had not so far completed their preparations as to be able to 
say what the pay of their men should be, what arms they could be supplied 
with, and where they could get them from. It was not the fault of the Com- 
missioners. They had only, thanks to Wylde's interference, been at work a little 
over a month, and while they had been searching houses for arms and pro- 
viding horses and making suggestions for procuring men, they were in igno- 
rance what pay they should give, when the pay should begin, how the men 
could be armed, and with what arms. 1 

It was time they took some steps, for at the meeting of 17 August a letter 
dated 1 1 August from the Warwickshire Commissioners of Array was received 
saying what Warwickshire had done, offering to join with Worcestershire, 
and stating that 8 

" certain forces were already upon the march from London towards these 
parts in opposition to His Majesty, his Royal authority, and the peace of 
the Kingdom, and urging Worcestershire to raise and have in readiness 
all their forces, trained bands, as other for their common safety." 

They add in a postscript that " they had heard from York that the King 
would be there by the end of the week with considerable forces." 
The Worcestershire reply was not very encouraging. They said 

" they had put right the bad impression created by the proceedings at 
Sessions, that they recognized the danger and were willing to attend in 
person upon lawful warning for the King's service and safety of their 
neighbours." 3 

Warwick replied promptly on 15 August 4 : 

" The forces mentioned in their last letter were approaching nearer. 
Great numbers of men had gathered in a warlike manner, and were 
approaching Coventry, a place of great strength, waiting for fitting oppor- 
tunity to join others, which might prove of dangerous consequence to the 
Kingdom in general, and begged Worcestershire to raise at once such 
forces of Horse and foot as might yield them aid therein." 

Charles, who was then at Stonek-igh Abbey in Warwickshire, thought that 
more disarming should be done in Worcestershire thau had taken place, so 
issued an order on 20 August directing 

" search to be made in the City of Worcester, and all arms found in the 
hands of recusants to be seized, and also to seize the arms of all persons 
who ought not to have nrms, and the arms of all factious and disorderly 
persons who despised his authority and yielded any power over the militia 
not consented to by the King." 6 

II., p. 71. MI, p. 72. MI., p. 73. MI., p. 74. MI., p. 79. 


The power thus given to the County Commissioners seems to have been in 
consequence of their request to the King to give them the same power he had 
given the Mayor of Worcester, who with the City Sheriff were directed to assist 
the County Commissioners. 

The next clay, 21 August, Charles sent again from Stoneleigh to the Com- 
mission of Array for Worcestershire, thanking them for raising a troop of 
horse and promising to raise some foot for his service, and asking them to 
send with all possible diligence the gentlemen's troop of horse to the Karl of 
Northampton and Lord Dunsmore to help him, and also if possible some 
foot to Warwick. 1 As neither of these were done, this may have been the 
cause of the King's retreat to Nottingham on that day. 

The King now met with a serious check. Parliament had sent to Lord 
Brooke, the Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire, some guns for the defence of 
Warwick castle those guns Lord Northampton had intercepted. But the 
postscript to the Warwick letter states : " No reply made for the Earl of 
Northampton removed from Warwick to the King." 11 Probably this with- 
drawal made Warwickshire more insistent for Worcestershire help, as Brooke 
had taken possession of Warwick Castle, and when Charles appeared before 
Coventry and demanded admission he was refused, unless he was prepared to 
enter alone. While trying to force an entrance a sortie was made from the 
town, which drove off his men and some were killed.' Charles then retreated 
to Nottingham. On the aand he set up his standard at Nottingham, the act 
which marks the actual beginning of the war. The next day, 23 August, the 
Worcestershire Commissioners wrote to the Secretary of State detailing their 
" weak and imperfect endeavours which had more fervent affections than 
power for his service." 4 They again state plainly that unless the King 
supplied them in some fit proportion " and speedily with arms and ammuni- 
tion they would be unable to serve him in that useful way which was agreeable 
to the occasion and thc-ir desires." This was plain speaking, but it was the 
simple truth ; they had no arms or ammunition, and most important of all no 
money, and therefore were helpless. That was not the worst. They go on to 
point out that their neighbours by putting the ordinance of the militia into 
operation, the approach of the London forces to their borders, and the Kind's 
withdrawal from Warwick Castle had put such fear into the Commons of the 
County that no confidence could be raised out of them. Another thing that 
discouraged them was that the King had given the Mayor of Worcester power 
to seize the arms of Papists and disaffected persons, but had not given them 
the same power ; in fact everything seemed against them. They had, how- 
ever, clone what they could. Five officers had been appointed to exercise the 
recruits, but for some reason not in all the places where there were magazines. 
At liewdley, Capt. John Clent's Company, the number of men is [tlank] 

were to be exercised on 22 August before three of the Commissioners, whose 
names are obliterated. 

1 "-, P' 79- s H., P- 74- ' Gardiner, x., 218. * II., p. 75. 


Capt. Philip Brace's Company and Capt. Richard Pitt's Company were to 
be exercised at Worcester, Capt. Brace's before 6 gentlemen, whose names are 
obliterated, Capt. Pitt's Company, which was for the Clergy, were to be exer- 
cised at Worcester before such of the Commissioners as were at Worcester. 1 

Capt. John Speite's company was to be exercised at Pershore before 5 
gentlemen, and Capt. Scudamore Pytt's at Droitwich before 4 persons ; in both 
cases the names are obliterated. 

As already stated, while all the magazines had powder and match, and the 
five magazines a ton and a half of lead divided among them, Worcester had 
joo Ibs. to itself. 

The Commissioners made a further attempt to get arms. They issued another 
warrant, ordering search to be made in the houses of the persons named in the 
warrant, who they had reason to believe were in possession of more arms than 
their rank entitled them to have, to seize such arms and keep them pending an 
order from the Commission of Array. 

The Commissioners continued to do what they could. They issued a revised 
list of persons who would find horses. This time 82 persons agreed to find 
76 horses, an increase of 35 men, but a decrease of 19 in the number of 

But neither more vigorous searches nor even increased numbers of men 
were any use unless there was money provided for pay, and this was not only the 
great thing lacking but the one thing needful, and the last thing that Charles 
ever dreamt of supplying. lie informed the Commission of Array that he 
heard that ill-affected persons in the county were able to get arms and 
ammunition from London, but that his friends were not able to do so, and 
what they had were taken from them, and their persons imprisoned and 
detained. The Commissioners were therefore directed to raise such further 
forces as were convenient for the preservation of the county from rebels now 
quartered not far from it, and from the ill affected persons in the same. They 
were also told if they wanted a further commission to raise forces to write for it 
and they should have it at once. Then came the great point. They were to 
employ the utmost care, industry, and interest to encourage all the King's good 
subjects to such a voluntary contribution as might suffice to pay the forces so 
raised as long as should be necessary for the general safety, and to appoint a 
Receiver for the same. The King would order such monies as the clergy of the 
county should be willing to contribute to be paid to the Receiver, and he 
had written to the Bishop on the matter. 

Ou the receipt of this letter the Commission asked that all or any three of 
them might be authorized to raise volunteers. 3 

Pending further orders from the King the Commissioners tried to enter 
into a working arrangement with the city. They asked 8 

i. To be allowed to billet in the city such horse as should be thought fit 
for the safeguard of the city and county. 

1 II., p. 69. - II., p. 81. a Ibid. 


a. What armourers the city could supply for making arms, the iron plates 
for the arms being brought in weekly. 

3. That no Papists or recusants should be allowed to take Houses or 
remain in the city. If 1000 men were raised for defence of the county and 
city, what number could be billetted in the city. 

4. What number of volunteers would the city provide at the same pay as the 
King paid his soldiers ? 

No answer appears to have been sent to these proposals. The city seems to 
have desired to be neutral, and no steps were taken to put the city in a state of 

To meet the difficulty the King proposed that some of the counties should 
associate, and a proposal was sent that the counties of Lancaster, Stafford, 
Worcester, Hereford and the four counties of North Wales should associate 
for the common defence. The money difficulty came in, how the associated 
forces should be paid, and it was proposed that all the counties should provide 
a fortnight's pay. 1 For some reason, probably the liability to provide an 
unknown sum of money for pay, the association was not carried out. The 
Worcestershire Commissioners gave another reason. "The ill entertainment 
of the City of Worcester have so scattered our thoughts that they cannot be so 
suddenly recollected." 3 

The King on 5 September, being still at Nottingham, sent to the Wor- 
cestershire Commission of Array power to levy such number of volunteers as 
should seem necessary for the defence and safety of his good subjects inhabiting 
his good county of Worcester. 

The King at once appointed Sir Thomas Littleton the commander of the 
county volunteers. 

In this Commission the initial letters of the names of the Commissioners 
of Array are given. The following attempt has been made to identify them. 

Prince Charles afterwards Charles II. 

E. E. Dud. Edward Earl of Dudley. 

T. L. Co. Thomas Lord Coventry. 

Sir T. C. 

Sir J. P. Sir John Pakington. 

E. S. Sir Edward Sebright. 

W. R. B. Sir William Russell, Baronet. 

Sir E. L. B. Sir Edward Littelton, Baronet. 

Sir R. C. Sir Ralph Clare. 

Sir H. H. Sir Henry Herbert. 

Sir J. R. Sir J. Rouse. 

Sir R. B. Sir Rowland Berkeley. 

Sir H. S. 

J. L. J. Littleton. 

W. C. William Child. 

1 H-, P. 83- 2 II., p. 84. 


E. P. Edward Pitts. 

J. N. Jl in Nanfan. 

H. T. Henry Townshend. 

S. S. Samuel Sandys. 

J. W. Joseph Walsh. 

E. V. Edward Vernon. 

S. T. Sherrington Talbot. 

F. F. Francis Finch. 
H. I. Henry Ingram. 
T. S., esquire Thomas Savage. 

By virtue of this Commission Sir Thomas Lyttelton became in fact the 
Royalist commander-in-chief of the King's forces in the county. 

So far as appears nothing was done to put the county in a state of 
defence. The trained bauds searched nominally for arms, but really for 
plunder, and the houses of persons suspected of any anti-monarchical 
leaning were searched for what could be carried off. One instance, not 
of the Worcester but the Parliament trained bands from Gloucester, which 
occurred about this time will serve to shew how these searchers worked. 
They entered a house at Castlemorton. The owner, Mr. Bartlett, asked what 
they came for. The leader replied to search for arms. Bartlett said the house 
had been already searched and the arms carried off. The leader then searched 
Bartlett's pocket and took his money, between 2 and 3. He then asked 
Bartlett where he kept his plate. Bartlett would not say, so the housekeeper 
was seized, and the soldiers pricked her with their swords. She escaped and 
left the house. They then went over the house, methodically breaking open what 
they liked, taking what they fancied. This is most likely a fair specimen of 
how searches for arms were carried out ; possibly when done by Rupert and 
his men they were still more organized robbery than that of the Gloucester 

Worcester was not quiet ; the " faithful city " was shewing a very un- 
faithful aspect toward the King. The citizens made various proposals to the 
Mayor, which shew that the Worcester citizens cared more for themselves 
than for the King. They asked the Mayor to grant the following 1 : 

" i. That all Delinquents and Papists which were or should come in 
be disarmed and put forth from the city. 

" 2. That Troopers and adherents to the Commission of Array be kept 
from the city, and the drum be no longer beaten for volunteers against 
the King or Parliament. 

" 3. No soldiers be entertained or billetted in the city. 

" 4. Such arms as can be spared be delivered into the hands of able 
and sufficient men of the city, whereby they may be exercised and 
disciplined so as to defend the city against a sudden assault. 

" 5. That watch and ward be kept at every gate of the city and at the 
quay head, and all passengers and carriages by land or water be 

' II., p. 87. 


The Mayor replied : 

" i. That Lord Lovelace and M r Stanford, declared to be delinquents, 
shall be required to depart. 

" 2. That the Commission of Array shall be asked not to hold their 
meetings in the city. 

" 3. That if it could be prevented, no soldiers be hilletted in the city. 

' 4. That the Mayor had no power to compel citizens to deliver up 
their arms, but as the right has been granted to many Corporations, an 
attempt be made to get it. 

" 5. Watch, ward and search shall be carried out." 

The Commissioners of Array agreed to hold their meetings outside the city, 
and not to further resort to the city upon the business of the array. ' 

On 17 September 1642 Parliament ordered that Worcester be put into a 
state of defence under Captain Rea, a citizen, who was to command and to 
take all magazines and arms remaining in the city or about the Cathedral 
Church, and particularly the arms, money and plate of Lord Coventry. Within 
a week from then Essex advanced, took the city, and it felt what it was 
to be a captured city. It was not until the middle of November that the 
Royalists regained Worcester. 

The capture of Worcester in September 1642 ends what may be termed 
the preliminary act of the civil war. It is marked by several distinctive 
features : 

1. The total want of preparation in the county for anything like an armed 
resistance. There were really no Royalist preparations until the King issued 
the Commission of Array ; even when he did, nothing was done. There 
was no one to give any orders or take any steps towards putting the county 
into a state of defence. Such preparations as were made were almost entirely 
upset by the action of Wylde and Salway at Sessions on 13 July; this was 
not put right until the Assizes on 3 August. Then the time was too short to 
do much, and the Parliament had in the interval been able to check the 
progress of the Royalists. 

2. The attitude of the City of Worcester. It seems to have done every- 
thing that it could against the King, and on no occasion to have rendered the 
Royalists any real help. It shewed very clearly that it favoured the Parliament 
more than the King, and it had its reward. 

3. The greatest force prevailing against the Royalists was the want of 
money, and consequently the inability of those who were really Royalists to 
do anything to help on the cause. No arms were in stock, money was wanted 
to buy them ; insufficient provisions for the garrison, and no money to buy 
any; a lot of armed robbers straggling about the county devastating and 
plundering. There was no money in hand with which to pay the troops, no 
money coming in, nor the prospect of any, so the Commissioners of Array 
abandoned Worcester and left it to its fate. The Byron occupation was only an 
accidental incident. If money had been fci incoming it might have been possible 

' II., P . 89. 


to have put up a fight ; without it nothing could be done. The matter cannot 
be better put than it was by Lord Herbert to the King on 9 September 
1642 : 

" Much lieth at stake for want of a little money. Given ^,20,000 with 
what you have I would further your Majesty's designs to a most hopeful 
condition, for want whereof your Majesty is enforced to dally, though 
you will never yield, and at the present you offer that which is worth 
100,000 for 50,000, besides my Lord Capel, Sir William Savile and 
others of good estate do also offer themselves for security." 

Herbert then states the conditions on which his father would make an 
advance : 

" No want or occasion can make your Majesty press my Lord 
who hath already done so much, but if he and his friends would 
procure 10,000 your Majesty would suddenly if it pleased God to 
restore you see it repaid, and would presently in token of thankfulness send 
my Father the Garter to put on when he pleased, and also having the 
great seal in your Majesty's own custody you would pass a patent of 
Marquiss of what title my Father should desire, and keep it private as 
long as he thought fitting." l 

The last act in the war opens in the last half of November 1642, when 
the Royalists re-occupied Worcester and held it until the end of the war. 
The first thing done was to appoint a military governor of the city, and to this 
very difficult post Sir William Russell of Strensham was appointed. He had 
no money except his own, yet he was expected to put Worcester in a state of 
defence, and fit out an army for the King's use. 

How he collected his troops and what number he was able to get does not 
precisely appear, but in December he began (o make payments which seem to 
shew that the troops were there either at the end of November or the 
beginning of December. The earliest paper 3 now extant is as follows : 

" Received of Sir William Russell the sum of one hundred pounds 
towards the payment of my Regiment. I say received the said sum the 
34 th of December 1642. 

John Burn." 

This raises the question what was the force Russell had, and what were 
the rates of pay. Another document 3 throws some light on this. It is 
as follows : 

"Captain Francis Blount's account from the 4 th December 1642 unto the 

29 th April 1643. 

s. d. 

Imprimis for the entertainment of 130 men at 3* a man 22 10 o 
Item for the soldiers' pay from the 4 th of December unto 

the io th of Dec r as by the account appears . . 23 8 o 
Item for the soldiers 1 pay from the io tb of December unto 

the 17"' of December as by the account appears . . 25 10 o 

1 Hist. MSS. Com., ijth Rep., App. ix., p. II. Russell MSS. ' Ibid. 


Item for the soldiers' pay from the i] Dec r unto the s. d. 

24 th Dec r as by the account appears . . . . 29 2 o 
Item for 53 men horsed from the 24"' Dec r unto the last 

of December 27 16 6 

Item for 51 men unhorsed from the 24 lh Dec' unto the 

last of December 15 6 o 

Item for 53 men horsed from the last of Dec r unto the 

7 th of January 27160 

Item for 60 men unhorsed from the last of Dec 1 to the 

7 th of January 1800 

Item for 53 men horsed from the 7 th Jan^ unto the 14 th 

of January . . . . . . . . 27 16 o 

Item for 69 men unhorsed from the 7"' JanJ unto the 

14 th of January . . . . . . 20 14 o 

From henceforth I attorned to my Colonel 24 soldiers, 
which made up a full muster of 100 horse. 

Item for 100 men horsed from the r4 th January to the 

2J st January . . . . . . . . 52 10 o 

Item for 100 men horsed from the 21'' January to the 

28 th January 52 10 o" 

Similar entries are given for the same sum each week up to 29 April 
13 weeks making a total of 1050. For the pay from 14 January to 
29 April in the original, the total of the payments is given as 102 5 8s. 6d. 1 
When later Sir William Russell's accounts were disputed, the payments as to 
Francis Blount's troops are stated as follows : 

"That Captain Francis Blount for 150 men from the 4 th December to 
the 6"' January at 6 s a man per week, being 6 weeks, cometh to .23 7 1 8,5., 
and afterwards for loo of the said men, being mounted dragoons, for 
1 8 weeks at 10" 6 d per week, cometh in all to 945, whereof received 
843, remains in arrears 339. More due to him for muskets 6 i6s. 3 

Another entry appears as to Captain Francis Blount : 

" That Cap* Francis Blount hath received of Sir William Russell 48 
from September 8 th till October the 17 th for the raising and towards the 
paying of a troop of horse, but what number they were or whether at all 
mustered we know not." 3 

As to these horse Captain Francis Blount's own account continues : 

" Imprimis for the rise of i oo horse . . . .250 os. od. 

The s a Colonel commanded to Bridgenorth . . . .30 

And none returned. 
Lost in the pursuit of the enemy and commanded away into strange 

hands by the Prince, which were at the same time . . .20 
Dead and lost since 1 Io 

1 Russell MSS. II., p . , so . II., p . , S4 . 


t .... *. d. 

Paid for stocking, securing and fixing arms ' . .' . 5 o o 

Paid for collars by the Colonell's appointment . . I ? o 

Paid for meat for cattle at . . , ;, .... ; .. 096 

Paid for bringing in a coach . . ..'..'_ ^ 026 

Paid for bringing in Cattle from Pershore r . ..-020 

6 16 o 

250 o o 

1025 8 6 

The total of the charge disbursed . 1282 4 6 

s. d. 

Received of Newton Russell about the 20"' December . 50 o o 

Received about the 24 of Dec' . . . . . 20 o o 

Received the / lh of January . . . . . . 50 o o 

Received the 4"' of February . . . . . 50 o o 

Received the lo" 1 of February . . . . . 20 o o 

Received of M r Joyner of Tenbury . . . .3000 

Received the 8 IU of March 80 o o 

Received the 20"' of March . . . . . .1000 

Received to pay soldiers that went to Bridgenorth . .2000 

Received about Easter when we went to Parshawe . 20 o o 

Received of M r Richardson . . . . . . 50 < o 

Received of the Mayor . . . . . . 50 o o 

Received ,31 st March . . . . . . 30 o o 

Received 24 April . . . . . . . 50 o o 

Received by myself and Cornet . . . . . jo o o 

Total received is . . 580 o o 

s. d. 

The disbursements .... 1282 4 6 

The receipts 0580 o o 

The remainder 702 4 6 

Allowance for the Cap* for 21 weeks. 

for the Lieutenant 21 weeks. 

for the Cornet 21 weeks. 

for the Quartermaster 21 weeks. 

for 2 Sergeants 21 weeks. 

the Drums 21 weeks. 

the Clerk 21 weeks. 

the farrier 21 weeks." 

Such is Francis Blount's account. It is an instructive document ; it 
gives some items of interest. The allowance for food, or, as he calls it, enter- 
tainment, is 3,1'. a man ; taking the present value of money as three times what 
it then was, this makes the allowance py. a day. Then comes the rate of pay 
for a man without a horse : it was 3,*. 4</. ; if he had a horse loy. 6d. 
Unfortunately the allowances for officers are left blank. 

There is another statement as to pay. It is endorsed on the back : " Captain 
Colt's account." It goes to shew that the payments made by Russell to the 


different troops in the garrison were, if not identical, very nearly so. It is as 
follows : 

" Mustered on S' Steven's day being") 7 th . 50 oo oo 

Monday, on the Saturday fortnight being I 14 th . 50 oo oo 

the 7 th of Jan. 1642. Received of Sir f 21"' . 50 oo oo 

Will. Russell for the pay of my troop J 28 th . 50 oo oo 

Feb. 1642 II th . 100 oo oo 

1 8 th . 050 oo oo 

Advance forage 21*' . 100 oo oo 

25 th . 025 oo oo 

March 1642 4"" . 025 oo oo 

II th . 020 00 00 

i8 lh . 030 oo oo 

April 1 7<i>, 1643, at several payments! th OQ QO 

since the 4 of March 1642 J 

600 oo oo 

Unpaid 8 weeks on Saturday the 29 of April 1643 paid tenn 
weekes." ' 

Other receipts for pay are : 

" 1 6 Feb. 1642. 

Received then of S r W m Russell, Baronet, Governor of Worcester and 
Tewkesbury, the sum of 20 for payment of his own company of 
dragoones here at Tewkesbury, I say received the sum of . . xx". 

Thomas Mayland. 1 

2 I st April 1643. 

Received this day and yeare above written of Thomas Prichard the full 
and just sum of forty eight pounds six shillings and twopence for and 
towards the payment of my Governor's own Troopes. . 48 6 2 

p. me John Harris, Q ut M r .' 

9 die Maij 1643. 

Received then of Sir William Russell, Baronett, Governor of the City 
of Worcester, the sum of twenty pounds towards the payment of 
Colonell Begmonts, Payment I say rece d . . . . . 20 Ib. 

John Beaumont." ' 

Justice has never been done to Russell for all he did for the King. He 
was not a rich man a country gentleman fairly well off. Charles seems to 
have considered that it was the duty of such men who were Royalists to 
maintain the King's garrisons at their own cost, and when they did so and 
came to the end of their money, instead of being thanked they were treated 
with coldness, if not more. 

Russell had, in addition to paying his men, to lay in a stock of cannon 
shot and powder. He lost no time after becoming Governor of Worcester in 
doing this. His first receipt is 31 December 1642 : 

<: Ultimo die Decembris 1642. 

Received the day and year above written of Sir William Russell, 
Baronet, High Sheriff' for the County of Worcester, the sum of five 
pounds towards the casting of shot for His Majesties service, I say 
received ......... e". 

p. me William Duddeley." 1 
1 Russell MSS. 


This was followed by : 

" Die quarto die Januarie 1642. 

Received the day and year above written of Sir William Russell, 
Baronett, High Sheriff for the County of Worcester, the sum of seven 
pounds towards the casting of ordinance for His Majesties service in the 
said County, I say received 1 . . . >'.'' . . . f }i . 

p. me Brian Newton. 

io th die Feb? 1642. 

Received the day and year abovesaid of Sir William Russell, Baronet, 
the sum of forty shillings for casting of Iron Ordinance. I say re- 
ceived the sum of 1 ;.'' 40*. 

Brian Newton. 

Decimo octavo die Februarii 1642. 

Received then of Sir William Russell, Baronet, High Sheriff for the 
County of Worcester, the sum of five pounds towards the casting of 
ordinance. I say received by me 1 ...... j u . 

per me Brian Newton." 

Some idea as to where the money came from that enabled Russell to make 
these large payments is given us by Townshend. In the month of October, 
1643, a dispute between Russell and the Commissioners of Array took place. 
The Commissioners charged Russell with dealing unfaithfully with His 
Majesty and the county in his accounts. 3 This led to Russell producing an 
account of his receipts and payments, a most interesting document, as it 
shews us, at all events in part, how the Royalists obtained monies for carrying 
on the war. 3 

The chief item is a contribution made by order of Quarter Sessions of 
3000 a month levied on the county ; it was afterwards for a short time paid 
at 4000. Out of this varying sums were paid for the maintenance of the 
garrison at Worcester. These sums appear to have been in 1642-3 : 

s. d. 

January .... 2343 10 i 
February .... 2055 17 7 

March 1361 o o 

April 54 i 2 

5814 8 10 

It seems that the city was being defended at the cost of the county, so that 
it was well paid for its so-called fidelity. 

2. When the Parliament troops held Worcester from the end of September 
1642 to the middle of November 1642, the Earl of Essex, who was in com- 
mand, imposed a heavy contribution on the city. When Essex retreated to 
Gloucester the whole of the contribution had not been got in. Russell made 
the citizens pay up the outstanding arrears, which produced 28 13.5. ^d. This 
probably added to the ill-feeling. 

> Russell MSS. 2 II., p. 131. 3 II., p. 139. 



The clergy of the diocese agreed to pay the cost of raising a troop of horse, 
and paid for the purpose 270. 

Russell was not above plundering delinquents when he could do so under 
colour of the law, and he was able to extort from " delinquents," that is, 
prominent Parliamentarians in the adjoining counties of Gloucester and 
Warwick, a sum of 267. 

The Parliament shewed they were not particular in getting money as long 
as they did get it. On 8 December 1642 an order was issued by Parliament 
empowering deputy lieutenants to raise such sums of money as should be 
required to pay the Parliament's forces. The methods to be employed in 
raising it are not stated. 

Russell placed a small force in Tewkesbury in the early part of 1643, 
after it had been taken by Prince Maurice, and occupied it for a short 
time. Waller compelled him to abandon it ; but the people of Tewkesbury 
were made to pay the cost of keeping Maurice's men while they 
occupied the place. For this Russell received 460. A small sum of 106 
was received from some persons for wood, malt and iron. Mr. Bacon paid 
the cost of his regiment of horse and foot, ^1325 ?*' 2 a^- Russell extorted 
j494 6->-. from delinquents, mostly Papists, in the county, and by some means 
or another extracted 52 out of the Worcester citizens. These sums in 
the whole amounted to about 400. The majority of the payments were 
made or alleged to be made for pay to soldiers no less a sum than 300. In 
addition there was paid a sum of 68 2.$. i id. to the canoneer of the city, 
and the malrosses and others belonging to the artillery. The mattrosses were 
Firth, 427. 

persons attached to the artillery, two to each train, whose duty was to attend 
to the drying of powder that was decayed in summer, helping to remove the 
tents, collers and cordage, and to keep them in good condition, and to help the 
commissary to deliver out ammunition to those that came to receive it. 1 $2 
was paid by Russell 1 for making saltpetre, 55 us. 5</. to the three powder 
makers, and a general figure without details of 798 185. had been paid for 
ammunition, casting and boring canon, making carriages, and a further sum to 
guides, scouts, messengeis and intelligencers, and other disbursements for his 
Majesty's service. By this account, the total of which was ^15,901 6s., it 
appeared Sir William Russell had spent 3338 l)S. $d. more than he had 
received. He at once suggested that the persons who had made the charges 
against him should investigate the accounts. Three of the commission weie 
appointed to do this, Francis Finch, Joseph Walsh and the author of the Diary, 
Henry Townshend, and they found a balance due to Russell of no less than 
;335 1 % S - 4 \d- They add that some of the Commissioners would take 
exception to the account. 

The disputes between Sir William Russell and the Commissioners enable 
some idea to be formed of what the garrison of Worcester consisted, and what 
was its strength. 

1 II., p. 140. 


There appears to have been at one time or another during 1643 quartered 
in Worcester eight troops. Their commanders were 1 : 

Sir William Russell's own troop. 

Capt. John Blunt. 

Capt. Joseph Walsh. 

Capt. George Colte. 

Capt. Francis Blunt. 

Capt. Dennis. 

Sergt. Major Henderson. 

Sir James Hamilton. 

The numbers of each troop appear to have varied from 70, which was the 
lowest number of a full troop, to a hundred. 

Taking them at 60 each, the garrison would have been 480, or in round 
numbers 500, and that probably would fairly represent the strength of the garri- 
son. It was at times stronger from troops that were marching through staying 
for a time, but it may be assumed that 500 would be about the regular strength. 
They had not only to do garrison duty, but had also to make raids into the 
country whenever required, and it would appear that it was seldom that the 
full garrison was in the city. 

It was not merely paying the troops for which the Governor had to be re- 
sponsible. If any important person came and ran short of money the Governor 
had to help him. Prince Maurice was sent down to the county in 1643, and when 
he arrived he wanted money. The person who had to lend him money was the 
Governor. The following receipt is among the Russell papers : 

" Received of Sir William Russell, Governor of Worcester, ye surnme 
of two hundred pounds, April 14, 1643. 200 0$. orf. 


Another certificate is only a fragment 

" Ultimo die Aug. 

Whereas Sir William Russell's Regiment of Horse did quarter in 
Alberley in May and unto me constable 

said town out of the 
fourteen pounds ten shillings and ninepence in discharge thereof. 

John Ford, Constable." 

The want of money was most severely felt by Sir William Russell. 
Nothing serves to shew this more than a message the King, who was then at 
Oxford, sent Russell. 3 The King states, 17 December 1642, that 

" certain of his forces were in Worcestershire for its defence against 
the violence and plundering of the rebel army, and that as the King's 
revenue was detained from him he was disabled to pay them and 
therefore feared that the soldiers would commit some violence on the 
county, which the King was most anxious to avoid. Russell was therefore 

1 II., p. 149. a Russell MSS. ' II., p. 90. 


ordered to cast up what was due to the soldiers as the necessary charge 
for their maintenance, and to cause it to be equally divided in the best and 
most satisfactory way throughout, so that every division, Hundred and 
parish might be rated for its share and a time and place appointed for its 
payment, and require that they should willingly pay the same as they 
tendered his Honour, safety and his own defence and preservation, and 
as they expected that the King's officers should contain their soldiers 
under such discipline that they should commit no outrage for want of 
necessary subsistence, and that acquittance be given to the county for the 
money so received so that the King might pay it punctually as soon as 
God enabled him, which he promised to do." 

Five days later, on 21 December 1642, came another letter from the King 
to Sir William Russell stating how much the King was affected by the forces 
of the rebels and the damage they were doing to his good subjects, and in 
some degree from the forces he had been constrained to raise for the defence 
of the country. 1 The King ordered Russell 

" to make it known to all the Gentry, Clergy, Freeholders and others 
his good subjects of the county, that he took in very good part their 
affection to him, and his compassionate sorrow for all the difficulties they 
had sustained by reason of this desperate rebellion, and to assure them 
that nothing would prevent his governing according to the true laws of 
the realm and that they might have the most perfect enjoyment of their 
liberty and property in the most happy condition that might be freed 
from such breaches of the law which nothing but the necessity of the 
war (and that to his great grief) had brought upon them, and hoped that 
God would shortly enable him to defend and protect them from the 
violence and unnatural opposition of the rebels, and that the interrupted 
peace of the Kingdom might be re-established. The King therefore 
ordered & required all officers and ministers of justice of the said county 
to have a special care for the execution of the laws, especially such as 
had been made for the punishment of drunkards, profaners of the Lord's 
Day, sorcerers and for the relief of the poor." 

The Royalist leaders in the county took this appeal of the King to heart 
and proceeded to endeavour to raise some money, which was certainly 
urgently needed. There was no regular sum coming in to provide the regular 
outgoings. The pay of the Worcester garrison alone was at least 2400 a 
month. There were also garrisons at Dudley, Bewdley and Evesham, all of 
which required payment. Something had to be done. The Sheriff, Edward 
Vernon, accordingly issued a writ to the High Constable of each Hundred 
ordering him to require the constable of each parish in his Hundred to summon 
all freeholders, copyholders and able men to appear at Worcester on 5 January 
1643-4 to consider 

" the raising a voluntary aid for the defence of His Majesty's person, 
the Protestant religion, the laws of the land and the privileges of 
Parliament." 2 

1 n -> P- 9. 3 II., p. 93. 


There is a very significant note at the end of the summons : 

" If there be any whom you ought to summon are unable to appear you 
are to receive their willing aid to his Majesty and this service and to 
return it." 

The meeting does not appear to have been a success the freeholders seem 
to have given a very substantial answer to the demands. In Russell's accounts 
it was said the gentlemen of the county had lent the King 31,018 os. gd. 
between 10 December 1642 and 15 May 1643, and naturally were tired of 
these appeals for voluntary aid. A petition was drawn up, either at the 
meeting or soon afterwards, to the Parliament stating that 

" such had been the county's sufferings by that great army raised by 
the contrivance of that malignant party so often mentioned and com- 
plained of by His Majesty in his several declarations and sent forth from 
London, that they could not forbear to make known how contrary the 
conduct of the army had been to the ends that were pretended, the true 
Protestant religion by them abused, the book of common prayer slighted, 
the churches profaned, His Majesty fought against, his Kingdom and 
person endangered, his subjects plundered at the will and pleasure of the 
soldiers, the Kingdom involved in a bloody and unnatural war which 
must produce ruin to the Kingdom unless God in His great mercy 
gives a speedy end to the unhappy distractions and their present 
sufferings. They beg Parliament to address the King in all humility 
with such propositions for peace as may tend to the settlement of the 
Protestant religion, His Majesty's honour, the just rights of the Crown, 
with a care to the privileges of Parliament, the just liberty and property 
of the subject the only means to make the King glorious, the Kingdom 
happy, and a blessed union between him and his Houses of Parliament." 

As might have been expected, the petition was treated as waste paper, but 
the Justices at Quarter Sessions took more effective steps to aid the King. 

At the Epiphany Sessions the Grand Jury made a presentment, of which 
unfortunately only a fragment remains. 1 It runs : 

" Payment of the money unto Colonel Sandys, all of which we have in 
the [? hands] of His Majesty's Commissioners appointed for the safety of 
the County of Worcester. We likewise think well that Mr. Kimberley 
should have fifteen shillings out of the three pounds which is in the fund." 

This is signed by fourteen persons, presumably the grand jury, one of whom 
was Kimberly whether the man who was to have the i$s. does not appear, 
neither is there anything to shew what the fund was or by whom it had been 

1 Sessions Papers 1642-3, no. 45, p. 700. 


Some light is, however, thrown upon it by a presentment of the Grand 
Jury at the Easter Sessions 1643 l ' 

" The Presentment of the Great Inquest at the General Sessions of the 
Peace held for the County of Worcester upon the 1 1"' day of April 164,3. 
Whereas at t!ie last General Sessions of the Peace for the County afore- 
said it was agreed by the then Grand Jury that the sum of 3,000 should 
be raised and paid monthly towards the payment of His Majesty's Forces 
sent and raised for the defence of this County of Worcester, which money 
for the most part is yet unsatisfied, as appeareth by a note in writing pro- 
duced unto us by John Baker, gentleman, collector appointed by the then 
Grand Jury to receive the same and to pay it over to Sir William Russell, 
Baronet, High Sheriff of the County aforesaid and Governor of the City of 
Worcester, as by order made at the Sessions appears. 

" And whereas at the present Sessions motion was made in open 
court for the continuance of the payment of 3000 a month for a longer 
time. Thereupon we of the Grand Jury, taking it into our consideration, 
do think fit the same should still be paid according to the said order for 
three months longer until further order be taken herein at the next general 
sessions of the peace by the Justices of the Peace and Commissioners of 
the County. Further, we of the Grand Jury do .... that the outmost 
parts of the County which be .... nearest unto danger may speedily be 
se[cured] by Troops of Horses and other necessary assistance, and 
that we may be freed from giving free quarters, hay or provender without 
money, and that in assessing the said 3,000 the same shall be assessed 
according to the taxing of the 400,000 by act of Parliament, and accord- 
ing to the order of the ..... and we also desire that Sir William Russell 
may forthwith give nn [account] to the Commissioners for the defence of 
the county, how he has disbursed the money by him r[eceived] according 
to the former order and His Majesty's instructions. 

"And whereas it was ordered by the R[ight] Hon ble Arthur Lord 
Capell and the Councell of War that the 3000, and what other money 
was formerly collected or due for horses, coat and conduct money in the 
county, with the putting out of which Sir [Walter] Devereux, Sir William 
Russell and [Sir John] Rous were entrusted for the County .... now 
due to the county by bond from .... Hill, surveyor, shall together with the 
interest] thereof owing be forthwith paid to C[olonel] Samuel Sandys 
towards the payment of .... several billets and debts of his Regiment 
and the maintenance of his soldiers, and that the .... Sir Walter Devereux, 
Sir William Russell and Sir John R[ouse] .... stand thereof utterly dis- 
charged as by order .... produced to us appeareth which said or[der] 
we approve of, and do desire the same .... at this Sessions be so ordered, 
and that the Clerk of the Peace shall deliver up M r Hill's bond. . . ." 

Here the document unfortunately ends, but it gives very important informa- 
tion as to the position of things in the county when Worcester was retaken on 
Essex leaving it in November 1641 and Russell took possession of it for the 
King. Although he had to pay seven Regiments, each of which cost about 400 
a month, he had no regular source on which he could rely for money for the 
purpose. 2 According to his accounts he had to lire from hand to mouth. 
Between 10 December 1642 and 16 May 1643 the gentry of the county 

1 Sessions Records, p. 710. J II., p, 138. 


advanced to him the sum of .31,018 os. gd. He received from the levy of 

3000 a month the following sums l : 

s. d. 

January , . . . 2543 10 i 

February 2O 55 X 7 " 

March . ;..-' . '"/' : . 1361 o o 

April . . ' . ; - ' . 54 i 2 

a total of 5813 iSs. $d. 

As soon as the order of Sessions was made in January the usual steps were 
taken to raise the money. Francis Walker, the Clerk of the Peace, sent to the 
High Constables of c:ich of the rive hundreds an order directing them to raise 
the sum named in the order. This would appear to have been about the 
following sums : 

s. d. 

Blakenhurst . . ... 250 o o 
Oswaldslow .... 1000 o o 
Pershore .... 750 o o 
Doddingtree .... 375 o o 
Halfshire .... 600 o o 

For the month of January 164,3 the parish of Elmley Lovett had to raise 
10 8s. 3</., 3 of which TWnshend had to pay 2. Thomas Tyrer paid i ; all 
the rest, 50 in number, paid under i, the smallest being 6d., which was paid 
by four persons. The total number of persons paying was no less than 52. 

On hearing what the county had done Charles wrote and thanked them for 

" their lively expression of the true zeal and loyal affection to us and our 
service, and to return them all due and hearty thanks, which he required 
Russell to give to them, and to assure them he most gratefully accepted 
and embraced the same." 3 

He also directed that the agreement to raise the money should at once be put in 
force. In this Charles was clearly right, for the state of things in the Worcester 
garrison from the non-receipt of their pay nearly approached mutiny. This is 
well shewn by the behaviour of an officer named Hide. 

To celebrate the New Year the Mayor of Worcester, Henry P'ord, gave an 
entertainment, to which he invited the officers then in Worcester, among them 
Hide. On sitting down to tlie food Hide turned up his trencher, and finding 
nothing, called out, " Mr. Mayor I expected a New Year gift," and went on to 
use some very strong language, that he could not get his pay, and would have 
thrown his trencher at the Mayor if he had not been stopped. Sir William 
Russell appealed to Hide to behave himself, but his misbehaviour increasing, 
he put Hide under arrest, and ordered him to be taken to his quarters. On the 
way they met two women, one of whom Hide wounded in the head, the other 
in the arm. Hide went back to the Town Hall, accompanied by one of the 
women, who complained of the way Hide had treated her. Russell again 

1 II., p. 139. 2 II., p.. 99. 3 II., p. 102. 


ordered him back to his quarters, and directed another officer, Sir James 
Hamilton, to see him home. When they arrived at Hide's quarters he began to 
abuse Sir William Russell, and reproached the soldiers for obeying such a 
coward. Another officer, Capt. Dennis, interfered, but Hide seized him by 
the beard, and tried to drag him downstairs. He wanted to get his sword and 
pistols for a fight, but they had been taken away ; he tried to get a knife, but 
his servant removed it ; a guard was put over his house, but he broke through, 
ran to the main guard, caused an alarm to be sounded, and at last was 
with difficulty put under arrest. 1 Hide was sent to Oxford to be tried by court 
martial, but was discharged from the non-appearance of the witnesses against 
him. If Hide was a fair sample of the Worcester garrison it is not to be 
wondered at that the Royalist troops soon became most unpopular in the 
county and city. 

The garrison of Worcester at this time, the spring of 1643, appears to have 
consisted of six regiments 

Capt. Francis Blount, 100 strong. 

Capt. John Blunt. 

Capt. Dennis. 

Capt. George Colte. 

Capt. Joseph Walsh and 

Sir William Russell's own troop. 

It is not quite clear if these were all the troops regularly quartered in the 
city ; those certainly were, and continued to be so. Taking 100 as the proper 
strength of each unit, this would give 600 as the garrison ; this does not 
include troops temporarily stationed in the county or passing through it and 
remaining in it for short periods. Nor does it include the artillery. While it 
is only a guess, and the materials are wanting to make it more reliable, it 
seems most probable that the number of the garrison must have been close 
on 1400 strong. 

One thing seems certain about the Worcester garrison, they never received 
the full sums due to them ; it was always a payment on account. This is 
made very clear by the report on Sir William Russell's accounts. 3 

For Sir William's own troop there was due 1755; he received only 
io'/3, and 6&i remained due. 3 To Capt. John Blunt the sum due was 
1252 ; he received 789 6s., leaving a balance of 462 14.?. remaining due. 
To Capt. Joseph Walsh 1252 was due ; he received 81 1, and 441 remained 
due. To Capt. George Colte 1000 was due; he received 74, and 926 
remained due. 

So it runs through all the accounts. Sir William was never able to clear off 
the ever accruing amounts of pay, and this was so notwithstanding he made 
large payments out of his own pocket. That he made such payments is 
admitted ; the only question was how mm h was due to him. Russell said 

1 Webb's Civil War, i., 220. 2 II., p. 150. 





>* '-ft 

a 3 

-J o 

S Z 

J r; 

S 8 

H g 


3338 '5 s - 3<i-> 1 ne set f investigators said .3 305 185. 4-^d., 1 the others 
8471 los. 2d., while a third set of investigators, those most hostile to 
Russell, alleged on their reading of the accounts there was a balance due from 
him of no less a sum than 5165 i is. lo^d.* It is impossible to say who was 
right or who was wrong in this dispute, but it seems more than probable that 
the receipts were over-estimated; for instance, one of the items of receipt was a 
monthly contribution by the county of 3000, and it was assumed that 
Russell had received it, or but for his neglect might have received the whole of 
it, an assumption that seems very improbable. It is alleged that he should have 
received from I January 1643 to 15 May 1643 the whole of the monthly con- 
tribution of ^"3000 a month, that he only actually received 5836 12.?. iOy</., 3 
leaving up to 15 May an arrear of 7663 js. ijrf., due to the neglect of Sir 
William Russell and his officers, as he alone had power to collect the same. 
That as after 15 May 1643 a treasurer was appointed to receive the monies 
due from the monthly contribution, and as the parties of Sir William's horse 
who gathered the monies had not accounted to the Treasurer, he had been 
charged with the whole sum. It is therefore clear that it is hopeless to arrive 
at anything like a solution of what was due from or to Sir William Russell. 

The contribution is a point of some interest whatever was the exact 
sum Russell received. The difficulty appears to have arisen in this 
way. At the Epiphany Sessions, 1643, the Royalists having once more 
got the upper hand in the county, the Grand Jury agreed that a sum of 

Sessions Records, i., p. 710. 

3000 a month should be found by the county towards the payment of 
the King's forces that had been sent and raised for the defence of the county. 
As far as it is possible to make out, 3000 if paid in full would not have been 
sufficient to pay the troops then quartered in the county. The monies, 
when collected, were to be paid to a treasurer (in one place called John Baker, 
in another John Bacon) who the Grand Jury had appointed to receive and pay 
over to SirWilliamRussell. At the Easter Sessions, on i lApril 1643, the treasurer 
certified that the greater part of the money was still unpaid. The Worcester 
troops were clamouring for pay, and the county was feeling more and more 
the necessity of a strong garrison, for Massey, from Gloucester, was beginning 
to carry out that series of raids in the southern part of the county to the west 
of the Severn that made all life and property insecure. The Grand Jury 
seem to have felt that protection was absolutely necessary, and they were 
willing to pay for it, so they agreed to continue the payment of 3000 a month 
until the Midsummer Sessions. But they directed that the outmost parts of 
the county that lie nearest unto danger, that is, the area of the modern District 
Council of Upton and so much of the area of Newent District Council as lies in 

1 II., p. 141. * H., p. '57- ' II., P. '54- 



Worcestershire, might speedily be secured by troops of horse and other necessary 
assistance. In consideration of paying this sum, the Grand Jury stipulated 
that they should be relieved from giving free quarters to troops or providing 
pay and provender unless it was paid for, and they also stipulated that the 
assessment of the contribution should be made in the manner directed in the 
Statute of 16 Charles I.,c. i , under the orderof the Court madeat the last Sessions. 1 
Unfortunately no trace of this order appears among the existing Sessions 
records. Townshend only helps indirectly. He gives an assessment of 
Elmley Lovett in 1644, which would appear to be made under that Act, 
and which shews that the new assessment raised Elmley Lovett's monthly 
contribution from 10 8s. 3</. to 14 7$. ^d? 

The Grand Jury also requested that Sir William Russell might be ordered 
to give an account of how he had dealt with so much of the money as he had 
received under the order of the Epiphany Sessions, nominally some /jiooo to 

/"lOjOOO. 1 

Lord Capel appears to have ordered that the 300 and other monies that 
had been received under the engagement of the gentlemen of the county to 
provide horses, and the order of the Commissioners of Array as to the number 
of horses the persons named in the order were to provide, 3 and the monies 
received from the freeholders of the county for coat and conduct money, which 
sums had been entrusted to Sir Walter Devereux, Sir William Russell and Sir 
John Rouse, and were due to the county, should be paid over with interest to 
Col. Samuel Sandys towards the payment of his billets, the debts of his regiment, 
and the payment of his soldiers. 1 The Grand Jury also considered they had 
gone to the limit of their powers, as they add " all of which we leave to the con- 
sideration of the Commissioners (of Array) appointed for the safety of the 
County of Worcester." 

A clause is added that does not entirely raise our opinion of the 
Grand Jury. They express a desire that Mr. Kimberley should have 15.5. out 
of the 5 in his hands. Mr. Kimberley appears to have been one of the 
Grand Jury. It is somewhat difficult to see what right the Grand Jury had 
to impose a rate on the freeholders of the county for its defence. If the King 
could not and Parliament had just declared that the King had no power to 
levy ship money for the defence of the whole realm it is hard to see what 
power a Grand Jury, who were acting in the King's name, had to tax all the 
freeholders of the county for the purpose of enabling one part of the King's 
subjects to carry on war against the other part. 

The charge that the 3000 a month imposed on the different parishes 
was increased by the new assessment and the added [000 is given by 
Townshend. 4 It raised the Hundred of Halfshire's contribution from 
606 17*. 9cZ. to 813 1 7$. pjrf. a month. 

Towushend gives the assessments of the county to the last imposition, and 

1 Sessions Recordi, I., p. 710. ' II., p. 163. II., pp. 70, 77. 4 II., p. 112. 


it gives some idea of what the Royalist charge on the county during the war 
was : 

Hundred of Halfshire. 

s. d. 

Bromsgrove division at 3000 a month . . .. 389 15 8 

at 4000 and id. ....> 513 6 4 

Doddingtrce paid . ,...,. _,,. .... . 375 o o 

Blakenhurst ,, . . , . , . . 380 o o 

Pershore . .' ' ;. '. '.-' ; . 725 14 o 

Oswaldslow . . : '. . ~^. . ,'.'". . 1000 o o 

There is some doubt as to the exact accuracy of these figures, which have 
been obtained by adding up the sums stated to have been allotted to each 
collector. Whatever may be the exact figures, these will serve to shew 
what a serious charge there was on the county and how great was the increase. 

Unfortunately we do not know the sums that were raised by the Parlia- 
ment. They must have been considerable, and, when added to the Royalist 
levies, give some slight idea of how a wretched freeholder was robbed during the 
war by both sides. In local rates the calls of both sides must have reached a 
sum not perhaps equal to our present day extravagance, but what must have 
been a most serious burden on the owners of rateable property in the county. 
It does not appear that anyone has as yet worked out the total charge that 
landowners were liable to pay to the State during the Civil War. 

In the spring of 1643 Prince Maurice arrived to take up a command in the 
county. He came to Worcester, and, if he did not ask for, he received a sum 
of '38 why does not appear in addition to 200 for his life-guard and 
100 for himself. 1 

Waller, who was then (in April 1643) in command at Gloucester, threatened 
Worcester. The Commissioners of Array became alarmed, and directed the 
Sheriff, Sir William Russell, to call out the posse comitatus, that is, every male 
capable of bearing arms between 16 and 60. He directed them 2 

" to assemble on the great meadow called Pitchcroft on the 2 nd May to 
join with the Sheriff in suppressing notorious assemblies and rebellious 

Whether this was a success does not appear, but on 28 May Captain 
Samuel Sandys addressed an order to all constables, petty constables and others 
in the county, stating 3 

" that a multitude of armed men were come into the county agninst the 
City of Worcester this 2pth day of May to the great disturbance of the 

1 II., p. 140. * II., p. 121. 3 II., p. 122. 


County and hazard and less of the city. The Constables were therefore 
with all haste to summon all persons between 16 and 20 to repair with all 
such arms and weapons as they had to the City of Worcester to help assist 
and defend the said city and county from aU opposition whatever, and 
every person was to bring with him three days' provisions at the least." ' 

This was supplemented by an order to the parish constables to provide 
forage and food to the City of Worcester. Townshend gives the order to the 
constable of Elmley Lovett, which may be taken as a sample. It was 8 

"forthwith to provide within the parish one load of Hay, one quarter of 
oats, six cheeses, six loaves of bread and two bushels of meal, and deliver 
the same at the Foregate for the relief of His Majesty's garrison within 
the City of Worcester, and if he failed to do this he must expect to be 
dealt with as one disaffected to His Majesty's cause." 

Waller's attack on Worcester in June 1643 was a failure, but it brought 
to light some very unpleasant facts. As Waller retreated some prisoners were 
taken, who informed the Governor that there were "many citizens of Worcester 
and likewise County men in the Royal army who did assist the Parliamentarians." 
They gave in the names, and Russell caused these " faithful citizens " to be 
arrested. 3 

For the soldiers there was some excuse, they were greatly in arrear in their 
pay. It appears from the King's proclamation that there was, therefore, 
great disorder and discontent, and the soldiers made raids from the city 
committing spoil and robbery. To put a stop to this the King ordered that 
the high and petty constables be made to take steps at once to get in the 
monthly contributions. Every week the high and petty constables were to be 
interviewed, asked what they had done during the week in collecting the con- 
tribution, and inflict such punishment on those who had been slack in 
collecting as should be thought meet. 4 

A new scale of pay for the foot soldiers was also issued at first sight it seems 
to be a reduction among the higher ranks. The Colonel, Lt. -Colonel, Sergeant- 
Major and Captain, who had formerly received rates varying from 2 a day to 
i$s., were now all to receive a uniform rate of fs. 6d.* Whether they were to 
get the balance out of the unfortunate people in the county does not appear. 

For the horse the old pay is not given, but the new pay is said to be 
16 i os. 6d. per week per officer, and us. a week for every common trooper. 5 
Each of the officers were allowed a certain number of horses a day except the 
trumpeter, surgeon and smith, who were only allowed one each. The Colonel 
was allowed twelve. No fixed number was allowed to the ordinary trooper. 

Matters seem to have gone on without any very great change in July and 
August, except that Charles ordered the county soldiers, both horse and foot, 
to join him in the siege of Gloucester, and on the siege being raised and 
Charles retreating to Evesham, he sent 700 of the Life Guards to defend 
Worcester should it be attacked. The parishes bordering on the river 

1 II., p. 122. * II., p. 123. ' II., p. 134. * II., p. 125. ' II., p. 126. 



had a bad time ; they were said to have been " miserably vexed " more by 
the spoil the soldiers made than by the meat the army consumed. 1 

The King had difficulty as to feeding his army. When encamped at 
Hinton near Evesham he issued on 12 September a proclamation to the 
Commissioners of Array requiring them to at once issue warrants to all 
parts of the county except the vale of Evesham, which would be dealt with by 
the Commissary of the King's army, commanding the people to bring in 
50 Ibs. of bread and 50 Ibs. of cheese daily, and to distribute the warrants so 
that each town, hamlet, village, parish, Hundred and other divisions should 
bear their proportion. The bread and cheese was to be brought either to 
Worcester or to the magazine in the Townhall, Evesham, and from thence to be 
conveyed to the Royal camp, and horses and oxen were to be impressed to 
carry the food to the King's camp. The King directed that the persons from 
whom the provisions were taken should be told that His Majesty would take 
care that they were duly paid for out of the estates of those persons 
in the county, who, by assisting this present rebellion, had brought that 
burden on the county. It was also ordered that strict watch should be set 
on all passages and bridges in the county, all straggling soldiers of the Royal 
army who were met with were to be sent to the King's camp to prevent any 
disorder being committed by them to the prejudice of the county, and that 
soldiers who had committed disorders and quitted the army to avoid punish- 
ment should be punished as they deserved. 3 

The Commission of Array met at once and apportioned the bread and 
cheese among the different parishes in accordance with the proportion the 
parish contributed to the monthly contribution, but before any levy could be 
made Essex had set out for London, and Charles marched off to get between 
him and London, so the warrants were countermanded. 3 

Charles tried to put another burden on the county. Not only did his 
troops want food, they also wanted pay. He therefore proposed to raise 
7000 for one week's pay for his foot soldiers. For some reason that does 
not appear it was proposed to make the City of Worcester pay ^4000 out of 
the 7000, and the cour.ty the balance, 3000. The city at once protested 
that they could not "raise such a vast sum; the clothing trade had decayed; 
the weekly burden and taxes were very great; making fortifications and scouring 
ditches were very serious, out they would see if they could raise 2000, and 
therefore taxed each ward. 8 

The county said they could not raise 3000 more; they were already 
raising 3000 a month, and had clone so for the last six months to maintain a 
garrison of horse and foot in the county. 3 That cattle were dead and no sale 
of provisions. That they had so many extraordinary taxes, such as carrying 
ammunition to Oxford, providing ammunition, giving free quarters to soldiers, 
it was impossible to lay any general tax on the county. All they could do was 
to think of some persons who were deemed moneyed men, and others that 
might be able to lend money, and see what sum they could raise. In 

1 II., p. 127. * II., p. 128. * II., p. 129. 


accordance with this the Commissioners scut letters to divers men to appear 
before them. 1 

Charles objected to this course as it interfered with his own plans. 
He at once wrote to the Commissioners to say he had already sent letters to 
divers of his subjects of good ability in the county asking for loans from them, 
but as his necessities were increasing he had sent the Master of the Rolls, 
Sir John Culpepper, and Ashburnham to the city of Worcester to treat with 
them for such sums as should be agreed upon, and directing the Commissioners 
to assist by their good endeavours and example, and warrants had been 
directed to such persons to appear before the Master of the Rolls and the Com- 
missioners on 19 and 20 September. The King now ordered the Commission 
to treat with all the persons, and demand loans of such sums of money as were 
mentioned in the letters. The Commissioners were also to get any other 
people to lend such sums as they might fix having regard to the King's great 
necessity, and also to tell the people of the vast sums the rebels imposed 
upon all persons in their power, and the horrid and vigorous courses they 
used to force the sums to be paid, and that the King desired the money 
for the support of an army to defend his subjects from this tyrannical 
and arbitrary power. The King gave the Commissioners power to give any 
one who advanced money a mortgage on any of the King's lands in the county 
or adjacent counties, and if they could not make the people pay the whole sum 
asked, to take any less sum as was in their power to lend. But if they 
refused to lend anything they were to be ordered to attend at the Camp or 
city of Oxford that their refusal might be inquired into. 2 

On this the Commissioners examined a number of persons ; unfortunately 
there is no list of the names. Many of them lent such competent sums as they 
could spare. None were pressed for more, and although some offered to give 
the money to the King, it was always refused and only accepted as a loan.* 

These proceedings lasted till about the beginning of October. The Com- 
missioners were urged to find the King more money and could not find any 
way to do it until a bright idea occurred to some of them. The Grand Jury in 
their presentment at the Easter Sessions 1643 had asked that Sir William 
Russell might be ordered to give an account of how he had spent the monies 
he had been paid for the defence of the county. The Commissioners were 
divided into two parties, one the rampant Royalists in whose opinion all 
the King did was right, the other the constitutional Royalists who wanted to 
keep within the law, and who seem to have considered it their duty to ascertain 
how the monies received by Sir William Russell, who was acting as Governor 
of the city of Worcester and also Sheriff of the County, had been applied, and 
it may be who also thought that more money could be got out of Russell if 
pressure was applied. So on one ground or the other they determined to ask 
Russell for the account of his receipts and disbursements which had been 
ordered by the Court of Quarter Sessions. 

Accordingly on 20 October 1643 the Commissioners of Array, or the 
majority of them, brought certain specific charges against Russell. 8 

1 " P- "9- 2 II., p. 130. II., p. 131. 



The charges mainly come to this, that Russell had acted on his own 
authority, and in many cases not consulted the Commissioners, and even when 
he did consult them, did not follow their advice. 

Russell replied to the charges by bringing counter charges against various 
of the Commission. He begins with Sir Ralph Clare, who he charges 
amongst other things that although appointed a Commissioner of Array he 
never came near them, and never lent the King any money. Col. Sandys 
Russell accuses of the same. Both the charges against Russell and his 
counter charges against Clare and Sandys appear to be, in the words of the 
Commission, as to Russell's counter charges to be " charges of malice rather 
than truth." Both parties had a good deal to say against the charges ; 
doubtless Russell was arbitrary possibly the fact of his being not only 
Sheriff' but also Governor may have turned his head but on the other hand he 
had done much good work, and done it under circumstances of great difficulty. 
However, it was quite clear that both he and the Commission could no longer 
work together, and as soon as possible he should give up one or other of his 
offices. He could not give up the Shrievalty so he gave up the garrison. 

Charles for once recognized the value of a loyal officer's services and inter- 
vened on Russell's behalf. 1 He directed five gentlemen to examine Russell's 
accounts at once, but it was one word far Russell and two for himself, as the 
great point they were to inquire into was the monthly county contribution, and 
whether it was possible that the King might get something more out of it. 
So they were to make very particular inquiry how the contribution had been 
received from the first agreement, by whom, what still remained due, and from 
what places and persons, and that speedy care might be taken for the collection 
thereof. They were further to inquire particularly as to the exact strength of 
Russell's regiments in foot and horse at that time, what numbers there had 
been and how they came to be lessened ; what other forces Russell had 
raised, how they had been paid, making particular distinction as to monies 
paid for levies and advances, and monies disbursed for payment of soldiers. 
As Russell had promised that his regiment was to march from Worcester in 
a fortnight they were to report within that time. In order to secure a report 
against Russell, the King appointed as one of the five to examine the accounts 
Russell's great enemy Sir Ralph Clare, the man whom Russell had expressly 
charged with having prevented the soldiers of Russell's regiment receiving 
their pay. 1 

The other Commissioners were Edmund Pytts, Townshend, Joseph 
Walsh and Henry Finch. 

Sir Ralph Clare and Edmund Pytts do not appear to have taken part in the 
examination of the accounts, as the certificate giving the result of the examina- 
tion of the accounts is signed only by Finch, Walsh and Townshend. They 
found in Russell's favour that all the disbursements had been manifested by 
acquittance or attestation viva voce, and for aught yet made to appear Russell 
had received no more than mentioned in his receipts and books, and that he 

1 II., p. 138. 


paid over and above what he had received 3305 i8s. 4$d. 1 They, however, 
added that some of the Commissioners alleged they would speedily send in 
exception to the accounts, but what they were they did not know, and up to 
9 December 1643, when Russell left Worcester, none of the exceptions had 
come in. Afterwards what appear to be the exceptions were sent in, and 
Townshend sets them out at length. 3 

Two instances may be mentioned. They admit he did not receive all the 
contributions, but allege it was entirely his own fault, as he had full powers to 
collect and a party of horse to enforce the collection. 2 

They complain that Russell paid the officers on too high a scale, Lieut.-Col. 
i i$s. od., Sergt.-Major i 4*. od., Captain i$s., whereas the King only 
allowed half that pay at the most. 3 

The final finding is curious. The Commissioners found 8492 ics. 8$d. 
due to Sir William Russell, but they found that sums were due from him, 
8471 los. id., or a balance due to him of 21 os. 6d.* 

No accurate account of the state of the county can be given that merely 
records the illegal shifts and expedients to which the Royalists resorted to 
find men and money to carry on the war. The same difficulties were 
experienced by the Parliament, and very much the same illegalities used in 
dealing with them, with this exception, that, while the Royalists gave general 
directions to raise money, the Parliament gave specific. An order of 
ii February 1642-3 appointed Waller Major-General of the counties of 
Gloucester, Wilts, Somerset, Worcester and Salop, directed him to raise five 
regiments of horse and five of foot, and to raise their pay out of the estates of 
delinquents, Bishops, Deans and Chapters, Prebendaries and Pluralists. 

A further order of n February 1642-3 directed Nathaniel Fiennes to raise 
a regiment of horse out of the counties of Gloucester, Worcester and Oxford 
and seize the required horses and arms. Another order on 24 February 
provided for raising money to pa)' the army by weekly payments for three 
months by levies on the following counties : 






Gloucester City 

62 10 

Hereford County and City 

. 437 I0 



. 650 o 


Salop ..... 

375 o 


Stafford .... 

. 212 JO 

Lichfield .... 



Warwick .... 

. 562 jo 

Coventry .... 

. 37 10 



Worcester City 

16 13 

3, 659 .3 o 
1 II., p. 141. ' II., pp. 142, 145. II., p . , 4 6. ii., P p. ,55, ,57. 


Aliens and Papists were to pay double the sums that others were required 
to pay. 

For each area County or City Commissioners were appointed to make 
the levies. 

For Worcestershire the Commissioners were Sergeant Wilde, Henry 
Salway, Edward Dingley, Edward Pitt, Thomas Geers, William Jeffryes, 
Ambrose Elton and Sergeant Creswell. For the City of Worcester the Com- 
missioners were Henry Foord (Mayor), Roger Seaburn and Henry Philipps, 
Aldermen, John New, gentleman. It was expressly provided that all those 
who were liable to contribute and who unjustly escaped were to pay treble, a 
provision that would enable the Parliament Commission to take from every 
Royalist who was so unlucky as to have his person or property in the power 
of Parliament three times as much as could be taken from a staunch 

In March 1642-3 Parliament made an order for an assessment in every 
parish in England for the relief of maimed soldiers, widows and fatherless 

The money apparently did not come in as fast as required, so on 27 March 
1645 Parliament made a further order sequestrating the estates of notorious 
delinquents and appointing Commissioners for the purpose. The first notorious 
delinquent selected for sequestration in Worcestershire was John Prideaux, the 
Bishop. The Commissioners to execute the order were John Wilde and 
Richard Creswell, Sergeants-at-law, Humphrey Salway, Edward Dingley, 
Edward Pitt, Thomas Greer and William Jeffereys, Esqs. Still the money 
did not come in, so another order was made by Parliament on 7 May 
1643 to tax those who had not contributed, or who had not contributed 
in accordance with their ability. 

The ame Commissioners, with the addition of Ambrose Elton, were 
appointed for the county, and the same as before for the city. 

On i June a further order was made making additions to the Committees 
in the different counties and cities for raising the monies. No additions were 
made either in Worcestershire or the city. It may be possible that no other 
honest Roundheads beyond those already serving could be found in either 

On 3 August 1643 a further ordinance was made for raising and levying 
money for the maintenance of the army by weekly assessments. Worcester- 
shire was to raise 550, the city 16 13*. The Committees for the county 
and city were the same as before. 

Russell was succeeded as Governor of Worcester by Sir Gilbert Gerrard. 
As there were no less than eight Colonels named Gerrard in the Royal Army, 
it is not easy to say with accuracy which of these carried out any particular work. 
The new Governor was face to face with the same difficulties that had beset 
Russell providing money and providing supplies. The monthly contribution of 
3000 was still continued, but it was in no way sufficient, In February 1644 


Rupert came to Worcester, a consultation of the Royalist officers was held, and 
Rupert was plainly told that as 3000 a month did not keep down the ex- 
penses, more money must be found. Rupert's methods of finding it were simple 
and effective ; he ordered the monthly contribution for the next three months 
to be raised from 3000 to 4000. It is true he promised it should at the end 
of three months go back to 3000, but those things did not usually go buck. 
Rupert, however, made one very important change : the contribution could be 
paid half in money, half in provisions, the choice as to which was to be with 
the county. 1 From the effect of this change on Elmley Lovett we can get 
some idea how raising the monthly payment of 3000 was felt in the 
county. The contribution of that parish was 10 8s. 3d.; on raising the 
contribution of 4000 it was 14 JS. 4</. Townshend's own payment was 
raised from 2 to 1 i$s. ^d. 

But this was far from being the only change Rupert made. He agreed 
that 2000 foot and 500 horse should be maintained in the county for its 
defence, and that, with the exception of troops on the march, all free billeting 
and free quartering should be abolished, and any soldier who tried to enforce 
free quarters would be tried by court martial. Pressing or plundering horses 
and cattle was abolished ; any soldier doing either was to be tried by court 
martial. Weekly court martials were to be held at Worcester to try offenders 
a fact that shews how common the practice had become. If anyone failed to 
pay for his billet the Treasurer would deduct the proper amount out of his pay 
to be paid the person where the man was billetted. 

Anyone who would arm himself at his own cost should be entitled to do 
so, and if he gave in a list of his arms they were not to be taken from him. 

The different parishes in the county were allotted to the different garrisons 
in the county to keep up the fortifications of the garrison. Each person was 
allotted to some garrison, and was not obliged to work for or send help to any 
other. A price on the provender and provisions was fixed so that it might be 
easily known what quantity would have to be handed over if the person charged 
elected to pay in kind. The rates are of interest. In the following table the 
rates fixed by Rupert are given in the first column, and, taking the present 
value of money as three times what it then was, the modern price is given in 
the second column : 

Hay per tod s . . . ^d. . . is. 

Oats per strike . . . is. 6d. . . as. 6il. 

Peas and Beans per strike . 6s. . . i8s. 

Grass per horse . . .as. 6d. . . js. 6d. 

Straw per load . . .5*. . .15*. 

Cheese per cwt. at i%d. the Ib. 233. ^d. . . 6-js. 

Cheese, common, per Ib. . id. . . 6d. 

1 "., p. 160. > ii., p . ,6,. 



Butter per Ib. "t. , . . iiiijrf. . few \$. \\d. 
Bacon per Ib. . . . \\\\d. . .is. 

Beef per Ib lid. . > >< 6d. 

These prices contrast very favourably with present day prices. If a horse 
soldier was billeted on anyone the person was paid 8s. a week, and for this 
the payee had to give the horse a peck of provender. A foot soldier paid 
2s. 6d. a week for his billet. 

No horse or foot soldier was to quarter in any house in the county without 
payment in ready money according to the above rates, nor was to take more 
than house room with such fire, candle and salt as the family used for them- 
selves, no more soldiers were to be billeted in a house than it could conveni- 
ently receive. The local officers should see to the quartering of each soldier. 
No women, boys or children were to be quartered unless the master of the 
house consented. 

Not merely had the county suffered from soldiers who were passing 
through living at free quarters, but in the parts of the county bodies of soldirrs 
had been almost permanently quartered. One of these forces was under the 
command of Lord Chandos, who had had his headquarters at Sudelcy, had 
made continual excursions in the districts round Cirencester Broadway 
and Tewkesbury. The other, under Sir William Vavasour, tried to keep the 
side of the county next Herefordshire free from raids by Massey and other 
Parliamentary leaders. All parishes, villages and houses which had incurred 
loss by reason of the soldiers of either of these leaders were promised, if they 
would make out and send in their claim for damage, that they would be paid. 
On the other hand, if any parish or person failed to pay the monthly con- 
tribution either in money or provisions, on the receipt of his name from the 
Constable the Commanding Officer of the place to which the contribution 
belonged was to be at liberty to send a party of horse or foot to collect it 
from the certified person. 

All provisions paid under the order were to be delivered to the City of 
Worcester on every Saturday, to Evesham and Hartlebury every Monday to 
the Commissioner appointed to receive them by the respective Governors, who 
were to enter into their books what sum was paid in cash and what sum was 
represented by the provisions received. It is noteworthy that for some reason 
Rupert made no provision for the Dudley garrison. 

It is interesting to compare the rates fixed for provisions in Worcestershire 
with those in Shropshire : 

Worcestershire. Shropshire. 

Hay, per tod ,, v . . . . 4^. . per cwt. is. 8d. 

Oats, per strike , .. * f .,. . is. 6d. . per strike is. 4d. 

Peas and Beans, per strike . 6s. od. 

Grass, per pan . ., i r t . a. 6d. , ( ^ 

Straw, per load . . . . 5$. od. 

Cheese, per Ib., best . o>i ,&i ;<j ^- 


Worcestershire. Shropshire. 

Cheese, other arf. ' ld - 

Butter, per Ib 4\d. 4d. 

Bacon, per Ib +d. . . . 3d. 

Beef, per Ib. . . id. . arf. 

Wheat and Rye Straw, per thrave . . . ^d. 

Barley Straw, per thrave . . 3d- 

Barley, per strike . . . . a*, ad. 

Malt, per strike . . . . a*. 8rf. 

Rye and Muncorn . . . 3*- 4^- 

These rates, fixed by Rupert, were far from securing universal approval, 
as both the Quarter Sessions and the Commission of Array required some 
modifications. 1 

The officers were in the habit of drawing more pay than the men they 
actually had serving were entitled to receive. They did this by insisting on 
being paid on old lists of men ; to put a stop to this practice the Treasurer who 
received the weekly contribution was to be supplied each week with a copy of 
the men actually serving in each regiment and the total pay due to each garrison. 
Every Wednesday the Commissary of each garrison was to account with 
the Treasurer of the contribution as to the amount of the provisions supplied 
each week, and if the provisions came to more than the stated rate the excess 
was to be deducted from the next week's pay. 

The allowance to the Governor of Worcester for his board was 10 a 
week; this the city had to pay, and also to find 100 a month. This last 
sum Rupert allowed to be used in paying the garrison and the artillery. But if 
it was not enough to pay for replenishing the stock of ammunition, as well 
as paying the officers, any deficit above the 100 was to be paid by the county 
out of its monthly contribution. 

Officers and soldiers were to be careful of giving offence by language or 
otherwise to the county Commissioners, as that emboldened people to be back- 
ward in payment, disheartened the King's ministers and disparaged his service. 
Certain Commissioners were appointed to inspect the musters, both 
horse and foot, of every regiment and of every garrison as often as necessary ; 
all musters were to be certified by some of the Commissioners, nor should 
any sum out of the monthly contribution for any garrison to which it was 
allotted go to maintain any new forces. 

Contributions in money were to be paid to the Treasurer, contributions in 
kind to the Commissaries of the garrison, every week ; if any soldier, horse 
or foot, went out to collect contributions they were to take the Constable of 
the parish with them, who was the only person entitled to receive the 
contribution, and he was to pay it only to the Treasurer. 

If parties of horse or foot were ordered out of their own quarters to other 

1 II., pp. 165, 166. 



parts of the county, the parts where they were actually stationed were to pay 
for them and deduct such payment from their monthly contribution, on a certi- 
ficate by their Commander stating the number of men, the sum payable, and the 
length of their stay. If the sum payable exceeded the monthly contribution 
payable by the place where the troops were quartered, the surplus was to be paid 
by the Treasurer out of the general contribution and not charged on the locality. 

The Grand Jury requested that men willing to appear in arms for the 
Crown might arm themselves, and select as their own officers such of the 
county gentlemen as they should desire. Rupert gave his word that they 
should not be deprived of their arms or made to serve outside the county. 
He also promised that when the contribution was paid no officer or soldier 
should take free quarters and that the contribution might be paid half in 
money, half in provisions. 

Rupert made two other concessions to the county : 

I. That unarmed soldiers should be duly made to work on the forti- 
fications, so that they might not be idle and do nothing for their pay ; and 

a. That at every Council of War any of the Commissioners of Array 
who liked might sit and vote, except in cases of discipline and the punish- 
ment of soldiers. 1 

Had these rules been strictly carried out they would have gone far to allay 
the general discontent that was so rapidly increasing against the King. 
But they only applied to the Royalists, and much of the plundering was done 
by the other side. Probably the summer of 1644 was the worst time the 
county experienced in the war. The Parliament forces following up the King 
plundered wholesale. The King following up the Parliament plundered 
universally, for if they found a house intact they concluded it was only because 
it was friendly to the Parliament. In cases of doubt as to the views of the 
owner of a house both sides plundered him. So bad did the state of things 
become, that on 21 July 1644 the King issued a proclamation' which, after 
reciting that officers and others belonging to the army had without direction or 
authority issued warrants for victuals and money which prevented the King's 
warrants being executed so that the Royal army was exposed to want, forbade 
the issue of any warrant or order for any sum of money, victuals, corn, or 
horse meat, and that all legal warrants in future should only be signed by 
the Commissary-General of foot and horse or a Commissioner of Array. 

The state of things had now reached such a pitch that some more drastic 
measure than a proclamation was required. The day after the date of the pro- 
clamation a meeting was held at Droitwich, at which there were present Sir 
Gilbert Gerard, Governor of Worcester, Sir Rowland Berkeley, Sheriff of the 
County,* and the Commissioners of Array. They were called to take the state of the 
county into consideration, and if possible to find some remedy. Their first step 
was to decide to have only two regiments in the county instead of a number 
of small bodies of men, each of which was capable of doing a good deal on 

1 II., p. 167. II., p. 170. 3 II., p. 171. 


their own account when collecting supplies. All the infantry were therefore 
placed in one regiment, and all the cavalry in another. The infantry was 
to be 1000 strong, the cavalry 400, the contribution not being sufficient to 
pay a larger force including the artillery than 1400 men. Even in those times 
and among the Royalists there were some democratic ideas : all the men were 
to be paid before any of the officers received any ; no infantry were to be 
quartered anywhere in the county but by a warrant signed by Gerrard ; no 
cavalry except by a warrant signed by Col. Samuel Sandys ; no free quarter 
was to be taken by any soldiers, foot or horse, from anyone who had paid his 
contribution. If any soldier took free quarters, robbed, plundered, or offered 
violence to any man, that soldier's commanding officer was made answerable 
unless he punished the soldier. 

In each parish the assessment for the contribution had to be made within 
six days after the receipt of the warrant. If the assessor neglected this, the 
contribution of the parish should be charged to him. Tenants were to deduct 
their contributions out of their rent. No one was to be plundered for con- 
tributions except on the warrant of Gerrard himself. 

Sandys was authorized to collect all arrears of contribution for the first 
twelve months in the parishes assigned to the garrison of Evesham while he 
was Governor, and to pay them to the County Treasurer. 

It appeared that there were arrears of the loth, uth, I2th, I3th, I4th and 
ijth months of the contribution, that would be from October 1643 to March 
1644. These were to be paid at once, half in cash, half in provisions at the choice 
of the person paying ; no officer was to refuse receiving payment in provisions. 

All troops and soldiers found wandering from their colours were to be 
apprehended as felons and dealt with according to martial law. 

The orders were to be published in every parish in the county on the 
Sunday after the Constable received them. 

It might have been thought that these rules were sufficiently strong to put 
a stop to all plundering and free quarters. Such, however, was not the case. At 
the Michaelmas Sessions the Grand Jury again complained to Gerrard and the 
Commissioners of Array. 1 From these complaints we learn something of 
the way in which the former orders were evaded. Doubts were raised as to 
who made the orders, and it was agreed that in future they should be certain 
and published. 

No man's goods were to be taken except under a warrant signed by the 
Governor or by four of the Commissioners of Array. 

Soldiers should be only quartered in garrison towns unless marching 
through the county. 

If a person did not pay the contribution he only should be molested, 
not his neighbour as well, and he alone should pay the whole charge. 

Persons defending their estates from rapine and plunder should not be liable 
to be tried by a council of war, but only by the ordinary courts of the land. 

No out county force should remain in the county more than a night, if 

1 "., P. 75. 


they did the forces of the county, after notice given by the Governor or the 
Commission of Array, might compel them to move on. 

If any soldiers, horse or foot, commit robbery or violence th county 
might rise on them and bring them to justice. 

No soldier or officer should send for hay or corn or provender, but 
should pay for it in ready money, unless it was in a parish properly assigned 
for the support of the particular troop to which the officer or soldier belonged. 

The assignment of troops to parishes appears to have been first made in 
August 1644.' For this purpose the 400 cavalry were divided into seven 
troops, Colonel Sandys' troop 100 strong, the other six troops 50 each. 

x. Colonel Sandys for his troop of 100 had the following parishes for his 
and his troops' support: Ombersley, Bromsgrove, Grafton, Alvechurch, 
Northfield, Cofton Hackett, Rushock, Pedmore, Old Swinford, Stourbridge, 
Frankley, Hagley, Churchill, Doverdale, Salwarp, and the Shipston parishes. 

i. Colonel Knotsford had Mamble, King's Norton, Yardley, Dudley, Cradley, 
Wordsley, Ludsey and Wolverley. 

3. The Reformado's troop, that is, the troop of disbanded soldiers who had 
re-enlisted and who included among them most of the undisciplined men 
in the army, had Tardebigge, Redditch, Bentley, North Piddle, Upton Warren, 
Cooksey, Wick juxta Pershore, Hill Croome, Earl's Croome, Cropthorne, 
Netherton, Charlton, Elmley Castle, Bricklehampton, Birlingham, Nafford, 
Harvington, Church Lench, Hampton Great and Little, Atch Lench, now 
known as Abbott's Lench, and Sheriff's Lench. 

4. Sir Rowland Berkeley, the Sheriff, had Bushley, Poole, Queenhill, Berrow, 
Holdfast, Estington, Redmarley d'Abitot, Castle Morton, Welland, Pendock, 
Little Malvern, Upton on Severn, Cotheridge and Howson, Broadwas, Hanley 
Castle, Bewdley, Bredon, Ovetbury, Broadway, Alderstone and Goldicot. 

5. Sir Gilbert Gcrnird, the Governor of Worcester, had Blockley, Tenbury, 
North and Middle Littleton, Church Honeyborne, Poden and South Littleton. 

6. Captain Breereton had Droitwich, Evesham and Beiigeworth, Ripple, 
Eldersfield, Longden, Chaseley and Staunton, but not Birtsmorton. 

7. Captain Fitter, who had 100 dragoons at Js. a week, had Beoley, Ink- 
berrow, Feckenham, and Upton Snodsbury. This produced ^313 19.?. 4</. 

Sir Gilbert Gerrard's company had only 100 ; this was to be made up by 
an addition of 900, and for that purpose had the following parishes assigned 
to it: St. Michael's in Bedwardine, St. John's in Bedwardiue, Wick Episcopi 
without Howson, Wichenford, Hallow, Grimley, Holt, and Shrawley. This 
came to 24 1 195. lod. 

Colonel Gerard had 100 men and with them the parishes Martley, Areley, 
Suckley (without Cotheridge), Pinvin, Lenchwicke and Norton, Broughton 
Hackett, and Oddingley. 

Sergeant- Major Bishop, with 80 men, had Battenhall and Sidbury, 
Kempsey, Norton, Stoulton, Pirton, Spetchley, White Ladies Aston, Churchill, 
Bredicote, Throcmorton and Bretforton. 

' II., P . 176. 


Every captain with 80 men had 16 a week or 64 a month. Officers 
had per week 8 8s. od., per month 33 izs. od. Said to be a total of 
gl us. od. 

The remaining Worcestershire parishes do not appear to have been 
specifically assigned to any one : Clifton on Teme, Lindridge, Knighton, Great 
and Little Compton, Suckley, Peopleton, Fladbury Hill and Moore, Wyre 
Piddle, Wickhamford, Badsey with Aldington, Claines, Martyn Hussingtree, 
Abbot's Morton, Kington, Dormston, Rouse Lench and Hoblench, Bishampton, 
Abberton, Huddington and Crowle; butWalcot, Sedgeberrow, Grafton Flyford, 
Flyford Flavel and Severn Stoke, which produced 97 4$. iod., and Hanbury, 
Tibberton, Kidderminster Borough and Maddersfield, producing 95 i$s. 4d., 
appear to have been retained in hand to meet further requirements, as it is 
stated that the keeper of the magazine at Worcester, Scarlet, had los. a week, 
and to provide this Himbleton and Hampton were assigned. 

Richardson, the powder maker, 5 per cent, for powder which was received 
from Powick and Bransford and Great Malvern. 

Captain Cassin, the match maker, 3 los. per cent, secured by Leigh 
and Mathon. 

And the officers of the staff of the Governor of Worcester, who had their 
allowance secured on Abberley j this, less the sum paid to the Hartlebury 
garrison, completed the provision for Worcester. 

Several points of considerable importance arise on this return. It is almost 
the only information we have as to the assessment of each parish in the county 
at the time of the civil war. 

Elmley Lovett is the only parish there is by which a comparison from the 
information now stated can be made, but having regard to it the assessment 
of the parishes seems fairly high. For the monthly contribution of 3000 
Elmley Lovet was assessed at 10 8s. 3d. j 1 for the ,4000 it rose to 
14 "js. 4d? For this payment it was reduced to at least 11 4$. o</. J 

Some of the variation in value of the parishes is most striking. Kidder- 
minster Borough was 31, Kidderminster Foreign 37 41. 4^., Droitwich 
.38 13*. od., Evesham and Bengeworth 50 6s. lid. 

The garrison of Worcester seems to have consisted of Colonel Sandys' 
Regiment of Horse divided into the above seven troops. The Colonel's own 
troop was 100 strong, and the other six troops 50 each. The commanders of the 
troops were Col. Sandys, Col. Knotsford, Sir Gilbert Gerard's (the Governor) 
troop, Capt. Breereton, Capt. Fitter, Sir Rowland Berkeley, and the Reformados. 

The pay works out fairly accurately on this basis : Col. Sandys' 
troop consisted of 100 men and received 3 7 1 zs. od. Col. Knotsford had 
50 men and received 192 a*. 4<f. Sir Rowland Berkeley, 50 men, 
188 us. id. There seems also to be a supplemental payment of 
19,210 lot. od. charged on other parishes. Col. Knotsford got ig is. 4d. 
for his 50 men, the Reformados igo, Sir Gilbert Gerard 191 41. od., 
Capt. Breereton 196 /j. 8d. 

1 II ., p. 159. II., p. 163. 11., p. 180. 



We have no evidence as to the way the different parishes were assigned to 
the different troops. It is only a guess, but it might have been that as each 
troop was to receive a certain fixed sum the parishes were broken up, so as 
far as possible to find a certain number of parishes whose aggregate contributions 
would raise the required sum, but beyond the accounts themselves, which 
seem to shew that about g"j a week was required for 80 men, it appears 
that the parishes were grouped without any regard to locality or situation, but 
merely to get the required sum. Thus Tenbury was put with the Littletons, 
Martley with Pinvin, Lenchwick, and Oddingley. 

What may be called the regular garrison of the county was now fixed at 1400 
men 400 horse and 1000 foot. This was all that the monthly contribution 
would pay. The whole of the monthly contribution was exhausted by the divi- 
sions. Quarters unassigned would seem to shew that a small balance, 167 2$. 4^., 
was kept in hand and not assigned to any troops. Worcester and Hartlebury 
appear to have been the only places where regular garrisons -were provided, 
for nothing is said about Evesham, and this gives rise to a doubt if it was 
ever a regular garrison town, but only had a force placed there temporarily 
when occasion arose. It is supposed to be a Royalist garrison until August 
1645. No mention is made of Dudley; why it is hard to say. It can hardly 
have been that the fact of the Castle being in Staffordshire freed the county 
from the cost of providing for it. But it is difficult to suggest any other 
reason. To us a body of 1400 men seems almost absurd as the regular 
defensive force of the county, but that was the extent of the permanent 
force ; if any trouble arose troops were marched in from other places. 
The fixed garrison of the county during the greater part of the Civil War 
was not much if at all above these figures. Its numbers seem to have been 
wholly regulated by the sum the County would raise for its defence, 
and as a permanent charge Worcestershire could not count on raising 
above the 3000 a month, a sum that barely sufficed to pay the 1400 troops. 
It will be noted that even this was hardly enough. One troop of 100 
dragoons, Capt. Fitters, 1 could only raise 146 17*. od. To this note is 
added: "The rest to be got out of Warwickshire Quarters unassigned." One 
wonders if any of the neighbouring counties made in their accounts a similar 
note as to Worcestershire. 

It will also be observed that only provision for the keeper of one magazine 
is made, and that presumably the one at Worcester. Whether any charge was 
made after the removal of the magazine from Worcester to Droitwich, or 
when the magazine was restored to Worcester, does not appear. 

This so-called settlement of Rupert did not give satisfaction to the county. 
At the Michaelmas Sessions, 1644,2 the Grand Jury made a presentment in 
favour of Rupert's proposals, but it was only a conditional acceptance, the 
condition being that all plundering should cease, and that any plundering might 
be lawfully resisted. In November, 1644, a meeting attended by the Nobility, 

1 II., p. 178. ' II., p. 174. 


the Governor of Worcester, the greater part of the magistrates and gentry, and 
the principal Grand Jurymen and freeholders was held at Worcester to take 
some steps to stop the extreme pressure and intolerable grievance in the county 
by the daily incursions, plunders, rapine and murders committed by the forces 
raised by the Parliament. 1 It was resolved to hold a Special Sessions on the 
6th December to consult on some speedy course of removing this grievance. 
All ministers of the different parishes were required to read the order for the 
Sessions in all churches and chapels throughout the county on the next Sunday 
in the forenoon. The Special Sessions on the 6th December was numerously 
and influentially attended. The Earl of Shrewsbury took the leading part ; he 
was supported by no less than 21 Justices, 15 Grand Jurymen, and 4 Clergy- 
men. Among the supporters were the Sheriff, the Governor of Worcester, 3 
Sir John Pakington, Sir Edward Dingley, Sir William Russell, Sir Ralph 
Clare, Sir John Winford, Townshend himself, Habington and Pytts, Wylde and 
Acton. In fact, even at the present day a more influential and representative 
body of Justices could hardly be collected. It will be noted that it consisted 
not only of Royalists like Berkeley and Pakington, but of Parliament men like 
Pytts and Wylde. They resolved to petition Parliament to try and make peace 
on honourable terms. They also petitioned the King to try and make peace. 
Parliament does not appear to have taken any notice of the county's petition. 
Charles answered it at once, thanking the petitioners and the county for their 
loyalty, courage and affection which he could never forget, and which his 
posterity would remember with the same value and estimation. 

Nothing came of it. It could hardly have been expected anything would j 
the fight had to be fought to a finish, and the end was not yet, however great 
the suffering of the whole commons of the realm. 

Another document, 8 the last of those of 1644, casts a curious side-light on 
the position. The assessors for the Elmley Lovett contribution had been 
never less than seven, and they " rather bred a confusion than a settlement 
of any business that came before them." The Commissioners of Array 
had to muster before them, and reduced the number of assessors to five. The 
order shews the importance attached to Townshend. He and a Mr. Leach 
appear to have been the Lords of the Manor of Elmley Lovett, and whatever 
the assessors proposed, if they could get the assent of Townshend and Leach, 
was to be reputed and held as the assessment of the parish. 

Bad as the position of the Royalist party in the county was becoming, 
that of the Parliament was but little, if at all, better. 

In May 1644 the Parliament passed an ordinance for raising and main- 
taining sufficient horse and foot for the garrison of Gloucester, and the 
county was supposed to contribute. In June 1644 came an ordinance for 
raising money in Worcestershire to maintain the Parliament force raised in 
Salop, and on 25 September 1644 an ordinance for raising and maintaining horse 
and foot for reducing and continuing the county and city of Worcester into 
and under the obedience and service of the King and Parliament. 
1 II., p. 182. II., p . 184. > II., p . 187. 



As usual commissioners were appointed to carry out these ordinances. The 
list of names is a remarkable one for two reasons : (i) most of the great names are 
those of men who were not connected with the county, and (2) names of the 
new men, the military supporters of the Parliament, like Dobbins, Tinker Fox 
called Col. Fox, Thomas Milward, the future Governor of Worcester city, now 
appear for the first time. The names are Basil Earl Denbigh, Edward Lord 
Howard of Escrigge, the Lord Lieutenant, appointed by Parliament, Sir Walter 
Devereux, Knight and Bart., Sir Robert Harley, Knight of the Bath, Sir 
Thomas Gascoinge, Knight, Sir Giles Overbury, Knight, Sir William Acton, 
Knight, John Wilde and Richard Crishold, Serjeants, Humphrey Salway, 
Capt. Daniel Dobbins, Nicholas Edward Rouse, Samuel Knightley, John 
Nash, John Davies, Thomas Milward, Thomas Cooke, George Wilde, John 
Penrice, Esqs., Col. John Fox, Major Richard Salway, Major Edward 
Smith, Capt. Charles Chester, Capt. Samuel Gardiner, Henry Hunt, Thomas 
Young, Edward Young, John Gides of Ashley, John Fownes, William Moore 
and William Collins. 

As if there were not a sufficient number of assessments and com- 
missions already in existence in October 1644, Parliament set up another 
to raise money for the maintenance of the army in Ireland the commission 
was to raise from the county 91 i$s. 4<Z. a month, the city 2 if,s. 6d. 
The Commissioners were practically the same as those last mentioned, 
except that the names of Lord Denbigh and Lord Howard of Escrigge were 
left out. 

It is not certain whether this was the last straw, if it was not it was very 
nearly the last. The county was getting sick of commissioners and assess- 
ments. It is almost impossible to speak with accuracy, but it is clear that the 
unfortunate people in the county had to pay assessment that amounted 
to not less than .4000 a year, assuming that all were regularly levied and 

The Parliament had felt the difficulty of raising men and money from an 
early date, and had taken special means of meeting it by combining counties 
together so as to give a wider area for both recruiting and taxation. As far 
back as December 1641 the Parliament had passed an ordinance for forming 
an association of the counties of Leicester, Derby, Rutland, Nottingham, 
Huntingdon, Bedford and Buckingham, and had followed it up by another 
ordinance of the same month associating Norfolk, Essex, Suffolk, Cambridge, 
Isle of Ely, Herts, and the city of Norwich, and yet another on 3 1 December 
associating Stafford and Warwick and placing them under the command of 
Lord Brooke. Early in January 1642-43 instructions to these associations 
were issued, and the result was to bind the Eastern counties into a union for 
the Parliament. It was not that there were no Royalists there, for the war 
shewed that there was a strong Royalist feeling in East Anglia, but the fact of 
association and uniting together gave the Parliamentary party a cohesion 
and a hold on the counties that they kept successfully during the war, and one 
of the factors that lent strength to the Parliament was the existence of the 


association, while one of the weaknesses of the Royalists was that they trusted 
to separate counties and had no cohesion among themselves. 

The misery of the county was steadily increasing, and led the Worcester 
Royalists to put forward at the Special Sessions in December 1644 the Parlia- 
mentary idea of " associating " with other counties. This idea had had a sort 
of approval in the King's reply to the Petition sent up from the Sessions : 

" That he doubted not that many counties would associate, 1 and this 
he particularly and especially recommended to the counties mentioned in 
the Petition, and urged the expediting this association with all possible 
and convenient speed, in which they should receive all assistance and 

This led the Justices when they assembled at the Epiphany Sessions on 
30 December 1644 to appoint a committee to endeavour to associate with the 
counties of Stafford, Salop, Hereford and Monmouth, the counties named in 
the petition, the only counties with which association could effect any good 
result. The Committee were Earl of Shrewsbury, Sir William Russell, Sir 
Ralph Clare, and the Sheriff-elect Henry Bromley of Holt. These gentlemen 
sent a message to the Councils of Stafford, Salop and Hereford asking them 
to enter into a common league for the sake of mutual protection. At first the 
selection of the counties seems peculiar, as the two counties that encircled 
more than half Worcestershire on the east and south, Warwick and Gloucester, 
were omitted. But Warwick was already associated with Leicestershire for 
the Parliament, so any idea of a Royalist association was hardly possible, 
while as long as Massey remained at Gloucester the Royalists of that county 
would be unable to give any material help. This left Stafford, Salop and 
Hereford the only counties it was possible for Worcestershire to associate 
with, but Stafford was already associated with Warwick for the Parliament. 
Hereford was so closely mixed up with Monmouth that wherever the one 
went the other might have to follow. The Sessions accordingly resolved to 
send letters to these three counties, Stafford, Salop and Hereford, asking them 
to join in these joint endeavours " most considerable to His Majesty's service 
and their own preservation," 2 and proposing to hold a meeting at Ludlow on 
9 January 1645. For some reason that does not appear, Monmouth dropped out 
of the proposed association. She was being much harassed at the time, 
and possibly would have found difficulty in sending representatives to Ludlow. 
The representatives of the three counties met and resolved that if the King 
would consent 

" to arm themselves in such a powerful way that the counties should be 
secured by their own powers, and be in readiness when His Majesty's 
occasions brought him into any of the counties to have such an army as 
would be able to encounter the strongest and most able bodies of his 
enemies." 3 

1 II., p. 186. II., p. tgo. II., p. 192. 


Their plan was 

To raise a force of every man in the four counties between 16 and 60, 
who should assemble armed to the best of his ability on summons from the 

That the Prince of Wales should be the General-in-chief, but that the force 
should have leave to select their colonels, lieutenant-colonels, sergeant-majors, 
captains, lieutenants and inferior officers. 

That they were not to be subject to martial law nor " drawn forth " of 
their respective counties. 1 

That in the absence of the Prince of Wales such person who might be 
presented to the respective counties should have full authority to regulate the 
forces, and to be a member of the Prince of Wales' Council in all things con- 
cerning the association. That they have power to exchange prisoners. No 
free quarters, and if any attempt was made to take free quarters it should be 
lawful to resist. 

That to encourage the payment of the monthly contribution, frequent 
muster be taken of all soldiers in garrison in the counties, and if more pay is 
demanded than payable, according to the number of soldiers found to be 
present, the officer be proceeded against. That the rents and profits of all 
delinquents' estates be paid for the support of the public service, and grants of 
such rents and profits made to any particular person should be revoked. 
That all protections granted to persons who were in rebellion should be revoked. 

That no officer or soldier arrest any man or seize his goods on pretence of 
delinquency unless he at once brings the person and goods before the chief 
garrison in the county and properly enter the cause of such seizure, and if any 
officer or soldier act contrary to this he be treated as a thief and a robber, and 
be delivered over to the common law to be tried. 

That no governor of a garrison, commander, officer or soldier should send 
any letter or warrant for any sums of money or imprison any person until they 
paid it, and if any of them in any of the associated counties takes any 
householder who pays his contribution, the Commission may send for such 
person and cause him to be tried by the ordinary courts of law. That any 
officer or soldier who should put any affront or insolence on any of the Com- 
missioners of Array, Justice of the Peace, or officer employed in the King's 
service in safeguarding the county, such person should be held a disturber of 
the Peace, and have such public and exemplary punishment as the King 
should allow the Commission to inflict. 

These proposals were submitted to the King. They shew the great causes of 
complaint, plunder, and lawlessness, the idea that the military were superior 
to the civilian, and could treat him as they pleased. But it is not a little 
remarkable to find the magistrates and gentry of four counties asking the King 
to fix the punishment for robbery and violence at his own pleasure, in fact 
doing away with the existing law of the land for assault and violence. 

1 "., P- 193- 


As might be expected the King received the petition favourably, and set 
up five gentlemen to carry out such of the powers asked for as he granted and to 
enforce the law. These five men were for Worcestershire : John, Earl of Shrews 
bury, the Sheriff of Worcestershire, Henry Bromley of Holt, Sir William 
Russell, the late Governor of Worcester, his bitter enemy and opponent Sir 
Ralph Clare of Caldwell, and the fifth Edward Pytts of Kyre the father-in-law 
of the Sheriff, Henry Bromley of Holt, who was a strong Parliamentarian. 
Substantially the King appeared to grant most of what was asked for, but it was 
so carefully safeguarded that it would be very easy to say that any particular thing 
that caused dispute was not granted, and the Commissioners were exceeding 
their powers. 

To give the association a good start the King on the 26th February 1645 
issued a Proclamation 1 "for regulating His Majesty's soldiers in the associated 
Counties of Salop, Worcester, Hereford and Stafford, and the cities of Wor- 
cester, Hereford and Lichfield ; " for some reason that is not apparent neither 
Shrewsbury nor any garrison in Shropshire is mentioned. 

The proclamation first provides the punishment of any officer or soldier 
who presumes to affront or put any insolence on any Commissioner, Justice 
of the Peace or officer employed in His Majesty's service, or should injure any 
of His Majesty's subjects in the said counties or cities in their persons or 
estates. Such person should have public and exemplary punishment of death 
or otherwise, according to the strictest discipline of war. Any soldier or 
soldiers straggling without furlough or ticket from the Governor of the 
garrison, or his colonel, should be proceeded against by the common law with- 
out respect to his quality as a soldier. 

It does not appear to what extent the King's proclamation was enforced, 
but it would seem that while it gave, as it was intended to give, protection to 
the county gentleman, the large landowner and the substantial farmer, the 
small men, the yeomen, the labourer, and even the smaller farmers were still 
robbed and oppressed, and following the example of their betters they 
determined also to associate, and so formed themselves into bodies for mutual 
protection that became known as " Clubmen." 

Meanwhile the magistrates and gentlemen took steps to make their position 
known. At the Epiphany Sessions 1645 tne 7 repeated their former present- 
ment as to grievances in somewhat greater detail. They set out in full the 
presentment they had made at the Michaelmas Sessions 1644 to s ' r Gilbert 
Gerrard, the Governor of Worcester, and the other Commissioners. They 
agreed if their complaints were redressed that the Ipth, aoth, and aist 
months' contributions should be levied at the rate of 3000 a month, one half 
in money and one half in provisions, according to Prince Rupert's orders, and 
they added this proviso * : 

" Provided always that these propositions be performed, otherwise the 
contribution to cease." 

1 II., p. 199. 3 H., p. ,02. 


They also provided 1 

" that no Soldier or officer should send for any corn or provender but 
should pay for the same ready money, according to Prince Rupert's order, 
unless in the parishes which were assigned for their quarters." 

They then proceeded to ask Rupert's confirmation of their presentment, 
that the same might be read and published in all churches within the county 
of Worcester, and copies sent to all High Constables and by them to every 
Parish Constable in the county, so that it might be read in all parish churches 
and chapels of the county, which was performed accordingly. So that the 
inhabitants of the parishes might know what was to be done by them, and 
be better encouraged to pay their monthly contribution. It was further 
stated that the Grand Jury had presented as one of the grievances 8 of the 
county that their former presentment had not been carried out by some of the 
officers, as some of those who had regularly paid their monthly contributions 
had been made to give free quarters to soldiers, not merely to those who were 
appointed for the defence of the county, but also to others who did not belong 
to the county, and no allowance had been made to such persons, and further, 
that some of the captains refused to receive the contributions half in money 
and half in provisions, it was therefore desired that the presentment should be 
confirmed and put in force. The Court ordered this to be done. 

It was one thing to order that the decisions of the Court should be carried 
out, it was quite another to get it done. The Court seem to have been quite 
in earnest as to this. So much so, that they agreed that some person should 
be appointed to call up the force of the county when wanted, and also to 
take charge of the army and ammunition when the force was not called up, 
and to assist the Sheriff in carrying out his duties for the defence of the 
shire. Such person was to report to the Court after each Quarter Sessions, 
and to state the quantity of powder and match in stock. The Court also agreed 
that steps should be taken to appoint a magistrate who should at each Quarter 
Sessions give an account of the strength of the musters, and pay the allowance 
accordingly. They then proceeded to make the appointments, and selected 
Townshend for the place of muster master of the county. He was to see to 
all the men who received pay from the county, to take care of the magazine of 
powder, match and bullet, and give an account of his proceedings at every 

What work Townshend might have done it is impossible to say; he never 
really had a chance of shewing his administrative ability. Charles or his 
advisers at last saw how important the county was to the Royalist cause, and 
how necessary some special steps should be taken to secure it, so in January 
1645 Rupert's younger brother Maurice, a young man of 25, was appointed 
Lieut. -General of Worcestershire and the adjoining counties, with his hend- 
quarters at Worcester. 

1 II., p. so*. ' II., p. 303. 


Maurice's record was not one to give much confidence to the Royalists of 
the county. His previous Worcestershire experiences had not been particularly 
fortunate. His command in 1643 had won the battle of Ripple for the King, 
but it was of no real importance, and he had shewn that he, like his 
brother Rupert, was inclined to make the great object of his command to 
support himself and his officers. 

His first act was to order the Commissioners of Array to peruse all the 
orders made at Oxford or by Rupert or by Quarter Sessions, to extract from 
them all that was necessary for the peace of the County, and to add such 
as the town required. His next was a personal one. Worcester was his 
Headquarters, and so the city had to make proper provision for his food. 
What he considered proper is shewn by the following order 1 : 

The City of Worcester to provide Prince Maurice his diet for the 
table as followeth : 

s. d. 

i fat mutton c 12 o 

i lamb 060 

1 veal o 10 o 

30 Ibs. of beef 050 

3 couple of pullets or capons . . . .060 

6 couple of pigeons 020 

6 couple of chickens 040 

8 dozen of white and brown bread . . .080 
6 pound of candles 026 

2 hogsheads of strong and small beer . .100 

3 15 6 

There is nothing to shew who were the officers and others who dined at 
Maurice's table, but it must be admitted that his ideas on rationing would not 
have disgraced a modern ministry of food. 

The orders that Maurice drew up give the best information we have of 
the condition of the county at that time. 

The monthly contribution of ^3000 was continued payable one-half in 
money, one-half in provisions. With it there was to be maintained 1600 foot, 
1 6 companies of 100 each and 400 horse, 5 troops of 80 each with their 
officers' pay, and also the officers of the staff, 16 cannoniers, 16 matrosses, 
match and gunpowder. A common soldier was paid 3$. 6d. a week, a trooper 
los. A mattross was 

" a man whose duty it was to remove the tent-rollers and cordage, to 
keep them in good condition, to help the commissary in delivering 
out ammunition to the officers that come to receive it; "~ 

1 II., p. 115. Firth, Cromwell's Army, p. 427. 


not a very pleasant duty. This gives some idea as to how far it was possible 
to make the monthly contribution suffice for the pay of the troops. 

1600 foot soldiers at 3.5. 6d. a week. 
400 horse at los. a week. 
1 6 cannoniers. 
1 6 matrosses. 
. . staff. 

This gives a total of about $oo, and as under Rupert's order one-half of 
the ^3000 a month was to be paid in provisions, assuming, which was not 
likely to be the case, that the whole 1500 was regularly paid, the result 
was : 

Total pay required, 2000 a month. 

Total receipts, 1500. 

It is therefore clear that the proposed reforms would not give any real redress, 
and that the makeshifts adopted were bound to fail and cause greater dissatis- 
faction than ever. 

The county was now theoretically no longer subject to any free quarters or 
billets except for one night, when the King's soldiers were marching through 
it. There were at this time three garrisons in the county, Worcester in the 
centre, Hartlebury in the north-west, and Evesham in the south. If the 
soldiers marching through the county stayed more than the one night, the 
governors of those garrisons, with the Commissioners and the county forces 
were to compel the troops to " move on." The commander of the out county 
troops was made personally liable, and was to be tried by court martial for tny 
infraction of the rules. Soldiers might only quarter in any house if they had an 
express order from their commanding officer ; if they d id it or tried to do it without 
such order they were to be brought to trial before the commanding officer of the 
nearest garrison. A like rule was laid down against plundering, and a weekly 
court of law as opposed to a court-martial was to sit at Worcester to hear cases. 

The following scale of payment was laid down for officers or men who 
were billetted for their food : 

Captain, los. a week. 
Lieutenant and servant, "]s. a week. 
Inferior officers and troopers, 3.$. 6d. a week. 
Foot soldiers, 2.5. 4<i. 

If this was not paid by the man billetted, the Treasurer of the County was to 
stop it out of the man's pay and satisfy the person on whom the officer or 
soldier had been billetted. Provisions were to be delivered at Worcester on: 

" Saturdays, at Evesham and Hartlebury on Mondays. 

" No parishes allotted to any garrison were to be bound to send 
labourers to repair the fortifications in any other garrison. 

" Parishes assigned to Horse Regiments were to bring in as well as 
provisions, hay, oats, peas, beans and straw. Parishes assigned to the Foot, 
cheese, butter, dry bacon, bacon and beef." 



A trooper and his horse billetted at 7*. a week was to have a strike and a 
half of oats. Oats were i8d. per strike. A foot soldier at as. 4,d. was to be 
content with diet and entertainment fit and reasonable for such allowance, 
and they were both to pay for all other things they used. A billet only gave the 
soldier house room and such fire, candles and salt as the family used. No 
more soldiers were to be billetted in a house than it would conveniently 
receive. No one was to be billetted in the house of a Commissioner, Treasurer, 
or Collector, and no women or boys or children could be billetted except the 
master of the house consented. 

Various other provisions were made for the protection of the inhabitants 
and their property, and, what would not have been expected, the Court of 
Quarter Sessions were to have the orders laid before them and asked for their 
approval of them. The Sessions considered them carefully and made various 
alterations and suggestions, one of the most remarkable being that no troops 
were to be quartered in the houses of Grand Jurors, Commissioners for 
delinquents' estates, the Sheriff, Under Sheriff and the Clerk of the Peace. 

One of the articles had provided that the contributions should be levied 
upon a new basis. The old way was : the parish was made up of so many 
"yard lands," that is, upon the various copyhold strips of land in the common 
fields in each parish. It was proposed that in future it should be taken upon 
the rents paid in respect of all the lands in the parish at 4^. in the , that is, 
by the modern method. The result of the change is shewn by Townshend's 
own case. In 1644 he paid towards the 3000 monthly contribution 2. 
In February 1645, when he was " sessed " after his rent and not on the yard 
lands, he paid, at 4^. in the , i los. od. 

In January 1645 Gerrard retired from the Governorship of Worcester. 
Nothing appears in the Diary to shew why this was. The appointment was 
not immediately filled up, and the next record there is of a Governor is that 
the Col. Samuel Sandys, who had been Governor of Evesham, had become 
Governor of Worcester. The position was by no means an enviable one, for, 
in spite of all that had been done to regulate the collection of the contribution 
and supplies, there were still great complaints. The danger came from a 
new quarter. The Sessions, by exempting all the chief houses in the county 
from free quarters, had practically thrown the liability on the yeomen and 
smaller landowners. Doubtless they had it before, but the action of association 
had increased their liability by diminishing that of their landlords and 
richer neighbours. This had shewn that there was a way to escape, and the 
farmers and small landowners thought that what had freed the one class could 
also free the other. So in the Spring of 1645 the farmers and labourers 
joined together to defend their property. The movement, it is believed, 
originated in Herefordshire, but it was felt in Worcestershire as well. Early 
in the year a meeting was held at Pershore, and this was followed by a meeting 
on 5 March 1645 on Woodbury Hill on the borders of Worcestershire and 
Herefordshire. 1 Mr. Charles Nott of Shelsley, a Worcestershire parish on t)ie 

1 II,, p. 221. 


Teme, presided over the meeting and a statement of their objects and 
intentions was drawn up. 

This states that they have long groaned 1 under many illegal taxations and 
unjust pressure, contrary to the orders presented to His Majesty by advice of 
the Lords and Commons assembled at Oxford and ratified and published by 
His Majesty's gracious proclamation. Nevertheless finding no redress to their 
grievances, but that they, their wives and children have been exposed to bitter 
ruin by the outrages and violence of the soldiers threatening to fire our houses, 
endeavouring to ravish our wives and daughters, and menacing our persons, 
we are now enforced to associate ourselves in a mutual league for each other's 
defence, and declare to the world that our meetings have been, are, and shall 
be to no other intention or purpose. 

They then set out their objects, which among others provides for carrying 
out, enforcing and quickening the execution of Maurice's " wholesome orders." 

Their resolutions were sent to Bromley the Sheriff", to whom alone as His 
Majesty's Vicegerent they held they were bound to render an account of their 

The farmers and labourers were opposed to plunderers as such without 
reference to whether they were for the King or for Parliament ; the fact that 
they were plunderers made them enemies, no matter what their objects or to 
what party they belonged. But the association was a Royalist body, and one 
of its results was to cause active opposition to it by the Parliamentary parly. 
Among others the ministers and constables of Stock and Bradley received the 
notice to bring in the names of all men between 16 and 60, so that they might 
be called on to serve the King. Feckenham district, close on the Warwickshire 
border, had always been a Parliamentary stronghold. To prevent the people 
being deluded with specious Royalist pretences, five Parliamentary justices 
signed a warning to the constables not only to 

" premonish but also to charge and command the ministers and con- 
stables to forbear and to give notice or to ' list ' the inhabitants if they 
would avoid imprisonment and bringing their estates under the ordinance 
of sequestration," a 

The five signatory justices were all strong Parliamentarians : Edward Rous of 
Rous Lench, one of the family who sheltered Baxter 5 Thomas Milward, was 
afterwards the Parliamentary Governor of Worcester ; Fownes of Bromsgrove, 
a member of one of the strictest Puritan families; Henry Hunt, who has left 
his name to the county in " Huntend," a place near Bradley, and John Giles. 
What was the result does not appear, but this is a good instance of the diffi- 
culties anyone in a public position found himself. If he did not carry out his 
instructions the party that gave him the orders would punish him for disobedi- 
ence. If he disobeyed the orders the other side would give him no mercy. This 
shews better than anything else the need there was of a body of men who 
belonged to no party but who would be strong enough to stand up against 

1 II., p. 332. II,, p. 224. 


illegal orders by either side, in fact it more than justified the appearance of the 
Clubmen. This notice was dated 3 March 1645. The Royalists were begin- 
ning to make preparation for their Summer campaign on 3 April 1645. 
Maurice began to collect provisions for His Majesty's army, "who would 
make their rendezvous in the county very speedily." To fill up the Wor- 
cester magazine with foodstuffs, great stores of biscuit bread, specially provided 
out of this county (one wonders if Worcestershire corn was better than the 
Cotswold barley), 3000 bushels of good, sound and marketable wheat out of 
the towns in the Hundred of Oswaldslowe other than Hartlebury and Wol- 
verley, which was reserved to supply Hartlebury Castle. In addition 500 
pickaxes, shovels and spades were to be provided. Maurice was somewhat 
peremptory in his orders. He says 1 

" If backwardness therein shall happen to draw any hard pressure 
upon them they will be left without excuse and thank themselves for 
the same." 

Townshend, as Muster Master, had to see to keeping up the stock of pro- 
visions in the different garrisons. He has left a memorandum, without date, 
which apparently gives us his ideas as to what should be the stock of provisions 
necessary to keep 2000 men during a six months' siege. 3 Jt runs as 
follows : 

8oo Bushels of Bread corn of Rye, muncorn 

or wheat at 35. ^d. per strike . . . 1333 06 8 d 
2000 bushels of white and grey peas at 25. 

per bushel 200 o o 

1000 bushels of oats in oatmeal at 2*. per 

strike ....... 100 o o 

20,000 Ibs. of cheese at 2rf. per Ib. . . 1 66 13 04 

10,000 Ibs. of butter at 4^. per Ib. . . 1 66 13 04 

200 beefs at 3 600 oo oo 

20,000 strike of malt at 2s. 6d. per strike . 2500 oo oo 

Hotwaters (sic) 100 oo oo 

Fire for the Guard 100 oo oo 

2000 bushels of salt at 2s. 6d. . . . 250 oo oo 

Money at 4<f. per diem per soldier . . 1 200 oo oo 

6716 13 04 

It does not appear whether Townshend made any attempt to store the 
quantity of provisions in the Worcester magazine or whether it was merely 
his idea of what should be there, but it is a document of some interest as 
giving the basis as to how a garrison of 2000 men should be kept for six 

As the Royalists were preparing supplies for the Royalist advance, so the 
Parliament were doing their best to prevent the collection of supplies. 

1 II., p. 125. 3 II., p. aa8. 



Fourteen justices, two of whom were William Lygon and Nicholas Lechmere, 
issued an order, dated Warwick, 7 April 1645 

" forbidding on pain of imprisonment any person executing any Royalist 
order for wheat, provisions, shovels, spades, pickaxes, or providing 
Teams, Horses, Carts or Carters for the King's service as they were 
immediately destructive to true religion, law and liberty." ' 

To make matters worse the Royalists, in addition to all the new demands, 
still required the .3000 a month. This in April 1645, the 37th month in 
which this payment had been demanded. It was to be paid up in 10 days 
from the date of the order. A new penalty was imposed, the collectors were 
to pay a fine of $ for each month they refused to collect, while those who 
had to pay were made to pay double if they neglected their payments. 3 

Maurice determined to make sure of those who were on the King's side. 
He had a protestation drawn up to be made by all the County and City of 
Worcester. All mayors, bailiffs, high constables, ministers, vicars, curates and 
churchwardens were to make it, and administer it to every inhabitant of every 
town, parish and village in the county ; persons who refused were to have 
their names at once certified to Maurice. The protest, among other things, 
stated that the Earls of Essex and Manchester, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Sir 
William Waller, Col. Massey and all others who had taken up arms had 
become actual rebels, and ought to be brought to condign punishment. That 
the person making the protestation would never bear arms in their quarrel, but 
would discover all designs against the King's armies or for surprising or 
delivering up the cities of Worcester or Hereford or any other of His Majesty's 
forts, that he would hinder all populous tumults, risings, rendezvous, meetings, 
confederacies and agitations of the people, towns, hundreds and counties not 
warranted by the King's commission.* 

This protestation Maurice required to be taken without exception by " all 
commanders, soldiers, gentry, citizens, freeholders and others within the County 
or City of Worcester." This proposal was too much even for Townshend, 
strong Royalist as he was. He tells us 4 : 

" Some being commanded by Prince Maurice to take the Protestation 
said it was not needful nor necessary to press the same in a general way 
but only upon such as were mistrusted and jealous of their loyalty, and if 
they had any such thoughts of me with such exception and explanation 
as I made of some ambiguous terms they would for a testimony of my 
fidelity receive it. But told the Prince and the rest that I desired to be 
excused hereafter for meddling with any service as being held in jealousy 
and suspicion. The Governor, Col 1 Sam Sandys, and the High Sheriff, 
M r H. Bromley, said : ' They were jealous of all, and thought I was not 
to be trusted nor fit to live in the garrison if I refused it.' Thereupon I 
said : ' To take away the temper and suspicion I would take it, but con- 
ceived I had merited a better opinion in all the passages of my service to 
the King and good of the country.' " 

1 II., p. 229. " II., p. 230. * II., p. 233. * II., p. 233. 



Townshend's protest probably represents the feelings of a large number of 
the Royalist gentry of the county. They had and would support the King to 
the utmost of their power, but they would not be made to sign declarations of 
loyalty ; to try and force them to do so only served to convert a strong 
Royalist into a lukewarm supporter, and could not bring about any useful end. 
At the moment when Charles was about to make his last great effort for 
victory, thus to alienate his best supporters as his nephew was doing by this 
Protestation was but the madness that precedes disaster. Townshend had his 
punishment speedily. His reasons for not signing the Protestation is dated 
17 April 1645. The next month the King and his army came into the county, 
and on n May 1645 the King's commissioners and Prince Maurice's gentlemen 
had free quarters in Townshend's House at Elmley Lovett ! 

On 30 June 1645 Maurice issued an order from the Guildhall, Worcester, 
for raising a further 2000 foot and jo horse for the requirements of His 
Majesty's army. (This was due to the rout at Naseby.) Maurice ordered further 
that the monthly assessment of 3000 should be paid in 10 days for paying 
the said 2000 foot and 50 horse, and for no other purpose whatever. How 
the Worcester garrison, unless it was destroyed at Naseby, which does not 
seem to have been the case, were to be paid in the future is not stated. 

A Royalist army was a heavy infliction on the county, but it was as 
nothing to "the howling herd of hungry Scots" which had now to be endured. 
On 8 July the Scots reached Alcester. On the previous day Maurice, who 
was now thoroughly alarmed, issued an order to the constables of the different 
parishes to send into Worcester l 

" all able persons of body between 16 and 60 with competent provision 
for their maintenance, and all sorts of tools, spades, mattocks, shovels, 
axes, bills and pickaxes, upon pain of death to be executed on them." 

The Scots however passed on to Hereford, and the county remained as 

But in spite of this escape the state of things was becoming worse and 
worse. The Worcester garrison appears to have taken advantage of the presence 
of the Scots to help themselves to whatever they could carry off in the way of 
plunder. An order of Maurice dated 10 October 1645 2 : 

" regulating governors and soldiers against seizing on men's persons, im- 
prisoning them, seizing on their cattle, and providing that no person 
should be committed to or detained prisoner elsewhere than within the 
Marshalsea to the garrison of Worcester." 

This was not all. The Parliament forces, beginning to get the upper 
hand in the county, were able to celebrate their victory in their own way, and 
this they did by imposing a monthly contribution of their own on the county, 
and, to make what they conceived to be a good beginning, issued warrants for 
what they termed arrears of this contribution. 

1 II., p. 336. " II., p. 237. 


Townshend has preserved us one of these warrants, that for his own parish 
of Elmley Lovett. It is headed, 1 "A warrant from the committee of Parliament 
at Evesham for arrears of contribution." The recitals in the warrant have a 
touch of grim humour. 

" Whereas for the times past our warrants have been neglected, and 
no monies hath been brought in for the months past. But when we 
came to gather our monies the Constable hid himself, and not only so, 
but gave alarm to the Castle, whereby we had like for to have been 

There is no precise record as to when this was, but there is an account of 
one of Gerrard's sorties that may well be the occasion when he dealt very 
heavily with one of the marauding bands of the Parliament forces, and did 
actually take a number of prisoners. The warrant goes on to 

" strictly charge and command the assessors to assess and collect the 
monthly contributions according to the rate of 3000 in the shire, being 
10 monthly for your township to pay." 

This is hardly accurate. According to the assessments as given by Towns- 
hend, the sums at which Elmley Lovett was assessed during the Civil War 
were over 10 a month. 

The order goes on : 

" and you that are parishioners to pay your monthly contribution which 
is demanded of you, and the constable and those which are officers to 
gather up the monthly contribution and to make payment of the same 
upon Saturday next, being the i / th day of this present month of October, 
to me at my quarters at Evesham at Mr. Heralite's House. Hereof fail 
not to us, as you will answer the contrary at your peril of pilaging and 
plundering, and your house fired and your persons imprisoned. 

Given under my hand at Evesham the 14"' day of October. 

Jo. Lloyd. 
To the Constable and Tything men of Elmley Lovett. 

Your town being twelve months in arrears to us the last month 
being September." 

Possibly the Parliament men took pleasure in compelling payment out of 
Townshend and his estate. What made it worse was the fact that Elmley 
Lorett had already paid all that was due from it on paying the 10 to the 
Royalists. This was therefore an attempt to make them pay double taxes. 
Whether it was successful or not in getting two payments out of the unfor- 
tunate parish does not appear, but it is quite certain that there was an endeavour 
to do so, and to regard the payments already made to the King as illegal 
payments. Doubtless numerous payments of this kind were forced on the 
unfortunate people, each side claiming the right whenever they had the oppor- 
tunity of enforcing the orders of the Court of Quarter Sessions or in fact any 
other order for their own benefit. 

Townshend 2 gives one picture of the state of the county in 1645. That, 

'II., p. 238. ' II., 139. 


perhaps, better than anything else gives some idea as to the state to which the 
country was reduced : 

" The country is fallen into such want and extremity through the 
number and oppression of the Horse lying upon free quarter that the 
people are necessitated (their hay being spent) to feed their Horses with 
corn, whilst their children are ready to starve for want of bread ; exacting 
free quarter and extorting sums of money from the time of their absence 
from their quarters, mingled with threats of firing their houses, their 
persons with death, their goods with pillaging. 

"The barbarous seizing men's persons and compelling them to 
ransom themselves with very great sums of money to their undoing, 
disabling them to assist His Majesty and that without order or warrant, 
as for instance Mr. Foley, the two Mr. Turvey, and many others, daily 
robberies of all market people, killing and wounding men who resist and 
stand on their own defence, contempt of all discipline, disobedience to all 
orders, quartering where they please and how as long as they list, so it be 
in security and without duty. 

" Their opprobrious and base language of the Commissioners, inter- 
mingled with scorn and threats. 

" Assaulting and seizing on the person of Sir Ralph Clare at his own 
house by one Major Fisher and his company without order, against whom 
is reserved exemplary justice and reparation. That the quarters which 
were assigned to the 400 horse belonging to the county being taken from 
them and allotted to others hath enforced some officers to give over their 
commands, the rest to live upon free quarter, being disabled to recruit 
their shattered troops. 

"All the country lying between Severn and Teme and on the banks of 
the Severn (which are His Majesty's only secure quarters), and also the 
parishes within 4 miles of the city are by free quarter of the Horse eaten 
up, undone, and destroyed, together with the country lying about Kidder- 
minster and Bewdley, with their several armies passing to and fro, which 
should have plentifully supplied the city with all manner of provisions 
against the time of a siege. 

" That the insolencies, oppression and cruelties have already so dis- 
affected and disheartened the people that they are grown desperate and 
are already upon the point of rising everywhere, and do not stick to say 
they can find more justice and more money in the enemy's quarters than 
in the King's." 1 

This shews the state of the county. Law had ceased to exist. The 

Royalist Horse had turned robbers and were practically disbanded. But 

whether mustered or disbanded, they went about the county living at free 
quarters and plundering the people. 

No wonder the districts round Worcester and between the Severn and 
Teme, the present area of the Martley District Council, complained they had 
had across them 

i. The King's army on its retreat from Leicester after Naseby. 
a. The King's troops that marched to the relief of Hereford. 
3. The Scotch that came to help the Parliament. 
And still worse than any, the Scots who marched across the country and besieged 

1 II., p. 840. 


Hereford. Worcestershire was unable to say which was the worst to deal 
with, the stealing Scot or the robbing Royalist. 

Townshend found himself in a difficulty, which probably was the conse- 
quence of his supposed disloyalty about the protestation. 1 Prince Maurice, as 
Lieut.-General of the Royalist forces in Worcestershire, quartered the Com- 
mission of Array, of which body Townshend was one, in Townshend's house 
at Elmley Lovett, 2 and assigned the rest of the parish to Colonel Wray for his 
quarters. Sixty of Wray's horses were thereupon turned out in Townshend's 
meadows. In addition Townshend was assessed by the Constable and assessors 
of the parish to pay the composition that was to go towards paying the cost 
of Wray's men. In fact Townshend was charged double. This was too 
much even for those times. On Townshend's protest the Commissioners 
ordered that he should be discharged from this payment, and it should be 
assessed on the other parishioners of Elmley, who should pay the sum pro- 
portionately, leaving out Townshend. It was fortunate for Townshend that 
being a Commissioner he could get redress ; other persons were not so suc- 
cessful. As may be imagined, if a Commissioner could be thus treated, the 
uninfluential person, the small farmer, labourer, shepherd or the clubmen 
must have felt the hardship and been ready at the smallest notice to rise in 
arms in defence of their homes and property. 

As already stated, a code of orders was drawn up for " the right regulating " 
the Association of the north-west part of the County and presented to 
Col. Sandys, the Governor of Worcester, on 6 December i645- 3 It contained 
some drastic rules. A watch was to be kept in each parish and if any one was 
found who was a stranger, warning was to be given by shooting off a gun ; 
if attempts were made to plunder, by beating a drum or ringing bells. Any 
one who refused to come and help was put out of the association and had to 
take his chance if arrested or plundered. Persons who were denied protection 
were liable to have marching soldiers quartered on them as long as their houses 
contained provision for man or beast. 

If a horse team was taken or men pressed for service the Constable took 
the team of such persons in priority to those of any other, and if violence 
was offered by soldiers to them the soldiers were not to be resisted on pain 
of being excluded from the association. 

Another order provided that gunpowder be freely delivered to the members 
of the association who might be on guard every day. 

Servants of members or members of mean ability if wounded were to be 
kept at the cost of the Hundred in which such persons lived. 

It is not recorded by Townshend, but it is a fact that two of those 
who nearly felt the weight of the association rules were no less personages 
than Rupert and Maurice. In December 1645 Maurice and Rupert left 
Worcester for Oxford. Sir Edward Dingley with a body of clubmen tried 
to intercept the two Princes on their way as they passed by his house at 

1 See ante II., p. 233. 3 II., p. 240. * II., p. 241. 



Charlton, but when it came to actual fighting Rupert and Maurice cut their 
way through the clubmen and reached Oxford in safety. 

The state of the county had become most miserable, the people almost 
reduced to starvation by the plundering of both sides, with no force to protect 
them but clubmen, with at least four garrisons to be maintained and fed 
(Worcester, Dudley, Hartlebury and Maclresfield), with no prospect of raising 
men and very little of raising money, it must have seemed that at last the 
end had come. Charles, however, decided to have one more try. In October 
1645 Sir Richard Wyllis had advised him to muster all the garrisons and 
stake everything on one fight in the open. Charles then refused, but now, as a 
last chance, he resolved to try it, so on 6 December 1645 ne appointed 
Lord Astley to the chief command of 

" His forces, Horse, foot, dragoons, trained bands, volunteers and 
others raised or to be raised in our counties of Worcester, Stafford, 
Hereford and Salop, and in our cities there, with power to impress 
men and levy forces." l 

A statement was made that contributions were due to the King, and also 
money from delinquents' estates and otherwise for recruiting forces, so the 
King appointed Lord Astley Lieutenant General, the Governor of Worcester, 
Col. Samuel Sandys, the Sherifl' of the County, Henry Ingram, the Mayor of 
Worcester, William Evett, Sir John Pakington, Sir William Russell, Sir Ralph 
Clare, Sir William Herbert, Sir Rowland Berkeley, Sir John Winferd, Sir 
Martin Sandys, Sir Edward Barrett, the ex-Sheriff of the county, Henry Bromley, 
Col. Herbert Price, Joseph Walsh, William Child, Edward Peverell and John 
Evett to be Commissioners, any five of whom could assess, levy or issue 
warrants for the payment of contributions. It will be noticed that in this 
new list of Commissioners Towushend's name does not appear, probably he 
was still in disgrace. 

Not only were the Commissioners to enquire into complaints, they were also 
to take an account of all monies, plate, cattle, corn and other provisions for 
horse and man, arms and horses received since 10 November 1642 levied 
for the King or for his use, or under pretence of sequestration of delinquents' 
estates, or for trading to London or elsewhere contrary to the King's procla- 
mations. And whatever was found not employed was to be collected and used 
for raising forces. The Commissioners were to take musters of soldiers and pay 
according to number. No free quarters on any county paying contributions, 
unless on a march, and then as sparingly as might be. No imposition above 
the contribution. If anyone was imprisoned by any officer or soldier, within 
24 hours cause was to be shewn why. Any officer or soldier taking goods 
from anyone must bring them into the Public Treasury, or be proceeded against 
for felony and robbery. 

Had these orders been given in December 1642 instead of December 1645, 
they might possibly have helped the Royalist cause. But this death-bed repent- 
ance for it was really that failed to produce any rally to the King. The evil 

1 II., P. 43- 


had been done, Royalist and robber had become, so far as Worcestershire was 
concerned, synonymous terms. 

In addition to these public instructions, Charles gave his Lieutenant 
General, Lord Astley, some secret orders. 1 

He was to have the keys of all forts and garrisons when he was present 
delivered to him, and give the password nightly. 

To receive 20 a week from each of the four counties for his table. 

To assist him in his duties he might appoint certain gentlemen to be 
helpful, yet subordinate, for Worcestershire, the Governor of Worcester, Col. 
Sam. Sandys and others not exceeding 18 in number. 

Failing payment of contributions to him they were to be levied by parties of 
horse and foot. 

He was to prevent all free quarters and plundering, to allow no tax or 
imposition on goods coming by land or water except excise ; any governor, 
officer or soldier taking money for anything except contribution was to be 
punished by death, imprisonment or otherwise. 

Rendezvous or tumultuous assemblies were to be suppressed by force. 

Gentlemen who would raise horse or foot were to be encouraged. 

No troops of Reformadoes were to be continued without special order. 
Those that were continued were to be enrolled in troops to watch and do duty. 

The allowance and assignment to Maurice for raising a regiment of 1,200 
foot to be continued. The contribution assigned to him for his Lifeguard of 
Reformadoes was to be used by him in raising a Regiment of Horse. 

These orders shew that at last Charles or his advisers were beginning to 
realise the true position of things. Most of the matters as to which such 
bitter complaint had been made, and rightly made, were now to be redressed, 
and it really seemed as if the Royalists were going to reform. But it was too 
late. Townshend has shewn how the county suffered, how life was no longer 
endurable from the insolency of the Royalist soldiers ; but for this insolence 
there might have been no associations, no clubmen, no discontent. As it was, 
the position was quite hopeless, and it might almost be said that Charles' 
surrender to the Scotch was the truest patriotism by preventing 1646 being a 
repetition of 1645 on a larger scale. 

Money had always been short with the Royalists ; it was now shorter than 
ever. It was said that to effect economies in December 1645 a new scale of 
weekly pay was put forth for the garrisons and forces in the counties of 
Worcester, Stafford, Hereford and Salop. It was as follows 3 : 

Lieut-General 08 oo oo 

Lieut. -General of Horse . . . . 35 oo oo 

Commissary general of musters and pro- 
visions . . . . . . 07 oo oo 

Commissaries 2 deputies, to each . 02 oo oo 

Master of the Ordnance . . . 04 oo oo 

Secretary to the Field-Marshal . . . 03 oo oo 

1 II., p. 246. a II., p. 249. 


Advocate General . . : J ' -." 2 10 oo 

Quartermaster General . . . . 03 oo oo 

Treasurer at war . . . "'.-.- 5 

His two clerks, to each . . . . oo 1 7 06 

The Treasurer's assistant . . . . 03 07 06 

Provost Marshal General . . . . 01 10 oo 

Scout Master General 02 jo oo 

A corporal of the field 01 oo oo 

78 14 01 

Officers of a Garrison 

Governor of a city and the forts belonging 

to it . . . . . . . 21 oo oo 

Governor of a city or fort having not above 

400 men . . . . . . 07 oo oo 

Major of a garrison or city where no deputy 

governor is . . . . 05 oo oo 

Col. Washington . . . . . i j oo oo 

Advocate of a garrison . . . 01 oo oo 

Commissary of victuals for a garrison . oo 15 oo 
Provost Marshall in a garrison . . .010000 

Quartermaster in a garrison l . . . 01 oo oo 

5 1 

Although Townshend has given previous scales of pay it is somewhat 
difficult to make any comparison between them and this. 

This scale was certainly less than the 1 643 scale, 3 or that which Russell was 
charged with having allowed to the Worcester men in 1643 * or that of i644, 4 
but it is very difficult to say whether, considering all the facts then existing, 
the pay could be called excessive. Even if so, it was most unacceptable to 
the Worcester officers, and did not tend to make them either more orderly or 
more contented. 

The Royalist soldiers continued to plunder, and it is questionable 
whether in 1646 the pillaging of the unfortunate countrymen was not 
worse than it had ever been. So bad was it that at the Epiphany Sessions 
the Grand Jury made a presentment asking the court to take steps to 
relieve them from " the grievance, oppression and free quarters of the county." 
This produced a reply from Lord Astley, in which the grievances are admitted 
and a promise made of redressing them. Maurice's orders of 5 February 
1645 were to be revised, continued, and any other necessary orders added for 
perfecting them. 

It was declared necessary to go on with the works for fortifying Worcester, 
so if the arrears of the tax for that purpose were not paid in a new tax would 
become necessary. A certain number of parishes were allotted to each garrison 
1 II., p. 250. II., p. ias. 3 II., p. 153. 4 II., p. 176. 


to perfect the works with all speed. The works on the Severn Bridge were 
required to be speedily perfected by that part of the towns ns lie in the 
Hundred of Doddingtree according to their engagement with Prince Maurice. 

All persons of what quality soever were to have on market days free 
ingress, egress and regress to the City of Worcester with their provisions, 
horses, cattle and goods ; guards would be appointed for their security. 

The Treasurer of the Fortifications of Hartlebury had been twice already 
ordered to come to Worcester to give a true and perfect account of the 
parishes allotted to work on the fortifications there, the number of persons daily 
charged on each parish, how long they had been charged, what sums of money 
had been imposed on the parishes in lieu of men and teams, what sums had been 
received, what sums were in arrear, and what had been disbursed on the works. 

The fees of the Advocate were to be made certain, as also all Marshall's fees 
and other charges for diet, lodging, or any other thing ; if the Advocate or 
Marshall of the garrisons or of any regiment should exact excessive fees, 
severe justice would be done according to the quality of the offence. 

Still further, to stop plundering Astley proposed 1 that two persons in each 
parish should be responsible for paying the contribution, so as to avoid the 
necessity of sending soldiers to enforce it ; in order to prevent quartering 
horse in the different parishes, he asked that the Grand Jury would provide that 
a sufficient proportion of hay and oats be brought from each, that is, from the 
adjacent parishes in kind, and from the more remote in money ; and further, 
that the rules of the Governor as to victualling the Worcester garrison should 
be carried out. If this was done, except in the case of troops on a march all 
free quarters in the county would cease. 

The Grand Jury replied that it was beyond their power to compel any 
single person to pay the contribution for the whole parish, but they would 
point out what ease of the extraordinary pressure the parish would receive, 
and what a hopeful issue would follow if everyone paid his taxes, and if not, 
what occasion it would give for soldiers coming to collect it. That, although 
disabled even to poverty itself by continued taxes and impositions, yet to 
prevent an utter ruin of the county when they knew for what number of horse 
provisions were to be brought into Worcester, and for how long, what pro- 
visions there were in the magazine and what more were required, they would 
yield such assistance as their weakened powers would enable them to do. 

To what straits the Royalists were reduced is best shewn by an order Astley 
made to secure provisions for the garrison at Hartlebury. 2 The money for their 
provisions had to be paid by the five parishes of Hartlebury, Elmley Lovett, 
Chaddesley Corbett, Belbroughtou and Wolverley, and the Governor of 
Hartlebury, Captain William Sandys, was ordered to use his utmost diligence 
to force payment of the 36th monthly contribution from those parishes in the 
next ten days. The parishes were told that although the sum was not 
due until April, yet a cheerful performance of it would be very acceptable at 
once, and the sooner it was paid, the more time they would be given to pay 

' II., p. 354. II f. 261. 


the next contribution. They were also told if they were backward in paying 
this instalment, they must expect to have it forced double with the strictest 
severity that might be. 1 

This order was dated on 12 March 1645. Before the next payment became 
due Astley was unable to carry out his threat he and his army were all 

Townshend tries to explain Astley's action. He says 2 : 

"This month beforehand was for the advance of the captain and 
soldiers with my Lord Astley's army in the field. And whereas this is 
spoken of the 36 th month's contribution not due until April. The Governor 
of Hartlebury reckons and received this month of March his 36 th month, 
and our advance to him of April is our 37 th month, and in all his parishes 

On 21 March 1646 the last Royalist army surrendered at Donnington. 
Astley was made a prisoner, and only a few fortified places remained to be 
reduced to end the war ; conspicuous among these was the City of Worcester. 

On 26 March 1646 Generals Brereton, Morgan and Birch, with part of the 
Parliamentary army, appeared before it and summoned it to surrender. The 
then Governor, Henry Washington, who had succeeded Sandys in the 
beginning of the year 1646, replied 

" that until he received his Majesty's pleasure they should take no notice 
of any summons, but according to their duty and the trust reposed in 
them they would, God willing, keep this town." 3 

This was signed by the Governor, Henry Washington, the Mayor, William 
Evett, Martin Sandys and John Knotsford from the county, Thomas Hackett 
and Richard Hemming from the city of Worcester. To this the Parliamentary 
generals replied, offering to withdraw their forces to such a convenient distance 
that the garrison might get more certain intelligence. To this reply two 
signatures were added to those of the three generals : William Lygon, who, 
having had his house at Madresfield taken and turned into a Royalist garrison, 
was wandering about with the Parliamentary forces, and Chudley Coote. 

Washington replied expressing his wonder that they could suppose he was 
so far lost to honour and knowledge of a soldier's duty as he could be hoped 
to yield to an enemy inferior in numbers to him, adding that " he owed so much 
to the reputation he had gained, and must hereafter maintain abroad when these 
wars ceased, as not to be persuaded to the least unworthy action." 

On the next day, 27 March, Townshend says, " They drew off at night to 
Droitwich," 4 and on the a8th they marched from Droitwich, Brereton to 
besiege Lichfield and Col. Morgan and the rest to their own garrisons. 

Washington at once began to put the city in a state to stand a sisge. 
Commencing in the north road lie destroyed the new church and hospital of 
St. Oswald's, but left the White Ladies standing. 

How far other houses outside the city walls were destroyed Townshend 

1 II., p. 361. MI.,p. 6a. M., p. 101. "I., p. 102. 


does not say, but doubtless a certain degree of clearing away the cover for a 
hostile advance against the city had been carried out. All this clearance was 
outside the walls. Washington's next step was to ascertain the population of 
the city and the provision the different families had made against a siege. 
The civilian population appears to have numbered about 701.3, some of whom 
had made the necessary provision. In addition to these, there were 1507 
persons soldiers, officers, reformadoes and troopers to be provided for, 
in round numbers a total of about 10,000. 

Several places having surrendered to the Parliament by the beginning of 
May, Fairfax sent Whalley with a small force 

" to straiten the garrison of Worcester until such time as the army was 
at liberty to march against it."* 

So the siege began. Washington's first step was to take the following 
oath for mutual assistance from the Governor, Commissioners, Gentry, Mayor 
and citizens 3 : 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed do in the presence of 
Almighty God solemnly swear that we will stick to and be true to 
[one] another. That is the Governor, Officers, Gentry and soldiers, to the 
Mayor, Aldermen, Citizens, Townsmen and soldiers of this City of 
Worcester. And the Mayor, Aldermen, Citizens, Townsmen and 
soldiers To the Governor, Officers, Gentry and soldiers of this City and 
Garrison of Worcester in the preservation and defence of this Garrison 
and City of Worcester and the forts and strengths thereto belonging for 
His Majesty's service. And will not consent to the surprisal or delivering 
up of the same without the mutual consent of each other. So help 
me God." 

A curious commentary 4 upon the oath is that in the first month of the siege, 
on the 1 7th June, members of the corporation of the so-called " Faithful City," 
at a meeting of the Chamber proposed " that the Governor might be entreated 
to treat;" others wanted to know what comfort or encouragement had been 
received from His Majesty or from Oxford to hold out the city. A month 
later, on 16 July, the Governor produced a letter 6 sent to the Mayor from 
the besiegers, in which it was said that if they would surrender they could 
have terms, preserving the corporation and the city to be free from plunder, 
quiet from delinquency, no questioning for bearing arms or any act done against 
the Parliament in defence of the city, Lieut. -Col. Soley excepted. The latter 
asked that his fellow-citizens should be made acquainted with the terms, and 
advise among themselves in it, for the welfare of the city concerns them more 
,n point of interest than others merely in point of honour. Townshend com- 
ments on this " as a dangerous letter to procure a division, though neither 
soldiers nor gentry expect better conditions." What consequences might have 
followed none can tell, yet ill was much feared, for though 

" the middle and lowest sort of citizens be cordially bent for to stand 
out courageously, yet many of the best rank draw very backward in 

1 I., p. 105. J I., p. 106. II., p. 266. < I., p. 128. 5 I., p. 180. 


their actions than one step of advantage. Petitioning Sir Thomas 
Fairfax for a treaty in so humble a way shews the great abjection they 
have fallen into, whereas they have and as yet do carry the character of 
Heroic, resolute and loyal spirits, they would have made themselves the 
hiss and scorn of all to go out at the close like the snuff of a candle, 
but continuing in their gallantry to the last they have endeared the 
Prince and his posterity never to forget so faithful a city, that both was 
the first and last of cities which continued in their fidelity, nothing 
causing a surrender but only want and hopeless of lelief." 

On 16 May Sir Thomas Fairfax sent Washington a formal summons to 
surrender. This he refused. The Parliament army accordingly appeared 
before Worcester on 28 May and began the investment. 

Washington considered the best thing to do was to impose a tax on the 
city and on all gentlemen in its garrison to raise a sum to support 1500 men 
at 3$. a week for a month, 1 but this was found to be so heavy a tax it was 
reduced to 2s. 6d. a week for each soldier whether of foot or horse. A few days 
later Whalley arrived and took command of the besieging army. 

Townshend gives some very interesting details as to the garrison. 3 There 
were three regiments in the City the Governor's (Washington's) regiment, 
Col. Sandys' regiment, and Sir William Russell's regiment. Of these three 
Washington's regiment consisted of 10 companies, each company comprising 
the officers and a " raiseable " body of men. The Governor's company had 
1 1 officers and 95 men, a total of 1 06. None of the others were nearly so 
strong. The next in strength was Capt. William Moore's in Col. Sandys' 
regiment, 87, n officers and 76 men. The smallest number was in Sir 
William Russell's regiment, Capt. Calthrop's company, 4 officers and 
24 soldiers, a total of 28. 

The strength of the regiments was : 

Officers. Soldiers. 

Col. Washington's regiment . . 56 . 440 

Col. Sandys' regiment ... 32 . 240 
Sir William Russell's regiment 39 280 

127 960 

or a grand total of 1087. 

In addition to these were the reformadoes, no; cannoniers and mat- 
trosses, 58. 

There were also five troops of horse : 

Governor's troop 51 

Henry Ingram, High Sheriff's troop . . . 71 

Sir John Knotsford's 32 

Capt. Armorer's 17 

Lieut. -Col. Roberts 19 

224 s 

1 I., P- 108. ' I., p . u 3 . Sic in MS. 


Officers of the sta ft / : . " *' '."^ '".'"' . 18 
Total of all sorts of soldiery 1507 

besides the gentlemen and all the city bands. 
The city was divided into seven wards : 


St. Martin's. 

All Saints'. 

St. Andrew's. 

St. Nicholas'. 

St. Peter's. 

St. Michael's in the out county. 

A certain number of soldiers were charged on each ward, and the 
inhabitants had to pay each soldier is. 6d. a week for a month. This probably 
accounts for the great desire the householders of the city had for its 

Washington also took steps to ascertain the number of people who were 
provided for, or who had to be provided for, ward by ward. The return is as 

follows 1 : 

Provided. Unprovided. In family. 

Highward .189 24 80 

All Saints' . 290 j6 232 

St. Andrew's . 161 113 259 

St. Martin's . 188 92 271 

St. Peter's . 1 14 73 285 

St. Nicholas . 47 360 248 

Townshend gives as the result of this 

989 3.58 1189 

He then sums it up 

Householders of all sorts . . . 1347 persons 

Number in family 1189 

Without upkeep 358 

In family 1487 

He makes it 

Householders 1347 

Number in family ..... 5676 

This list did not include : 

(1) Soldiers within the garrison. 

(2) Soldiers who happened to be in Worcester and not part of the regular 

These are all placed together in one list as soldiers, officers, Reformadoes 
and troopers, and summarised as 1507 persons to be provided for. 

1 Thii is imperfect. 


The total number of persons in Worcester during the siege seems therefore 
to have been 

Civilians ...... 

Garrison ...... 

Soldiers, Casual ..... 429 

A total of . 7612 

And this, with the addition of 3.3 gentlemen, made up the number to 7645, 
for which Washington had to provide. 

The siege may be taken as having begun on 20 May 1646^ and lasted till 
23 July, 2 just over two months. 

It is not quite clear what at the investment was the stock of either ammunition 
or food in the city, nor if the city was fully victualled. Nor is it clear if the figures 
above given were taken before or after the exodus of a number of gentlemen who 
left the city and went home between the date 28 March, when the Parliamentary 
troops first appeared before the city, and 20 May, when the siege actually 
began. It is assumed that the number here given, 7645, was the precise 
number in the city on 20 May 1646, the actual commencement of the siege. 

Washington's first step was to make an assessment on all the city at the 
rate of three shillings a week for the maintenance of every soldier for a 
month. The total number of soldiers for whom the assessment was made is 
said to have been 1600 men and the officers. 3 

Townshend says : 

" I was assessed to maintain 4 men. The citizens conceived the tax 
to be very great and heavy," and he adds : " The soldiers are muttering 
and ready to run away for want of bread and provisions." 8 

The great dissatisfaction the assessment gave to the soldiers caused 
it to be revised. On 2 June 4 the payment to relieve soldiers was reduced 
from 31. to 2s. 6d. per man for 1500 men. Every man was to have a billet 
of the number for which he was liable and the names of the soldiers to whom he 
was to pay, and he was to be liable for them and them only. This does not 
appear to have satisfied the soldiers. A revised order was issued on 7 June 6 
for the better assuring to the soldiers their weekly pay " from the cozening of 
the officers and to keep them from mutining." The Governor's troubles were 
only beginning at this early period of the siege. The revised order provided : 
Every captain was to give in a list of the names of the soldiers under his 
command to the Governor, who would then give to the captain an order 
(billetts) directing some person who was named in the order to pay to the 
particular soldier assigned to such person the pay stated in the billett. 

No soldier or officer was to receive pay from any person without a billett. 

All billetts were to be signed by the Governor or by some person appointed 
by him to make billetts. 

>!., p. 108. 'I., p. 195. 3 I., p. 114. "I., p. 117. s l.,p. 118. 


The billett was intended for a protection to the party named in it against 
being obliged to pay to any soldier other than the one named. 

The party named in the billett had the choice of paying the soldier in money 
or provisions, or partly in one and partly in the other. 

The Governor appointed three persons, Mr. Bacon, Mr. Withy and Mr. 
Lunde to make out the billetts. So far as Townshend was concerned the 
result was that he was to find six men of Captain Poultney's company with a 
shilling each. 

It seems to have been very urgent that these rules should be made, ai 
Townshend states that l : 

" Many foot have run out of the city for want of pay, and some 
servants have stole their master's horses, clothes and money, and gone 
away to them or to their own country. But now pay and provisions for 
the soldiers being settled, it is hoped no necessitous soldiers will do the 

The state of things in Worcester itself must have now been worse than at 
any period of the war ; to have had to support six soldiers either by payments 
in money or in food, as fell to Townshend's lot, must have been a serious 
liability. Unfortunately there are no details as to the principles, if any, on 
which the three Commissioners, Bacon, Withy and Lunde proceeded in allot- 
ting the soldiers on the citizens. 

Before the siege had lasted a fortnight, if Whalley and the Parliamentarians 
with him are to be believed, the Corporation of Worcester were shewing 
their faithlessness. In his letter to Washington, Whalley says that the 
Mayor, Aldermen and citizens had sent to him about a surrender. 3 

The next order of the Governor was that all the householders who had 
gone out of the city but had left their families were to be ordered to keep an 
additional number of soldiers. 

If any householder gave anything to the besiegers, his property was at 
once confiscated and his wife and children turned out. 

All shovels, spades and mattocks in the city were to be stored in certain 
places so as to be ready on any emergency. 

A note is added to this : " Good orders, few performed some and these 
not all." 

All coal, wood and lime in St. John's was ordered to be brought into 
the city. 

All unnecessary people were to be put out of the city. 

Committees were to sit daily to consult as to the better security of the 

No trooper or soldier was to go out of the city without a ticket. 

Townshend makes his own private complaint * : 

" Being assessed at the maintenance of six soldiers at 2s. 6d. a week 
a soldier, I paid Cap* Byron his limit. Butts, ensign and gentleman-at- 
arms, 2 weeks' pay, together 30^." 

1 I., p. "9- * I-i P. 120. I., p. iti. 


On 15 June Townshend makes another entry of his payments : " Paid the 
three weeks' pay to Lieut' Butts for his Captain, himself, etc., I5*." 1 

It is not clear how this sum is made up if Townshend's former pay- 
ment of 8 June, 15*. a week, 30.$. for two weeks is accurate, how after 
another week he paid 155. for three weeks, unless there were either 
some arrears or that Townshend was liable for more men than he stated, is 
hard to see. 

Some of the townsmen wanted to leave the town. Washington gave 
them leave to go, but Whalley had them searched, took their money, and sent 
them back. 

What was probably a device to increase the discontent among the citizens 
by their being able to say that Washington was feasting while they were 
starving, on 1 7 June Whalley sent Washington a buck as a present. 2 

The discontent in the city still increased. A number of the citizens' 
wives came to interview the Governor and ask him to protect them, as they 
did not know what to do for safety, as their houses were beaten down about 
the streets. Washington told them to leave the town. They replied that 
this was small comfort, and asked him to do as other governors did. On his 
asking what that was, they replied, " Treat upon honourable terms for the 
surrender of the city." ~ 

Some of the Chamber at this meeting proposed that the Governor should 
be requested to treat. The Governor of Madresfield asked if he surrendered 
should he try to get the city included in the terms that were being discussed 
for the surrender of Madresfield ? 2 

There never seems to have been anything like a blockade of the city. 
During the siege there were continual sorties by the garrison in search of 
provisions. These chiefly took place on the south-east and south sides, 
as there the lines of investment did not join, and the river below Diglis was 
always open. On June 18 a part of the garrison, Townshend says "by 
the carelessness and connivance of their officers," went out to Kempsey 
and Pirton and took possession of all sorts of cattle, fat and lean, 
probably cattle turned out on the hams or open commons, which still exist 
there. These cattle they killed, though they were not fit for man's meat, nor 
was there any cause to kill them. On the owners complaining, the Royalists 
replied " that it was better for them to have the cattle than the enemy." 
Townshend's reflexion is, " So a poor honest man is ruined in one night of 
what he hath laboured for all his days." 3 

The garrison had now got quite out of hand. Townshend complains that 
they pulled down men's outhouses in the town for fuel and then sold it 
for liquor, with the result that the greater part of the southern suburbs, 
St. Peter's in Sidbury, were defaced. 8 Some of the county gentlemen who 
were in Worcester had come in from the county in their carriages and placed 
them in the back premises and outhouses of their residences. These the 
soldiers began to tear to bits. All the soldiers were bad at this, but the 

1 I., p. 127. * I., p. 138. 


worst were the Irish, who were given to spoil and ruin mainly from the 
remissness of the officers and leniency in punishing robberies. 

This is the first definite information we get as to the presence of Irish soldiers. 
It was known that Astley had collected all the remnants he could find to form 
his army that was defeated at Donnington, and it is probable that some of 
the fugitives from there had taken refuge in Worcester. This is, however, 
the first precise statement that part of the Worcester garrison consisted of Irish 
soldiers. Whether they were any part of the men that Glamorgan brought over 
there is nothing to shew, but it is not improbable that they were. 

Townshend adds that the plundering was so bad that all good Christians 
might insert in their Litany ' : 

" From the plundering of soldiers, their insolency, cruelty, atheism, 
blasphemy and rule over us, Lord deliver us." 

There were great complaints as to two matters (i) The citizens would 
not send their servants, nor would the poorer sort come to work in mending 
the breaches or weak places in the walls, nor would they do anything unless 
they were paid for it. (2) The orders for sending out of the city all useless 
people were not put in force through the fault of the officers and even of the 
Governor himself, who was very slack in punishing persons for their negligence 
and disobeying orders. 

Townshend goes on to complain that there were at least 1500 poor of all 
sorts in the city that had only bread from hand to mouth, and 1500 or 3000 in 
all. The citizens had no store or magazine of provisions as the Governor and 
Commissioners of Array never compelled them to provide one. The military 
magazine was not as well provided as it should have been from the negligence 
of the officers in charge, Captains Armour and Pitcher. It is true that orders had 
been given to compel the different parishes to bring in their allotted share of 
provisions, and the soldiers were allowed 2s. per pound for collecting, but 
would not hazard their carcases, and the Governor, although he well knew 
the safety of the town depended on it, neglected to enforce it. It was only 
when the soldiers could make a gain for themselves that they went out and 
brought in cattle for their own use, but failed to bring in any for the magazine. 
If the cattle that were taken did not please the soldiers and were not worth 
killing, the soldiers compelled the owner to redeem them, paying no regard to 
the kingdom, the city or the law. 

On 20 June a difficulty arose about bread. 3 There were sixteen bakers in 
the city, but the output of bread was insufficient. The Mayor accordingly 
called on the bakers to produce more bread. The bakers replied they could 
not get enough corn ground to keep up the output. There were not enough 
mills at work to do it at least twelve mills must work to keep up the bread 
supply. The mills appear to have been all horse mills, and it was alleged that 
two horses would only grind a stone of corn in an hour, and that a horse could 
not work longer than four hours. The bakers offered to allow the millers 8d- 

1 I., p. 129. * I., p. 131. 


a stone for grinding if orders were mnde for providing by impressment 
mills, men and horses, each horse to be allowed 4^. an hour. This was 
accepted, but the citizens had " begun to mutter." It was, however, only 
partly carried out. A baker named Smith had a quantity of meal but refused 
to bake. The Governor had him " switched," and told him if he did not bake 
at once he would be thrown over the walls. 1 

Washington was strongly opposed to opening the magazine, and desired to 
continue the assessment method as long as possible. On 22 June a proposal 
was made to open the magazine, but the Governor was successful in post- 
poning it and continuing the assessment for another week. 2 

Matters were getting towards a crisis, one reason for which was what 
Townshend calls " the tyranny and oppression of the soldiers." This work 
made the Commissioners who did it unpopular, so out of some twenty gentlemen 
named in the Commission only about five really worked. These, he says, 
were Sir Ralph Clare, Sir Edward Littleton, Sir Rowland Berkeley, Sir John 
Winford, Mr. Anthony Langston, and Mr. Pennell, who was in the former 
Commission. In spite of their good work they were subjected to great slights, 
as the Governor took the part of the soldiers against them, and as the 
Commission were an advisory body and the executive power was in the 
Governor this reduced them almost to impotence. " Never," says Townshend, 8 

" have gentlemen received such affronts and disgraces from the soldiers 
throughout, such discouragements from those which should have protected 
and vindicated them, that it is a miracle they would or could endure or 
continue the service, when all their service hath either been slightly 
valued or pitifully rewarded." 

On 25 June, 4 when the siege had lasted over a month, a survey of the 
magazine of provisions was made by Mr. John Lunn and Mr. Thomas 

They found that there were in it 1487 strike of muncorn, wheat and rye, 
which at 3.5. a strike was worth 261 3.9. 4^. ; 425 strike of peas valued at 
41 los. od. ; of biscuit 4836 Ibs., which at los. a hundredweight was valued 
at 24 los. od. ; beef, 246 barrels, worth 24 os. od., and 2 barrels and a 
quarter of other beef ; 

2163 Ibs. of bacon, worth at 4^. a Ib. . . 36 o o 
4863 Ibs. of cheese, 3d. . . 60 ij 9 
326 Ibs. of butter, d. . . 588 

17 strike of fine salt, worth at 35. 4</. . . 2 16 8 

35 strike of clodd, 5$. od. . . 8 15 o 

3 barrels of great oatmeal. 
8 barrels of small oatmeal. 
Beef suet, one earth pot. 

Total value, 465 95. $d. 

1 I- P. >33- * I., p. I3S- ' I., P- 38. 4 I., P. 139- 


On 25 June the Worcester garrison heard that Oxford had surrendered. 
On the next day, 26 June, Washington held an assembly at the Bishop's 
palace of all gentry and soldiers. He told them the city was so strong and so 
well victualled that it could withstand a force of 10,000 foot and 5000 horse, 
and asked whether it was desirable to open up negotiations with Whalley. 
It was agreed it was. While the messenger was absent with Whalley the 
Rodomontados, Reformadoes and other wise and discreet gentry conceived it 
not necessary to treat, though it was considered advisable to do so. Each 
side nominated persons to try and arrange the terms, and it was agreed they 
should meet at Mr. Habington's house at Hindlip on 27 June. 1 On this both 
sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities while terms were being discussed. 
Townshend then relates an incident that could only happen in a civil war. 
The Governor Washington had a great friend in the Parliament army, Col. 
Dingley, one of the Charlton family, who were strong Parliamentarians. As 
soon as the cessation of arms had been agreed upon, Washington sent word 
to Dingley to meet him at the Foregate and to have a talk over old times and 
their service in the Low Countries. Washington went out about 5 p.m. and 
much to Townshend's indignation, stayed until nearly 10 p.m. with some 
gentlemen, who did so ply their salutations with cups that many heads could 
not complain of want of measure and plenty. This, says Townshend, enabled 
the enemy by the Royalist neglect and carelessness to come within pistol 
shot of the town and to see how weak in reality the defences were, and also 
gave the Parliamentarians a chance of finding out that there was a party in the 
city who were ready to help them. 

On 29 June the negotiations were adjourned to Hallow. A dispute arose 
if the belligerents might continue to use the spade during any armistice, and 
both sides appealed to Col. Dingley to say if this was usual and customary. 
Washington, however, held firm, and said he did not care whether the cessa- 
tion continued or not, but if it continued it must not go to prohibit the use of 
a spade on the work if it was so desired. While this point was being discussed 
a discovery was accidentally made that was very disconcerting to the Royalists. 
It was found that 50 barrels of powder had been purloined by Major Coningsby 
while he was making small arms. Whether it was the same or not does not 
appear, but fifty barrels of gunpowder were found in various houses, vaults 
and cellars in the city. It was said to be powder which Coningsby 
cheated the county out of when he had the charge of making the powder, and 
when it was observed that little came into the magazine. 2 In addition to the 
store of Coningsby, some of the powder was what the workmen had taken. 
It was a fortunate find, for at that time the stock of powder in the magazine 
was reduced to a very small quantity. 

The proposals the Royalists put forward for the surrender of the city were 
such as the Parliament declined to accept as being too high and unreasonable. 
The Royalists replied they were resolved to lay their bones under the city's walls 
and forts before surrendering. In the result negotiations were broken off. 8 

1 I., P. >48. ' I., p. 156- 3 I., P . 139. 

--.._ ( .L I . ft. . ^ t 1, A , I , ( *L 


On 2 July the Mayor called a meeting of the citizens nominally to consider terms, 
but in effect to make an order that would satisfy the soldiers by enabling them 
to pay for their victuals, and avoid breaking into the magazine of provisions. 
He urged that the city should hold out, otherwise the Parliament soldiers 
would plunder it, as it was the only place left to be surrendered and so the 
only place where the soldiers could expect pillage. 

This consideration seems to have succeeded, and it was resolved that the 
soldiers should be paid is. this week and is. the next week. But this was 
afterwards altered to 2.v. this week, 2.?. 6d. the next, and is. further before 

The city agreed to present the Governor with 100, 50 of which was 
for his special care 1 shewn towards the city. 

On 3 July 2 the Mayor issued warrants to the constables to give notice to 
all inhabitants who had paid 2,?. 6d. to pay 25. on Monday towards the next 
week's pay of the soldiers, is. on Saturday, and the next on Wednesday. 
This was a device to get paid in advance, as the soldiers had already had 
their is. 6d. for the week, and now got is. of the next week's pay before 
the week had expired, obviously done to keep the soldiers quiet ; they were 
getting quite out of hand. One of the magazines was situated in the Cloister 
Green, and two sentries were placed over it. 3 At night they broke down the 
carved stone of one of the cloister windows in order to get the iron in the window. 
Townshend mourns over this ; he says ,5 will not repair the window, and 
the iron was not worth 2.5., and it was ill to set the enemy so bad an example. 

On the St. John's side of the City the Parliament officer sent in word he 
should not allow any more women to leave Worcester, as his orders were to 
let no one leave. Obviously Whalley thought that the shortness of food would 
accelerate surrender. Washington, on the other hand, let anyone leave who 
desired it, and could pass through the besiegers' lines. 

Matters were getting very difficult with the besieged. 4 The Governor 
called a Council of War, told them he had promised to give the soldiers a 
week's pay on that day, and they must settle how it was to be done or 100 of 
the best soldiers had told him they would desert, as they were in great 
want and were not going to starve. He added that he would not have the 
magazine of stores opened, but the city must continue to find another week's 
pay, or he would take the private stores to relieve the public wants. 
Washington's argument was that if they did not open the magazine they 
would get better terms if they surrendered, as the Parliament men would 
believe they were not pressed for food, while if the enemy had the idea that 
they were, they would ask for a heavy ransom on surrender. The fidelity of 
the citizens did not appear on this occasion ; they refused to find the money, 
the Mayor and town clerk saying if the city suffered they could not help it. 
Meanwhile the soldiers threatened, if they did not get the money, to mutiny. 
At last it was settled that the soldiers should have is. in money, is. in corn, 
6d. in bacon and cheese for the week. A search should be made for food in 
1 I., p. 160. ' I., p. 165. 3 i. ( p . ,66. < i. ( p. ,68. 


the houses of all who had left the city since the siege began; all food so found 
to be measured up and put into the magazine. For the future the soldiers 
were not to have a fixed quantity per man, but only what would reasonably 
keep a man, as otherwise the food in the magazine would not last a month, 
for there was not more than 500 worth of food in it. 

If the i 500 soldiers had i8c/. apiece in provisions it came to 112 los. od., 
but 200 strike of corn at 3.?. 4^. a strike, that is 30 Ibs. at 8 men to a strike, 
and 6500 Ibs. of cheese would keep 1600 soldiers in bread and cheese for a 
week. This at 20 shillings percent, came to $f>, or a total of 86. So it was 
better to allow each soldier a pound of biscuit and half a pound of cheese a day. 

The bakers were called in and agreed to take the corn and give the soldiers 
bread in accordance with the above proportions and weight. 

A new list of the regiments was made out and handed in to the Governor, 
and each captain was handed the allowance for his men on the above scale. 
Then the magazine was opened. The rates of provisions were fixed as 

follows : , 

s. a. 

Wheat, per strike . . ..40 
Muncorn, .... 3 2 

Rye, .' . . : 'V : 2 8 

Peas, .' . ' . .' a8 

Oatmeal 1 . "". '" . ' . . . 

Best Bacon, per Ib. . . . .-06 

Ordinary Bacon, per Ib. . . 04 

Best Cheese, ...05 

Ordinary Cheese, ...03 

A change was now made by the Parliament in conducting the siege. For 
some reason General Whalley, who had been in command up till now, was 
superseded, and Col. Raynsborough took his place. Considerable reinforce- 
ments were also sent by the Parliament. Greater activity in pressing the 
siege was required. 3 This was met by greater activity in the defence. The 
Mayor was ordered to provide daily workmen with mattocks and spades. 
The houses in Sidbury were to be demolished. Raynsborough's activity 
sent up provisions to extreme prices. 

Beef, mutton and veal were 8d. a pound. 

A roasting piece of good beef cost over 30^., but corn kept at the former 
rate, and the bakers provided the bread at the same price. They were very short 
of fuel and made the outhouses pay for it. 3 

Provisions in the magazine began to run short. 4 It was said the Governor 
gave too many orders for provisions to different persons, and unless this was 
stopped the end would very soon come. The Governor got from Mr. Berkeley, 
who was in charge, a note of all the stores that were in the magazine when it 
was opened and what was then left. 

To make matters worse the men at work on keeping up the fortifications 

1 No price given. 2 I., p. 172. 3 I., p. 173. I., p. 174. 



struck for more wages ; workmen, carpenters and masons expected money for 
their work just as if there was no siege. 

It was agreed, with reluctance, to give the increased wages. 1 Everyone of 
the 24 of the Council had to pay ^d. a day, everyone of the 48 3<f., and 
the others 2<f. towards workmen's wages, and wages were to be paid 3 days 
in advance. A levy of T 2 y to be made on the city, which would produce 35. 
This was to be used for powder, and continued till the works were finished. 

On 16 July Washington wrote to Gen. Raynsborough "that he did not 
decline rendering the city on honourable and equal conditions." 3 The Mayor 
and citizens held a meeting and drew up a petition intreating a Treaty, but to 
this the Governor would not agree, and it was at last withdrawn " as poor 
and base as never was the like parallel." Raynsborough agreed to an armis- 
tice until he heard from Sir Thomas Fairfax. 3 

While the armistice continued there was a good deal of intercourse between 
the parties, and some of Raynsborough's officers told the Royalists to make 
as good conditions 4 as they could for themselves, as the citizens would try to 
make their own peace, that they juggled with both sides, and if it came to a 
storm of the city a very considerable party in the city was ready to assist the 
Parliament, that these citizens had told them the Royalist strength and the 
stores, and that the Royalists could do nothing but in a few hours the 
Parliament troops knew it. Pretty well for a faithful city ! 

On 1 8 July Raynsborough sent a letter to the Governor that he must 
accept the terms already sent or refuse them at once. On this a number of 
the Royalists were inclined to break off all negotiations and let the enemy 
attempt a storm, but the Gorernor told them that if it came to storming he 
did not mind hazarding his own person, but they had not sufficient powder to 
stand an hour's fight. 5 

On an examination of the magazine it was found that there was only 
3 barrels of great powder for ordnance, 6 5 barrels of musket powder and one of 
pistol powder, which would only serve one day's hot righting, and that the 
provisions could not last beyond a fortnight. So it was determined to 

On 23 July the Royalists attended a final service in the cathedral and then 
marched out to Rainbow Hill and surrendered, and about 5 p.m. on the same 
day Raynsborough marched into Worcester with several regiments of foot 
and took up his quarters in the city. He ordered 7 all citizens to bring in their 
arms on pain of death ; all Royalist soldiers were to depart within two days ; 
no Royalist in the city was to wear a sword. 

An inventory was made of all men's property. Large sums of money 
were demanded, the 5th and 2oth part of each man's estate as a contribution. 
Each of the persons in the city, soldiers and civilians alike, were in law "delin- 
quents," and practically had ceased to have any legal rights. A committee, 
consisting of some of the strongest Parliamentarians in the county, was given 

1 I-, P- 175- ' I., p. 177- 3 I., p. 178. * I., p. 182. 

6 I- P- '83- 6 I, p. 187. T I, p. 193. 


the government of the city. They included Sir Thomas Rous, Nicholas 
Lechmere, William Lygon, Richard Salwey, Thomas Cookes, John Fownes 
and Col. William Dingley. They did their work effectually, for during the 
rest of the King's life no sign of revived loyalty occurred in the city of 

Townshend had been in the city during all the siege ; he had also been a 
fairly active Royalist, had held office as one of the King's Commissioners of 
Array, had been Muster Master for the King, and although he had been badly 
treated by the Royalists, and especially by Maurice, yet he had remained loyal 
to his Sovereign. He had been one of the garrison who had surrendered, so 
he had to take the consequences. Whatever might have been the view Rains- 
borough or the military might have taken, the Worcestershire Justices men 
like Lygon and Lechmere, Milward and Fownes would not be inclined to spare 
him. His case was brought before the commissioners for settling the sum for 
compounding for his estates. Townshend contended that he ought not to be 
called on to pay any composition. He alleged, and with truth, that he had 
never borne arms against the Parliament, and so ought not to pay anything ; 
that as a peaceful citizen he had paid whatever contributions had been levied 
on him, whether by the King or by the Parliament, and so ought not to be 
further fined. The Commissioners would not listen to this, and fined him 
285, a fairly heavy fine considering the then value of money, and that the 
annual value of his estate according to its assessment was under 10. 

With the fall of Worcester Townshend's history practically ends. It 
would seem that he went to Elmley Lovett and lived there the quiet life of a 
country gentleman till better times came. It was probably the best thing he 
could do. He was not left entirely friendless. One of the Parliamentary 
committee for Worcester, Daniel Dobbyns, was a connection of his. Now 
Dobbyns was again in power, he was able to protect Townshend if he kept 
quiet, and as there is no further mention of him he probably did so. 

Townshend had also a dispute with Sir John Pakington as to whether 
Crutch belonged to Elmley Lovett or to Hampton Lovett. This was settled 
by an order of the Commissioners for the county of & April 1646, which 
divided Crutch between the two parishes. 

The surrender of Worcester in July 1646 and the termination of the Civil 
War did not put an end to the calls on the county for money. The method 
of requiring each county to raise a fixed sum and naming a body of com- 
missioners to enforce payment of the amount demanded, had such a sweet 
simplicity about it that it commended itself to the Parliament. The army was 
kept on foot, and the army had to be paid, so in June 1647 money was required 
for paying the forces under Fairfax and for transporting to and paying such 
of the forces as were in Ireland. For this purpose Worcestershire had to find 
704 i8,f. Oj</., and Worcester City 4.3 $s. 6\d. Commissioners were 
appointed to raise it. They were Sir Thomas Rous, baronet, John Wylde, 
sergeant-at-law, Richard Cresfield, sergeant-at-law, Humphrey Salway, Edward 
Dingley, James Bucke, Esq., Edmund Giles, William Hopkins, William 


Stephens, Henry Hunt, Thomas Symonds, gentlemen, William Lygon, Henry 
Bromley of Upton, William Brown, William More, William Collins, Thomas 
Cooke, Thomas Milward and John Giles, gentlemen, John Dorsnet, Edward 
Thomas, William Jeffries, John Latham, Thomas Soley, Edmund Wilde, 
Nicholas Lechmere, Thomas Greaves, William Dingley, Esqs. 

This list is of interest, as it gives the names of the persons who were 
appointed as soon as the Parliament, or rather the army, was in power. 
A number of the old names, such as Sir Thomas Rous, Wilde, Salway, Buck, 
Dingley, Symonds, Lygon, Lechmere and Greaves appear, but there are other 
names of quite a different class, and it is obvious that the power was shifting 
from the old Parliamentary party to a new order of men who had very different 
ideas from those who had formed the Parliamentary party in 1642. 

It was still more marked in the names of the City Commissioners. They 
were : 

" The Mayor for the time being, John Wylde, Sergt.-at-law, Recorder ; 
John Nash and Henry Ford, Aldermen ; Robert Stirrup, Daniel Dobbins, 
James Taylor and Nicholas Wildy." 

There is nothing that shews whether the monthly contribution of 3000 
that the County Quarter Sessions ordered was still paid after the fall of 
Worcester. The Sessions Rolls are missing, and no detailed outside evidence 
on the payments the Government exacted from the county is so far forth- 
coming. The process of raising sums for the war in Ireland by Commis- 
sioners was, however, continued. 

In February 1648 it was said to be necessary to raise 20,000 a month for 
Ireland. Of this sum Worcestershire was to pay 251 us. 8d. and Worcester 
City 14 8s. 6d. Commissioners were appointed as before to raise the 
money. They were practically the same men as the last Commissioners, except 
that William Hopkins was left out and no less than eight new names, namely, 
Thomas Young, Henry Greswold, John Edgioke, Edward Pitt, Charles Corn- 
wall, Henry Bromley of Upton, Samuel Gardner and William Jeffries, were 
added. The City Commissioners were the same as those who had been 
appointed on the last occasion. 

In March 1648 more money was required for Fairfax's forces. This time 
the county and city were united for the purpose of contributing to their support. 
The county and city jointly were to raise 748 3*. jd., and the Commissioners 
who were to raise it were all Parliament men : William Lygon, John Egioke, 
Edward Pitts, Henry Bromley of Upton, Charles Cornwallis, Thomas Young, 
Humphrey Greswold, Daniel Dobbins, Talbot Bridges, Mayor of Evesham for 
the time being, and Mr. William Martin of Evesham, gent. 

It is not clear what led to the reduced number, but, taken as a whole, these 
were a much more responsible body than that which had been appointed in 
the Spring. It is true they were all Parliament men, but it is also true that 
they were a very fair selection from the County Justices of the time. 

Later in the year the very pressing and very difficult question of settling 


the militia, that is, the army that was then embodied in England and who had 
shewn signs of becoming very troublesome, had to be taken in hand. 
A strong committee was required for this purpose, and, so far as numbers went, 
strong committees were appointed for both the county and the city ; and 
probably, having regard to two circumstances that must have weighted heavily 
with the Government, the committee was as good as could be selected. 

1. The first consideration was that it was known that a large number, if 
not most, of the Royalist gentlemen were, if not directly at least indirectly, 
engaged in plots for the King's release if for nothing more. No government 
could be expected to entrust not merely power but also full information as to 
their plans to persons who would use it for their own purposes against the 
government. It must be remembered that conspiracies for risings were 
actually going on in the county from 1646 until the King's death, and no 
government would have been so mad, with Colchester before their eyes, as to 
give any authority of any kind to a Royalist, or even to a man with Royalist 
tendencies or leanings. 

2. The second point was the fact that the Royalists were engaged in 
important business of their own. The question of what fine should be imposed 
on each of them for their " delinquency " was in the course of settlement, 
and while it remained unsettled anyone who was said to be liable or might 
be made liable to such a payment could hardly serve on such a committee. 

It is therefore obvious that the settlement of the militia, the question that 
had nominally caused the war, could only be dealt with by the victors. Bearing 
these considerations in mind, the list of names, although all strongly anti- 
Royalist, do not seem so unfair as might at first sight have been thought. 

The names for the county were : Sir Thomas Rous, Bart., Sir Thomas 
Jervis, John Wilde, sergeant-at-law, Richard Cresheld, sergcant-at-law, Wil- 
liam Lygon, John Egioke, Humphrey Salway, Edmond Wilde, Edward 
Pitts, William Jeffries, Thomas Solly, George Wilde, esq., Col. William 
Dingley, John Latham, John James, Charles Cornwallis, Samuel Gardner, 
John Dunne, Nicholas Lechmere, Daniel Dobbins, Thomas Cookes, esq., 
John Keite, Thomas Western, John Corbett, Henry Bromley of Upton-on- 
Severn, Thomas Milward, Thomas Young, William Moore and William 
Collins, gents. 

The city names were : Mr. Robert Stirropp, John Wilde, esq., sergeant- 
at-law and Recorder, Henry Fourd, Edward Elvins, alderman, John Nash, 
Humphrey Greswold, esq., Col. William Lygon, Col. William Dingley, 
Francis Frankes, Theophilus Allies, Foulke Estrop, and Edward Cox, gen- 

The county list has most of the old names, with some eight or nine new 
ones added. Nothing very much is known about these. Sir Thomas Jervis 
is a new name and one who had but little if any connection with the county. 
Latham, James, and Keite, Corbet, Young and Collins are also new names. 
Whatever may have been the reason for putting them on it does not 
appear. If a conjecture may be made, it may be that they represented the 


troops that were about to be dealt with. The army was then too powerful a 
body to be ignored. In the city Alderman Elvins may have been the man of 
that name who was Mayor in 1642. But Frankes, Allies, Estrop and Cox 
are new names. 

It would be outside the limits of this Introduction to give any account 
of what the Committee did, or of the history of the county and city for 
the next few years. The King's execution in the next year, the Scots' 
invasion two years later, produced a deep impression not only on the county 
but also on the country. One event in 1649 mav De mentioned, as the 
person concerned has occupied so very prominent a place in the Diary. It 
has already been stated that proceedings were going on to fix the sum that 
the Royalists were to pay for their " delinquency," as it was termed. Among 
those cases that of Sir William Russell was dealt with. The receipt the 
Commissioners gave him is still in existence, and runs as follows : 

" Received by us, Richard Waring and Michael Herring, Treasurers 
of the moneys to be paid into Goldsmiths' Hall, of S r Will. Russell of 
Strensham in the county of Worcester, baron*, the summe of nine hundred 
pounds in full of eighteen hundred pounds ouer and aboue the Rectory of 
Birlingham, being settled and imposed on him by the Lords and 
Commons as a fine for his delinquency to the Parliament. We say 
Received this 8 th day of October 1649 in full payment. 

Rich. Waringe. 
Michael Herring." 

What with his payments as Governor of Worcester, his losses from having 
his house at Strensham plundered by the Parliament troops, and last of all his 
fine, Sir William Russell could truly say that loyalty to his Sovereign did not 
pay. He, however, so far as the fine went, got off fairly well. There is nothing 
to shew what was the value of the Rectory of Birlingham, but as in the list 
that was prepared at the Restoration of " the persons who were fit and 
qualified to be made Knights of the Royal Oak with the value of their 
estates," the name of " Sir William Russell, K* and Bar 1 , 3000 per an." 
heads the list, if he purged his delinquency by a year's income he did not 
do so badly. 

As has been already stated, there is nothing in Townshend's volume, either 
documents or Diary, from the surrender of Worcester on 26 July 1646 until 
20 April 1653, when Cromwell turned the Commons out of their House and 
purported to dissolve the Parliament. The Diary then begins again, and goes 
on for two years until 17 May 1657, but it is far more a record of public 
events that are recorded in histories of England than of local occurrences taking 
place in Worcestershire. The first local event mentioned is 21 December 
1653, " Cromwell proclaimed at Worcester, and in every market town on their 
market days Protector." 2 

The next local entry is the removal of Chief Baron Wilde (the Sergeant 
Wilde who was member for Worcester and an active Parliamentarian). 

1 MSS. Worcestershire Historical Society, Russell Papers. 2 I., p. 26. 


He was sent as Commissioner of Assize several times between 1646 and 1648, 
but seems to have shewn his politics on the bench. He is said to hare sen- 
tenced Capt. Burley at Winchester to death for causing a drum to be beaten 
for King Charles at Newport in the Isle of Wight, while in the case of Major 
Rolph, who was indicted for intending to murder the King, he ordered the 
grand jury to ignore the Bill. For these two cases he was thanked by the 
House of Commons. On 12 October 1648 he was appointed Lord Chief 
Baron, but on Cromwell becoming Lord Protector, he did not renew Wilde's 
appointment. At the Restoration Sir Orlando Bridgman was made Lord Chief 
Baron. WilJe was specially included in the Act of Indemnity. He 
naturally considered he was badly treated, but he was fortunate after his 
violent conduct in the Long Parliament, and especially having regard to his 
behaviour when acting as counsel against Archbishop Laud to get off as easily 
as he did. 

In July 1654 there was an election for Cromwell's new Parliament. 
Worcestershire sent 5 members to it. For the county, Sir Thomas Kouse, 
Mr. Edward Pitts, Mr. Nicholas Lechmere and Capt. Talbot Badger. Except 
the last the names are all familiar as having served on most of the various 
commissions for raising contributions. 

There was a contest for the city. The candidates were Alderman Elvins and 
William Collins, who was opposed by Capt. Boomd (probably Bund ') of Upton- 

Townshend does not notice an important committee that was appointed 
in 1654 to deal with scandalous ministers. For the county of Worcester 
the members were, Mr. Richard Baxter of Kidderminster, Mr. Benjamin 
Baxter of Upton, Mr. Giles Collyer of Blockley, Mr. Hopkins of Evesham, 
and Mr. Brammage of Kempsey. 8 

The Diary terminates abruptly on 17 May 1655 with the entry that the 
counsel who argued Coney's case as to customs duties against Cromwell's 
Government were sent to the Tower. 

It begins again on 9 January 1656 with an entry that Sir Henry Lyttelton, 
the sheriff of the county, and Sir John Pakington were committed to the 
Tower on suspicion. This was in consequence of Penruddock's rising, who 
was beheaded on 20 June 1656. The Government were greatly alarmed, 
Cavaliers were ordered not to come within 20 miles of London, many others 
were arrested and imprisoned. In Worcestershire numbers of the Royalist 
leaders were arrested, Sir Ralph Clare, Sir George Wintour, Captain Thomas 
Savage, Major Wylde, Colonel Sandys and various others, but there is little 
detail as to how the county was affected by the plot. 

For the protection of the Government Cromwell divided the country into 
eleven districts, and put each district under a military officer, a Major-General. 
The district in which Worcestershire was placed comprised the English 
counties of Worcester, Hereford and Shropshire, and first North Wales, 

1 For an account of Capt. Bund see Lawson's " Nation in the Parish." 
1 See Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642 1660, 


Merioneth, Montgomery, Flint, Denbigh, Carnarvon and Anglesea, and subse- 
quently South Wales and Monmouthshire. The Major-General allotted to 
Worcestershire was Major-General Berry, whom Baxter speaks of " as his old 
bosom friend," and describes as of l 

" great sincerity before the wars, of very good natural parts, especially 
mathematical and mechanical, and affectionate in religion, and while con- 
versant with humbling, providence, doctrines and company, carried himself 
as a very great enemy to pride, but when Cromwell made him his 
favourite and his extraordinary valour was crowned with extraordinary 
success, and when he had been a while most conversant with those that 
in religion thought the old Puritan ministers were dull, self-conceited 
men of a lower form, and that new light had declared I know not what 
to be a higher attainment, his mind, his aim, his talk, was all altered 
accordingly." .... 

" Being never well studied in the body of Divinity or controversy, but 
taking his light among the sectaries before the light which longer and 
patient studies in Divinity should have prepossessed him with, he lived 
after as honestly as could be expected in one that taketh error for truth 
and evil to be good." ' 

Such was the man who had become the practical ruler of the county. 

Neither Berry nor any of his colleagues had an easy task. The local 
Justices of the Peace looked on them with jealousy and suspicion as men set 
up to do away with their authority. There was also the fact so objectionable 
to the English that the Major-Generals were soldiers, and would bring or 
try to bring the country under that most hateful of all hateful systems, martial 
law. To make matters worse, one of the first things they had to do was to 
put in force orders to tax the Royalists in each county in a way that even 
Charles and his worst ministers would never have dreamt of. All so-called 
Royalists were divided into three classes : 

1 . Those who since the Protectorate had been in any way engaged in any 
rebellion or in any plot against the Protector's person. These persons were 
to be banished, their estates seized, two-thirds to be appropriated to pay 
Cromwell's new militia, one-third left for the support of their wives and 

2. Those who had taken no actual part in any rebellion or plot against 
Cromwell, but had by their words or actions adhered to the interests of the late 
King, or Charles Stuart his son, and were dangerous enemies to the peace. 
These were to be imprisoned or banished, but they did not necessarily forfeit 
their estates. 

3. Those whose estates had been sequestered for delinquency or had 
fought against the Parliament in former times. These were to pay so per 
cent, on their rental if over 100, and 10 in respect of every 1500 of 
personal property if they had no real estate. But the annual payments under 
this last head were not to exceed 100. 

The rest of the Royalists who had no estate, who lived loosely or were 

1 Reliquiae Baxteriana, p. 57. 


unable to give an account of themselves, were to be arrested and transported to 
foreign parts where they might earn their living by labour a polite way of 
saying they were to go as slaves to the West Indies. 

No Royalist was allowed to keep arms in his house under penalty of 
imprisonment, nor to keep in his house any ejected clergyman or chaplain or 
tutor under penalty of a double fine. A clergy man keeping a school, preaching, 
administering the sacraments, celebrating marriage, or using the book of 
Common Prayer was liable to three months' imprisonment for the first offence, 
six for the second, and banishment for the third. 

In addition to these there were a number of other instructions forbidding 
Royalists being elected to public offices, requiring Royalists to give bonds 
for good behaviour, and for suppressing ale houses, taverns and play houses. 

It was fortunate for the county that in spite of the bad character Baxter 
gives Berry, that the county fell under his rule and not that of men like 
Desborough or Lambert. Unfortunately the details of Berry's administration 
are very meagre, but what little there is shews he was inclined not to enforce 
his orders strictly. Nine Quakers were imprisoned at Evesham for not 
paying the fines imposed on them for contempt of court. Berry released 
them. A Welsh preacher, Vavasor Powell, drew up a petition to Cromwell 
setting forth the persecution to which the God-fearing Baptists were subjected, 
Cromwell's falling away from grace in his government, as he had left off 
following the Lord, and urging God's people to avoid the same sin lest they 
should partake the plague with him. For this Powell was arrested, brought to 
Worcester and charged before Berry. Powell declared he only wanted to 
relieve his own conscience and work on Cromwell's heart. Berry accepted 
the explanation, allowed Powell to enlighten Worcester by preaching. This 
he did, giving on one day no less than four sermons in four different 
Worcester churches, and finishing up by having supper with the Major- 
General. Powell was bound over to appear if called on to do so. One 
other instance of Berry's good nature should be mentioned. The money the 
Major- Generals were to draw from the Royalists proved quite insufficient for 
paying the militia. Naturally this caused great discontent, and some of the 
Major-Generals had to face something which was very like mutiny. Berry 
took a more excellent way. When he dismissed his militia he paid them 
their full pay as if they had been, as they had engaged to be, under arms 
for a year. In writing to Thurlow and asking if he had done wrong, he 
added that, if he had, the sum he had overpaid should be deducted from his 
own pay. 

Berry was an exception to the rule. Most of the other Major-Generals 
carried out their instructions strictly and harshly. Naturally the Royalists did 
their best to bring forward reasons excepting them from the new rules as 
to payment of the new taxes. Still further did the Royalists object to giving 
bonds for good behaviour ; these were demanded with the greatest rigour, the 
object being to get information on which, if necessary, action could be taken 
as to who might be termed Royalists and ascertaining where they dwelt. 



Lists of such persons were drawn up under the authority of the Major- 
Generals and sent to the Council. The Worcestershire list is as follows : 

Droytwiche . . Edward Barratt, gent. 

Worcester City . . James Abrell, Pewterer. 

Caldwell . . .Sir Ralph Clare, Knt. 

Fladbury . . .Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Knt. 

Blackmore Park . Thomas Hornyold, Esq. 

Seaverne Stoke . . Edward Osburne, gent. 

Belbroughton . . William Burr, gent. 

Elmley . . . Thomas Savage, Esq. 

Bromsgrove . . William Sheldon,- gent. 

Huddington . . Sir George Winter, Knt. 

Great Malvern . . Thomas Wylde, Esq. 

These eleven names are all the Worcestershire names that are contained 
in a book in which is this endorsement : 

" A booke contayning the names of all such persons as are specified 
in several lists received from ye respective Major- Generalls of ye Counties 
on the outside of this Booke particularly expressed." 

The names endorsed are : 

" Essex, Oxon, Beds, Hertford, Northampton, Bedford, Huntingdon, 
Rutland, Worcester, Salop, Hereford, Monmouth, North and South 
Wales, Chester, Stafford, Lancaster, Nottingham, Lincoln, Warwick, 
Leicester, Derby." J 

How leniently Berry carried out his duties will best be seen by giving 
the number of the names returned in Worcestershire and its surrounding 
counties : 

Worcestershire, n. 
Gloucestershire, 322. 
Warwick, 8. 
Oxford, 135. 
Salop, 20. 
Stafford, 1089. 
Hereford, 17. 

Gloucestershire had Desborough for its Major-General, Warwickshire 
Whalley, Oxfordshire Fleetwood, Staffordshire Worsley ; while Berry had 
Worcestershire, Herefordshire and Shropshire. He also had Monmouthshire, 
44; North Wales, 58. There does not appear to have been any return for 
South Wales. It was fortunate for Worcestershire that Berry was her Major- 

As he dealt so well with the county, a word may be said as to his fate. 
He took an active part with the army against the Rump, for which he was 

1 Additional MSS. 34,011 13. 


cashiered. When in January 1660 he was ordered to leave London he refused. 
Monk was jealous of him, as he had urged Fleet wood to take the action in 
restoring the King that Monk afterwards took. So when Monk got the upper 
hand he imprisoned Berry in Scarborough Castle. The result was he remained 
under surveillance for the rest of his life. Baxter says, when " released he 
became a gardiner and lived in a safer state than in all his greatness." He 
was certainly the leading man in Worcestershire in the last year of the 
Commonwealth, although he and his work appear quite forgotten in the 

Townshend's comment on the proceedings in 1656 is not so full as could 
be wished. He begins by saying : " Jan. 9, 1655. Sir Henry Littleton, Baronet 
High Sheriff of Worcestershire and Sir John Pakington, Baronet, committed 
to the Tower on suspicion." 

The Sealed Knott (the Royalist Secret Society) kept sending Charles 
warning that the time was unpropitious for a rising. As the Government were 
full)' aware of what was going on they probably arrested these gentlemen by way 
of precaution, and as a warning to the other Worcestershire Royalists. There 
is no allusion to the proposed rising in Shropshire in March, which only just 
missed taking effect. Then came Penruddock's rising, his trial and execution 
in April. 

Townshend may be right in saying that the two judges Thorpe and Newdi- 
gate were in reality dismissed for too lenient dealing with rebels. This was 
probably the public explanation, but the real reason was for questioning the 
legality of the ordinance dealing with treason, which purported to be issued 
under the instrument of government. For if the ordinance was invalid so was 
the instrument, and so was Cromwell's authority ; nothing therefore remained 
for the Council but to avoid awkward questions and dismiss the two judges. 
It is very obvious that the Government were in a fright, for the other prisoners 
in custody were not tried for treason. As Gardiner says, 1 "It was hard to 
find independent lawyers to accept the doctrine that a few military officers 
were justified in giving a constitution to the country." Townshend goes on to 
say that " many Royalists or Cavalier persons were imprisoned on suspicion 
for the late insurrection," and tells us that 3 : 

" At Worcester Sir Ralph Clare, Sir George Wintour, Capt. Thomas 
Savage, Major Wyld, Col. Sandys and divers others which were not fully 
released until Major-General Berry came to govern the county." 

Townshend goes on to mention the Declaration of 21 September 1655, in 
which Cromwell states he was by the recent rising discharged from the act of 
Oblivion and Pardon granted to the Cavaliers, and had to ensure the peace by 
raising a force to secure it, and that in respect of the Royalists their estates 
should pay the same be they guilty or not. 

Orders came out to the Commissioners named in the several counties to 

1 " Hist, of Commonwealth," Hi., 302. 3 I., p. ag. 


put the instructions into execution, but as the orders were only under the 
hand of H. Scobell's, the clerk of the council, it was questioned if that was 
sufficient warrant. 

Whether the Government thought they had gone too far or whether it was 
the peace made in 1655 with France disposed them to leniency, several of the 
Royalists were released from prison, Sir John Pakington among them. He 
had, however, to give a bond for 5000 to appear when summoned and to be 
of good behaviour, and Townshend adds, 

" divers others were released out of sundry places unless there were some 
strong presumptions. Few, however, were ever particularly examined or 
told why they had been arrested." 

" Lord Southampton, who had pleaded in his own defence his pardon 
and the act of oblivion against having to pay the tenth of his estate or to 
state the value of it and pay on that, was sent to the Tower, and divers 
loose persons who had no visible estate were arrested and sent to Jamaica 
and other plantations abroad for service there." 

Townshend admits being assessed at ^103, and paying accordingly. He 
adds that for the bonds Cavaliers had to give, Berry's clerk got ^5 a year ; and 
for each bond that had to be given for a servant's good behaviour in 200, 
Berry's clerk was paid i8d. 

At the Epiphany Quarter Sessions 1656, Sir Thomas Rous, who was a 
strong Parliamentarian and had been made Gustos Rotulorum of the county, 1 
presented his Commission, and desired to place Mr. Thomas Symonds of 
Pershore as his deputy and Clerk of the Peace. This gave rise to considerable 
dispute, the justices objecting to the old clerk, Francis Walker, being turned 
out. Probably Rous was right ; as the old Lord Lieutenant had ceased to 
hold his office, his deputy, the Clerk of the Peace, also ceased to hold his. 
Lord Northampton, who had been Lord Lieutenant, who had never been 
formally deprived of the specific office except in general terms as being a 
malignant, was deprived of all his offices and rights. There was technically 
a vacancy, so Walker had no right to continue. The Sessions Rolls are very 
fragmentary during the time of the Commonwealth, but from these it would 
appear that Rous got his way, and that Symonds acted as Clerk of the Peace 
till the Restoration. 

For some reason that does not appear, Sir Henry Lyttelton, who was arrested 
at the same time as Sir John Pakington and sent to the Tower, was kept in 
prison till July 1656, when, instead of being released on bond like Sir John 
Pakington, he was sent to the custody of " the Marshal of St. James, by which 
he had much freedom allowed and refreshment." Whether the election being 
about to be held and Lyttelton being Sheriff was the cause of his qualified 
release does not appear. 

In August 1656 Sir Robert Berkeley, the great Ship Money Judge, died 
and was buried at Spetchley, where his monument still is. The election took 
place on 20 August 1656. Worcestershire returned five members : Berry, 


Sir Thomas Rouse, the new Lord Lieutenant, Edward Pitts of Kyre, Nicholas 
Lechmere, attorney of the Duchy, and John Nanfan ; Worcester City two 
Captains, John Collins, who was an assessment Commissioner for the county 
and city, and Giles, a young lawyer. He was son of Edmund Giles of White 
Ladies, Acton, and said to have been by marriage a relation of Cromwell. 
He was fined for not being knighted at Charles I.'s coronation, and disclaimed 
Arms at the 1634 Visitation. He was a barrister, a master in Chancery, and 
an assessment Commissioner for the county and city. 
Townshend says 

" that many of the newly elected members went up to London to take 
their seats, but were not allowed to do so until they had been approved by 
the Council of State. In the result many went back home, including 
Mr. Nanfan of Worcestershire." 

This is Townshend's account of Cromwell's attempt to make the House 
of Commons consist " only of persons who appeared to the Council of State 
to be Persons of integrity to the Government, fearing God and of good 
conversation." All others who did not satisfy this requirement were not to 
be given certificates, and Cromwell had ordered that they should not come 
into the House. The House had sunk so low that they submitted to this 
snub and resolved : 

" That the persons returned who have not been approved be referred 
to make their application to the Council for an approbation." 

No less than 93 members who had been excluded signed a remonstrance ; 
most of them were ultimately admitted to the House. Whether Nanfan was 
one of those admitted does not appear. 

Townshend adds that a motion was made by G. L. in the House for 

" a new survey of all delinquent and Papist estates, so that if there be 
any estates of them concealed and uncompounded for to be seized and 
sold as the State's (they not owning the same by non-compounding), a 
committee of 40 about to sit on it." 

Another blank in the Diary follows. The next entry is 25 April 1660, 
when the Convention Parliament began to sit. 

On 30 April 1660, the Day of Humiliation, the preachers were Dr. Gauden, 
afterwards Bishop of Worcester, the supposed author of the KIKOV litmi.W >/, 
and Mr. Richard Baxter. 

On Worcester receiving the news of the King's letter from Breda 1 such a 
number of bonfires were lit and such a ringing of bells that the city seemed 
all in a flame. Most part of the night every street having at least four or five, 
and some twelve bonfires. At St. John's, near Worcester, before any order, 
the State arms were taken down, the church beautified, and the King's arms 
drawn on the walls. 

The county's loyalty took the form of a declaration of the nobility 2 and 
gentry of the county who adhered to the late King, which was presented to 

1 L, P- 36. * I., p. 37- 

-:nv vn'.-j 


Monk by Lord Windsor, Sir John Pakington, Mr. Finch and Mr. Thomas 
Hornihold, who vindicated themselves from the scandalous aspersions as full of 
recusancy for the great losses since the last wars, and declaring they neither 
did nor would harbour any such thoughts of ransom or revenge against them 
or any other person, but willing to lay aside all animosity and return to all 
mutual Christian love. This was signed by 27 persons, one of whom was 
Townshend. He remarks : 

" The General received it well and thanked them for presenting it as 
coming opportunely in respect of that county, that is in report the most 
malignant in the nation." 

On the 1 1 th there was an extraordinary function at Worcester. 1 Four 
scaffolds were erected: (i) The Cross, (2) Corn Market, (3) at the Knole, 
(4) at or near All Hallows' Well. 

The scaffold at the Cross was coloured green, white and purple. The first 
two are the Prince's colours, the third the King's. 

The Mayor, Mr. Ashby, and all the aldermen in scarlet. The Sheriff, 
the 24 and the 48 in their liveries, each trade and freeman marching with 
their colours. The procession was : first, 100 of the city trained band, 
following them Captain Alderman Vernon, the Sheriff Thomas Coventry, two 
army companies, the various livery companies with their showmen and 
banners, the city officers with their maces and swordbearers, then the Mayor, 
the Sheriff and some gents., then the 24 followed by the 48, and closing 
the procession, part of a troop of cavalry. On reaching each scaffold the 
Mayor got up on it and read the proclamation, declaring Charles to be King 
of England, Scotland, Ireland, and then shouted God Save the King. All the 
people joined, the guns were fired, swords drawn and flourished over their 
heads, drums beaten, trumpets blown, loud music played, and after a visit to 
each scaffold they adjourned to the great hall, where the city gave wine and 
biscuits liberally. At night bonfires, the King's health continuously drunk 
with good store of wine and high rejoicings and acclamations. 

The great day of thanksgiving was solemnly kept at Worcester, and espe- 
cially by the Royalists at St. Michael's Church by Mr. William Harewell, a 
sequestered divine. 

Townshend, however, could take very little share in these rejoicings. 3 On 
29 May, the great day, his daughter Dorothea died, and was buried in the 
body of the Cathedral near the steps to the choir. Mr. Harewell read the 
burial service. Townshend adds, " it was the first prayer for the dead since the 
rending up of Worcester to the pretended Parliament, 24 July 1646, and 
now the new entrance of Charles II. in power to his crown and authority." 

On 14 June the King made Lord Windsor Lord Lieutenant of Worcester- 
shire. This at once got ovc-r the difficulty of Sir Thomas Rouse's appointment 
as Lord Lieutenant, and of Mr. Symonds as Clerk of the Peace. Mr. Walker 
seems to have returned to the office as a matter of course. 

1 I, P. 38. L, p. 44- 


To further shew their loyalty the nobility and gentry of Worcester, to the 
number of about 50, signed an address to the king, which Lord Shrewsbury 
presented to His Majesty, who returned hearty thanks, and said he was well 
assured of their loyalty and affection, and should ever have a good esteem of 
them. Townshend follows this up by the following memorandum : 

" It is said that any Worcestershire gent, hath great civil admittance to 
His Majesty's presence, but above all Sir Ralph Clare, who hath confer- 
ence sometimes two hours together." 

A note of what the Lords proposed to do on the bill of indemnity might, 
if it had been carried out, have materially affected Worcestershire families l : 

" The Lords fly high on the Bill of indemnity or pardon as intending 
to include (exclude ?) all the late King's judges, all who sat in other High 
Courts of Justices as on Col 1 Penruddock, Cap* Burley, D r Huet, espe- 
cially on the Lord Capel, Sergeant Wilde, for the cause in question, and 
Nicholas Lechmere as being one of the State's Counsel. 

" Thomas Lord Windsor had his patent sealed for Lord Lieutenant of 
Worcestershire, who made his deputy lieutenants. The patent will cost 
,50. Major Thomas Mucklow is his muster master, whose stipend is 
47 per annum." 3 

The Muster Master was directed at once to take steps to replenish and 
make good the magazines of the county, and have full provision of powder and 
lead always in readiness for the use of His Majesty's service. He was there- 
fore ordered at once to view the state of the magazines at Worcester, Broms- 
grove, Evesham, and the rest of the towns in the county, and to report either 
to the Lord Lieutenant or any two deputy lieutenants. He was also to report 
and be present at every muster in the county, view the arms and ammunition, 
and certify the state of the militia by a roll subscribed by my deputy lieutenants 
or some of them and yourself. 

On 28 August 1660 it is noted 3 

" Lord Windsor's troop being of the King's Regiment and under 
Cap* Lieu* Charles Littelton, M r Chicheley, Cornet, came to quarter in 
the City of Worcester this winter." 

On 31 August 

" the first morning prayer was said in the lody of the Cathedral accor- 
ding to ancient custom by Mr. Richard Brown since the reducing of 
Worcester to the Parliamentary forces 24 July 1646." 

On a September 

" a great assembly in the Cathedral at morning prayer at 6, and again at 9. 
All the gentry, many citizens and others numerous, and after prayers 
D r Doddeswell, a new prebend, did preach the first sermon, and the 
Dean and Prebends being to resettle the church in its service, and to 
repair the same by degrees, which hardly 10,000 will put the whole 
fabric in that order it was before the barbarous civil war." 

" I., p. 55- 2 I-. P- 56. I., P <o. 


No date given (September 3) : 

" This day, memorable for the miraculous escape and deliverance of 
His Majesty from the hands of his enemies upon his defeat (or rather 
treacherv of Scots army) at this City of Worcester, was kept as a high and 
solemn day at the Cathedral in Worcester, where was the first solemn 
service said and preached, D r Wright of S' John's upon I Sam. xii., 24 
and 25 verses. All the gentry of the county were invited and many 
came. And a solemn entertainment was made in the Town Hall, where 
the first table for the nobility and gentry was made upon the other great 
table higher to be level with the benches, and there were 8 long tables 
more, and in the council chamber the long table full, 80 of gentry and 
citizens were about 400, and 5 bucks spent and 2.$. 6d. allowed by every 
man to come in with tickets. The attendance with better sort of citizens. 
No gentleman's servant admitted to attend his master." 

Following this up, on 13 September 

" Dr. Oliver, President of Magdalen College and Dean of Worcester, 
came to be installed Dean and settle the church in order." 

"14. The militia foot of the County of Worcester were summoned 
in, where were a great appearance. On the i8 th the Horse." 

" 1 8 Dec. The cathedral church of Worcester was by the care and 
industry of Mr. Oley, one of the Prebends, this day secured and made 
dry from wet until it can be fully repaired." J 

The fifth monarchy men were causing, if not trouble, at least apprehension. 
As all the regiments had been disbanded except the generals' (muster) regi- 
ments of foot and horse, and some of the garrisons, the authorities were 
looking round to see upon what force they could rely in case of trouble. The 
following entry occurs as to Worcester : 

" 15 June 1661. The City of Worcester hath ever since the first 
knowledge kept guards of horse and foot to assist out of the county 
trained bands, and the passages over Severn guarded." 

A case, probably one of the last, of the execution for petit treason by burning 
is mentioned as occurring on 15 March 1661 - : 

" Ursula Corbett of DefFord in the County of Worcester burnt at Wor- 
cester for poisoning her husband, being not married past three weeks. 
An ill fate certainly attends when parents enforce their children to marry 
against their liking." 

"On the 23 March Townshend and M r George Symonds, two magis- 
trates for the county, released out of the castle gaol at Worcester 44 
Quakers and 14 anabaptists upon their promise to appear at the next 
gaol delivery and in the meantime to keep the peace towards the King 
and all people. They drew up two Recognizances containing 3 heads : 
(i) To acknowledge Charles II. King, (2) To live peaceably, (3) To 
appear at the next assizes." 

When the space available for prisoners in the old county gaol is taken into 
account, the release of 58 prisoners must have been a most wise step. There 

1 I., P- 65- ' I., p. 70. 


were very few cells, and the prisoners had to be huddled together in any 
way that could be managed. It was this crowding that caused that terrible 
gaol fever which raged a few years later in the Worcester prisons. 

The election for the Long Parliament of Charles II., which lasted from 
April 1661 to January 1678, took place on 9 April. Sir John Pakington and 
Samuel Sandys were returned unopposed for the county, but for the city there 
was a sharp contest thus recorded : 

" April 9. Upon the election day of Burgesses for the city of 
Worcester for the Parliament, Sir Rowland Berkeley had 615 votes, and 
Mr. Thomas Street, the Counsilor, who had 589, were chosen Burgesses, 
and Mr. Jo. Nanfan, who had 544, lost the same." 

Nanfan seems to have been unlucky in his electioneering. In 1666, when 
elected, the Council of State rejected him, and now the electors would not 
have him. Street, so far as elections went, was more fortunate. He was 
elected in 1659, 1660, 1661 and 1679. He was also sub-secretary (Chapter 
Clerk ?) to the Dean and Chapter of Worcester, and had in one way or 
another a good deal of local influence. He was made a Welsh judge, and in 
1681 a Baron of the Exchequer. In the case of Sir Edward Hales as to 
whether the King could by his prerogative dispense with the oaths of allegiance 
and supremacy, of all the twelve judges, including the L. C. J., Herbert, Street 
was the only one who held James II. 's action to be illegal. This made Street 
the most popular judge on the Bench, and so he continued to be until the 
appearance of the philosophical Whig writers of the nineteenth century. Sir 
James Mackintosh began with a suggestion that Street was a real patriot in the 
sense that his patriotism was " the last refuge of a scoundrel," and that his judg- 
ment was not his honest conviction, but that it was thought better there should 
be a dissenting judge in the Hales case, so he was squared, and his judgment 
was the result. The evidence, if it can be so called, in support of this view 
consists of two things: (i) That Street was not dismissed by James for his 
judgment, a fate that almost invariably overtook judges who decided cases in 
any way against his wishes ; and (2) That after the Revolution he was not 
reappointed by William III. It is said that Lord Clarendon did not present 
him for reappointment, as Lord Coote, who reported to the King Street's 
" true character," described him as "a very ill man," adding that Street had 
married one of his (Lord Coote's) relations. Lord Clarendon, however, 
himself said he had " long known Street, and took him to be a very honest 
m:m." On this Sir James Mackintosh "suggests the painful suspicion" that 
Street had been " got at" to deliver his judgment. Lord Macaulay goes one 
better than Mackintosh, and with no further evidence says : 

"One judge, therefore, the least respectable of the twelve, was per- 
mitted, or more probably commanded, to give his voice against the 
prerogative." 1 

1 " History of England," ii., 244. 


Is it not possible that a Tory judge who had been a Tory all his life, and 
one who was known to be a Jacobite, should have been passed over at the 
Revolution without joining with Whig writers to take away on no evidence 
the character of one of the few judges that are natives of the city of Worcester ? 

Townshend says that "on 13 April 1661 the first quire service said and 
sung in the Cathedral Church of Worcester since the reducing of the city 
of Worcester by the Parliamentary forces 25 July 1646.'" 

A few days afterwards, on 23 April, was " the solemn and most glorious 
coronation of Charles II. at Westminster, where did preach George Morley, 
Bishop of Worcester." Townshend, however, adds : 

" This day all the trained bands, horse and foot, were up in arms in 
several places to prevent insurrections and tumults of seditious fanatics 
and schismatics, haters of Monarchy and Episcopacy." 

He goes on to tell us that even in Worcester there were some evil disposed 
persons, for here 

" at break of day was posted up in the city a base, scurrilous, seditious and 
factious libel as followeth : 

A seasonable memento. April 23, 1661. 

This day it is said the King shall swear once more 
Just contrary to what he sware before. 
Great God, O can thy potent eyes behold 
This height of sin, and can thy vengeance hold r 
Nip thou the Bud before the Bloom begins 
And save our Sovereign from presumptuous sins. 
Let him remember, Lord ; in mercy grant 
That solemnly he sware the Covenant." 

The Worcester people do not seem to have been over anxious to find out 
the author of the lines or those who gave it publicity, for it was not until the 
a8th, nearly a week after, that the following notice appeared 2 : 

" That there was proclamation by the Criers within the city of Wor- 
cester that whosoever can discover the persons that made, posted, or 
published in Worcester that infamous libel npon the day of the King's 
coronation, April 23, shall have 20 for a reward." 

On 10 May Lord Clarendon as Lord Chancellor informed the House of 
Lords that 3 

" The King intended to make a progress towards the end of July, that 

he would then adjourn Parliament until winter. That he will make a 

progress to Worcester and all other places where God had preserved him, 

and when they meet again at winter they would find him with a Queen 

' in his arms." 

On 10 May tlie House of Commons appointed a committee of privileges, 
and took the unusual step of placing on it the two Worcestershire members, 

1 I-iP-70. 3 I., p. 75- 3 I-, P. 7 a : 


Sir John Pakington and Colonel Sandys, and the two city members, Sir 
Rowland Berkeley and Mr. Thomas Street. 
On 12 September 1661 

" D r George Morley, Bishop of Worcester, was solemnly brought into 
Worcester by my Lord Windsor, Lord Lieutenant of the County, and 
most of the gentry and all the clergy, there being ten trumpets then 
attending, and some volunteer militia horse, the trained bands of the 
city, and clergy band of foot in arms giving divers volleys of shot. As 
soon as he had rested, within half-an-hour the Bishop, with all the 
prebends and the quire meeting him at the college steps in their formalities, 
sang to the Quire, where he was enthroned, performing the ceremonies. 
Then Quire service. So to his Palace, where was noble treatment 

"15. On Sunday the Rev* Bishop made an admired sermon on 
II Cor. viii., 10, in the collegiate church of Worcester." l 

Another jurisdiction was revived that to some extent affected the county 
the court of the Marches of Wales. Lord Carbury was appointed Lord 
President, Lord Lieutenant of North and South Wales, 1 and sworn of His 
Majesty's Privy Council. On 4 October proclamation was made for 

" the Council of the Marches to sit again and determine causes according 
to instructions from His Majesty. The authority and proceedings of the 
said Council to be obeyed. All Mayors, Sheriffs and other officers of 
justice are commanded to serve all precepts and causes, and to yield all 
obedience and submission to orders and decrees of the court." '- 

Townshend relates an act of the new Bishop of Worcester, Morley, who 
he describes as " a most pitiful and pious man." He says 

" The Bishop forgave one David Morgan, a saddler, who in his drink 
railed and spake most reproachful language of him at Worcester, for 
which he was committed, and upon his submission the Bishop not only 
forgave him, but gave him $s. in money to relieve him, though the fellow 
better deserved to be publicly whipped through the city, and caused his 
release." 3 

The popularity of lecturers in the different towns before the war seems to 
have inclined the Bishops to try the system again. 

Townshend says the Bishop of London set up 4 lecturers in London, and 
" so hath the Bishops of Salisbury and Worcester in their several dioceses." 3 

Worcester rejoiced in ecclesiastical functions. We have seen how Bishops 
were welcomed ; it was now the turn of the new Dean, Dr. Warmestry, 
a man of a Worcester family, whose connection with the city is still recorded 
in the name of one of her slums, " Warmestry's slip." On 27 October he 

"was brought in this day to Worcester with about 100 horse as Dean of 
Worcester, the clergy band stood ready to receive him in the city. The 
40 King's scholars at the college gate. He alighted at his house, the 
Deanery, put on his robes and the prebends and Quire met him in the 
cloisters, sung Te Deum. Then came into the Quire. Then read his 

1 I., p. 78. > I., p. 79. " I.,p. 81. 


letters patent for Deanery and enjoyment of all rights belonging to his 
place. Took the oaths of supremacy, allegiance, and against simony. 
The Sub-Dean, Mr. Giles Thornborough, installed him ; quire service 
finished, every one went to his own place, and in the evening said service 
himself." 1 

Repairs were still going on at the Cathedral. In December it is stated 2 : 

" My Lord Coventrv gave 500 as a legacy towards the repairs of 
the Church of Worcester, and the Bishop of Worcester gave 100 and 
got by way of benevolence $oo more." 

On 1 8 January 1662 

" Lord Carbury as the Lord President of Wales was received into Ludlow 
Castle with great solemnity. The next day to the Court to read their 
Commission and instructions and Commission of Oyer and Terminer." 3 

Townshend notes the great scarcity of Lampreys 

'' Lampreys so scarce at this season as ever was known. I paid 
i is. 4<f. for reasonable ones for to send up to London out of the river 

Severn." * 

Neither the number sent nor whether they were the lampries or the 
lamperns is mentioned, so any comparison as to price is impossible, but 
on the whole it does not seem any very extraordinary price. 

He also records a great storm of wind mingled with lightning, destroying 
all great trees, especially elms, an infinity of barns and beast houses, weak 
houses, steeples, pinnacles and shafts of chimnies. The general loss is almost 
" invaluable," and irreparable the loss of fruit almost in an age.* 

Townshend gives the price of corn in Worcestershire 5 : 

" Best wheat ios,, Muncorn 95., rye 8s. 6d., oats 3$. 4^., barley 6s. ^d., 
white pease 5.5. 6</., grey pease 4.$. 8d. A very late seed time by reason 
of the continued rains these two last months, which being together warm 
makes an early spring of grass." 

On 23 April the King's Coronation was kept : 

" The King's Coronation Day solemnly kept by the Dean and Chapter 
in the Cathedral who preached on I Chron. 5 

" Clergy band attended, 6 trumpets, after prayers and sermon, which 
was not ended until half-an-hour past one. The dean feasted, gave a 
largesse to the soldiers and trumpets. At night bonfires in college, 
trumpets sounding, two drums beating and some guns. Before evening 
prayer, Dr. Britten, petty canons and quire went from the church door, 
trumpets first sounding, tlien Te Deum was sung round the sanctuary in 
churchyard, and so round to college gate into the church. Bells rung all 

The death of the Bishop of Winchester caused Morley to be translated to 
that see, and Gauden to be appointed Bishop of Worcester. 

1 I, P-8i. ' I., p. 83. ' I., p. 85. 

4 I., p. 86. I., p. 88. 


In August 1663 Townshend says l : 

" This month throughout the nation the Commissioners for purging 
corporations by virtue of an Act of Parliament have sat ; some places few, 
as in Worcester 6, who refused subscription ; in many towns where the 
Presbyterian ministers had very much tainted them, most were removed 
or put out themselves." 

Gauden's tenure of the see of Worcester was very brief. Townshend thus 
describes it 2 : 

"Sept. 21. On Sunday about 2 post noon died D r John Gauden, 
Bishop of Worcester, that most excellent, learned, eloquent, pious and 
indefatigable preacher, who came to Worcester August 5"' to his church, 
and died September 2i t , so he was in all but 7 weeks and 5 days in his 
see. He fell sick Sept. 1 1 of the stone, which made him fall into a fever, 
and died the 21'', and was buried in the Cathedral on the 29"', S' Michael's 
day, by the Dean of the church " (Thomas Warmestry). 

A monument in the Cathedral to Gauden states that he was translated from 
Exeter to Worcester : 

" sed honorem quem optime mernit non ita diu sustenuit meliori enim 
forte dignus jussus est a supremo rege ad beatorum sedes demigrare ubi 
expectat novam translationem harum scilicet reliquiarum in novissirna 
omnium restitutione." 

A recent writer speaks in still higher praise of Gauden 

" A writer whose powers have not even yet been fully appreciated, 
John Gauden is one of the most remarkable figures in the literary history of 
his time. A singularly adroit ecclesiastic, who was of the Parliament's 
party and yet not wholly repugnant to Laud, he was as well abused 
as any clergyman of his day, which is saying a great deal, but no man 
had a better skill in retort." 3 

He was succeeded as Bishop of Worcester by the Dean of Westminster, 
Dr. John Earle. 

Lord Windsor, who had been appointed Governor of Jamaica, attacked 
and captured from the Spaniards the town of St. Jago in Cuba. He came 
over to England to announce his victory, with which His Majesty and the 
whole court were very well pleased and satisfied with this performance of the 
Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire. 

Here the Diary concludes so far as the county is concerned. Townshend 
himself does not appear to have received any recognition of his work. 
During the rebellion he had taken an active part on the King's side, and 
must have done some very useful work for the King. He had also been 
a considerable sufferer from illegal levies and forced contributions, but he was 
treated, like so many other of the Royalists, with cold neglect. Whether 
his conduct as Muster Master was not considered sufficiently zealous to suit 
the views of Rupert and Maurice, or his connection with the rebel Sheriff 

1 I-. P- 93- " I., p. 94- 

1 J. A. W. Ward, "Cambridge History of English Literature," vol. vii., 160. 


Dobbyns, or his dispute with Sir John Pakington over Crutch, in some way it 
seems fairly certain that Townshend was not wholly a persona grata with the 
Royalists. In the " Leicester March," 1 Townshend's house at Elmley Lovett 
was assigned as the quarters of the county commissioners. Seven men, Sir 
Ralph Clare, Sir Richard Cave, Sir Rowland Berkeley, Sir James Croft, Sir 
Dudley Wyatt, Mr. Robert Wylde and Mr. Arthur Langston, were all quartered 
in it with their servants and horses, 2 so that probably there was little need 
for Maurice's order that no one else was to be quartered there without his 
express order. It does not appear how long the Commissioners stayed at 
Elmley Lovett j probably when after Naseby Charles retreated across the 
county to Herefordshire the Commissioners took themselves off. 

The Parliament had a special grudge against Elmley Lovett. In October 
1645 they demanded 10 a month from the parish, and if it was not paid 
they were threatened with pillaging and plundering, your houses fired, and 
your persons imprisoned. 8 

In December the Commissioners seem to have been smitten with a sense 
of the unfair way Townshend had been treated, 1 for they issued an order which, 
after stating that Townshend had quartered the Commissioners in his house at 
Elmley while the King was at Droitwich, and the rest of the parish was 
handed over to Col. Wray, 60 of whose horses were at forced quarters in 
Townshend's meadows, yet he was still assessed for payment of the composi- 
tion made for payment for Wray's quarters. It was ordered that Townshend 
should be discharged from such payment, which should be charged on the rest 
of the parish. 

Townshend on his retirement to Elmley Lovett was not suffered to remain 
in peace. In 1640 Townshend had been one of the Commissioners for raising 
the money demanded from each parish by Charles. The whole sum payable 
by Elmley Lovett had not been paid. Proceedings were taken against Towns- 
hend and the other Commissioners to make them personally pay the sum 
unpaid. Townshend put in a plea saying that under the circumstances he should 
not be asked for the balance. The matter was allowed to rest for two years, 
till August 1651, and was then pressed on again, but other matters were then 
taking place in the county, and so far as is known after the battle of Worcester 
no further proceedings were taken against him in respect of the claim. 

In the summer of 1659 an Act of Parliament was passed for settling the 
militia for England and Wales. Commissioners were appointed for each 
county, who were to ascertain before I May 1660 all persons who had property 
in land of a clear annual value of over 15, as such persons were liable to 
serve in the militia. The Worcestershire Commissioners were all strong Parlia- 
ment men. They were appointed both for the city and county of Worcester. 
Their names are : 

Lord Chief Baron Wilde, Sir Thomas Rous, Baronet, William Say, William 
Ligon, Edmund Wilde, Richard Salway, John Dormer, Nicholas Lechmere, 

1 II., p. 233. 3 II., p. 234. 3 II., p. 239. 4 II., p. 240. 


Gervase Buck, Henry Bromley of Upton, Edward Salwey, Thomas Milward, 
William More, John James, William Collins, John Roberts of Church 
Honey bourn, Richard Vernon, Mayor of Worcester, John Corbet, Edward 
Elvins, Edmund Pitt, Tlieophilus Andrews, Thomas Simons, Edmund Giles, 
senior, Edmund Giles, junior, Walter Giles, Tlieophilus Alies, Thomas Bound, 
John Corbet, William Cheatle, Thomas Boyston, Edmund More and William 
Bendy. The Commissioners ordered the constable of each parish to send in 
the names of all persons in their parish who had above the sum of 15 in 
lands, or personal estate worth 200, and an account of what monies, horses 
and arms had been charged upon or taken from any person within the parish 
by order of the former Commissioners of the militia. 

The constable returned Henry Townshend and Henry his son as having 
200 a year, and added, H. Townshend and his son for horse, arms, and one 
month's pay advance to a troop 13 $s. od. 

Townshend seems to have had his horse taken from him by Baptist 
Harris of the Oxford Militia, and his pistols by Lieut. Milward. 

The Worcester Commissioners at once made an order that Harris of Brad- 
forton should restore Townshend his horse, and that Townshend should bring 
his arms and furniture into the magazine at Worcester. Townshend com- 
plained he was too highly assessed, and was charged as much as those who 
had three and fourfold his estate. 

The Restoration probably put an end to Townshend's complaints. At 
the Midsummer Quarter Sessions on 28 June 1660 there were only four 
justices present, Townshend, Sir Rowland Berkeley, Sir John Pakington and 
G. Symonds. Townshend was in the chair, at least he says he charged the 
grand jury. 1 Later there was a new Commission of the Peace containing no 
less than 53 names, of whom 24 were of the quorum, including Townshend. 
He was also on the grand jury at the first assizes after the Restoration. 

Townshend seems also to have taken part in one very important matter 
that came on for consideration at the Michaelmas Sessions 1660, the abolition 
of purveyance. The county had to find 20 oxen, 200 sheep, 20 stirkes and 
150 lambs for the King's provision. This was compounded for by a money 
payment, and according to Townshend the county saved 380 a year. 3 

Townshend did not long survive the Restoration. His Diary goes down to 
7 April 1663. He died later in the year and was buried at Elmley Lovett. 

Townshend was not in any sense more than a country squire, but his life 
and his Diary are of great interest as shewing what was the life of a country 
gentleman who was an active county magistrate during the civil war. It gives 
us an insight into the County History during that period and during the 
Commonwealth and Restoration that is not found anywhere else. 

1 II., p. 277. -' II., p. 282. 

( cxii ) 


Abberley, xxxv, Ivi 
Abberton, Ivi 
Abbots Lench, Iv 
Abbots Morton, Ivi 
Abrell, James, xcviii 
Acton, Iviii 

Anne, ii 

Co-heiress, xiii 

Eleanor, ii 

Elizabeth, ii, xii 

Penelope, ii 

Sir John, ii 

Sir Robert, ii 

Sir William, lix 
Act of Indemnity, xcv 
Advocates' Fees, Ixxvii 
Aid for Defence, xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxviii 
Alcester, Ixx 
Alderstone, Iv 
Aldington, Ivi 
Ale Sellers, vi 
Aliens, xlix 
Allerton, x 
All Hallows' Well, cii 
Allies, Theophilus, xciii, xciv, cxi 
All Saints Ward, Ixxxi 
Alvechurch, Iv 
Anabaptists, civ 
Andrews, Theophilus, cxi 
Anglesea, xcvi 
Apley Park, ii 
Appeal by the King, xxxvi 
Archbishop Laud, xiii, xcv, cix 
Areley, Iv 
Armistice, xc 

Armours, Captain, Ixxx, Ixxxv 
Arms, xxvi, xxvii 

Method of Search for, xxvii 
Army in England, xciii 

in Power, xcii 

Array, Commission or Commissioners of, 
xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, 
xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii, xiii, xliii, xlv, 
xlvi, xlvii, xlviii, xlix, lii, liii, liv, Iv, Iviii, 
Ix, Ixi, Ixii, Ixiv, Ixxiii 

Names of, xxvi, xxvii, Ixxiv 
Artillery, viii 
Ashburnham, xlvi 

Ashby, Mr., cii 

Assessments, iii, iv, x, xi, xlix, lix, Ixxi 

Monthly, Ixx 

by Washington, Ixxxii, Ixxxvi 

for Maimed Soldiers, xlix 
Assize, Commission of, xcv 
Assizes, xx, xxi, xxviii 

Presentment to, xxi 

Association of Counties, xxvi, lix, Ixii, Ixxiii 
Astley, Ixxxv 

Lord, Ixxiv, Ixxv, Ixxvi, Ixxvii, Ixxviii 

Sir Jacob, ix 
Atch Lonch, Iv 

Bacon, Mr., xxxiv, Ixxxiii 

John, xli 

Badger, Captain Talbot, xcv 
Badsey, Ivi 
Bailiffs, v 
Baker, John, xxxviii, xli 

Switched, Ixxxvi 
Bakers, Ixxxv, Ixxxvi 
Baptists, God-fearing, xcvii 
Barratt, Edward, xcviii 

Sir Edward, Ixxiv 
Bartlett, Mr., xxvii 
Battenhall, Iv 
Battle of Worcester, ex 
Baxter, xiv, Ixvii, xcvi, xcvii, xcix 

Benjamin, xcv 

Richard, xcv, ci 
Beaumont, John, xxxii 
Bedford, lix, xcviii 
Begmonts, Colonel, xxxii 
Bclbroughton, xiii, xiv, Ixxvii, xcviii 
Bendy, William, cxi 
Bengeworth, Iv, Ivi 
Bentley, xiii, Iv 

Pauncefoot, iv 
Beoley, x, Iv 
Berkeley, Iviii 

Mr., Ixxxix 

Mr. Justice, iv 

Henry, xvii 

Sir Robert, c 

Sir Rowland, xxii, xxvi, liii, Iv, Ivi, 
Ixxiv, Ixxxvi, cv, cvii, ex, cxi 



Berkshire, ix 

Berrow, Iv 

Berry, Major-General, xcvi, xcvii, xcviii, 

xcix, c 
Bewdley, v, viii, ix, xxiv, xxxvi, Iv, Ixxii 

Garrison at, xxxvi 
Billeting in City, xxv, li 
Bill of Indemnity, ciii 
Birch, General, Ixxviii 
Birlingham, x, Iv 

Rectory, xciv 
Birts Morton, x, Iv 
Bishampton, Ivi 
Bishop, Enthronement of, cvii 
Bishop and Clergy, Contribution, v 
Bishop Gauden, ci, cviii, cix 

Morley, cviii 

Prideau, xlix 

of London, cvii 

of Salisbury, cvii 

of Winchesler, cviii 

of Worcester, ci cvi cvii cviii, cix 
Bishops, xxv 

Frome, ii, xiii 
Bishop, Sergt. -Major, Iv 
Blackmore, Park, xcviii 
Blakenhurst, iii, v, xv, xxxix, xliii 
Blockley, Iv, xcv 
Blount, Captain Francis, xxix, xxx, xxxi, 

xxxv, xl 

Blunt, Captain John, xxxv, xl 
Bonfires, ci, cii 
Boomd, Captain, xcv 
Bound, Thomas, cxi 
Bourne, John, iv 
Boylson, Bailiff, vi 
Boyston, Thomas, cxi 
Brace, Captain Philip, xxv 
Bradforton, cxi 
Bradley, Ixvii 
Brammage, Mr., xcv 
Bransford, Ivi 
Bread, Output of, Ixxxv 
Breda, ci 
Bredicote, Iv 
Bredon, Iv 
Breereton, Captain, Iv, Ivi 

General, Ixxviii 
Bretforton, Iv 
Bricklehampton, Iv 
Bridgenorth, xxx, xxxi 
Bridges, Talbot, xcii 
Bridgman, Sir Orlando, xcv 
Bright, Henry, ii 
Bristol, Lord Lieutenant of, xvii 
Britten, Dr., cviii 
Broadwas, Iv 
Broadway, li, Iv 
Bromley, Henry, Ixxiv, xcii, xciii, cxi 

Mr. H., Ixix 

Henry of Holt, Ix, Ixii 

the Sheriff, Ixvii 
Bromsgrove, iii, ix, x, xiii, xv, xvi, xliii, Iv, 

Ixvii, xcviii, ciii 
Brooke, Robert Lord, xvi 

Lord, xxiv, lix 

Broughton Hackett, Iv 
Brown, Mr. Richard, ciii 

William, xcii 
Buck, Gervasse, cxi 
Bucke, James, xci, xcii 
Buckingham, lix 
Buckinghamshire, v 
Bund, Thomas, xx 

Captain, of Upton, xcv 
Burley, Captain, xcv, ciii 
Burn, John, xxix 
Burning for petit treason, civ 
Burr, William, xcviii 
Bushley, Iv 
Butts, Lieut., Ixxxiv 
Byron, xvi 

Captain, Ixxxiii 

Occupation of City, xxviii 

Caldwell, xcviii 
Calthrop, Captain, Ixxx 
Cambridge, lix 
Camp, xlvi 

Capel, Lord, xxix, xxxviii, xiii, ciii 
Carbury, Lord, cvii, cviii 
Carnarvon, xcvi 
Cassin, Captain, Ivi 
Castlemorton, xxvii, Iv 
Castle (at Worcester), Ixxi 
Cathedral, xxviii, cii, ciii, civ, cvi, cvii, cviii, 

Final Service, xc 
Cattle raided, Ixxxiv, Ixxxv 
Cavaliers, xcv, xcix, c 
Cavalier persons, xcix 
Cave, Sir R.,cx 

Celebration of New Year, xxxix 
Chacely and Staunton, Iv 
Chaddesley Corbett, x, xiii, xiv, Ixxvii 
Chandos, Lord, li 

George Lord, xvi 

Charles, King, i, iv, v, vii, viii, xx, xxi, 
xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xxix, xxxii, xlir, xlv, xlvi, 
xlvii, Iviii, Ixx, Ixxiv, Ixxv, xcvi, xcix, 

Coronation, ci 

Surrender to Scotch, Ixxv 
Charles II., Coronation of, cvi, cviii 

Commemoration of escape, civ 

Proclamation of, cii 

Long Parliament, cv 
Charles, Prince, xxvi 
Charlton, Iv, Ixxiv, Ixxxvii 
Cheatle, William, cxi 
Chester, xcviii 

Chester, Captain Charles, lix 
Chicheley, Mr., ciii 
Child, William, xxvi, Ixxiv 
Churchill, xiv, Iv 
Church Government, xiv 
Church Honeybourne, Iv, cxi 
Church Lench, Iv 
Churchwardens, xiv 



Cirencester, li 

Citizens, Fidelity of, Ixxxviii 
City, Contest for, xcv 
No. of people, Ixxxi 
Sheriff, xxiv 
Wards, Ixxxi 

City of Worcester (see Worcester) 
Civil War (see War, Civil) 
Claines, vi, x, Ivi 

Clare, Sir Ralph, xi, xxvi, xlvii, lx, Ixii, 
Ixxii, Ixxiv, Ixxxvi, xcv, xcviii, xcix, ciii, ex 
Clarendon, Lord, cv, cvi 
Claynes, vi 

Clent, Captain John, xxiv 
Clergy, v, xxv, xxxiv 

Penalty for Officiating, xcvii 
Clifton on Teme, x, Ivi 
Cloister Green, Ixxxviii 
Cloisters, cvii 
Clubmen, Ixii, Ixviii 
Code of Orders, Ixxiii 
Cofton Hacket, Iv 
Colchester, xciii 
Cole, Anthony, xvi 
Colles, Walter, ii 
Collins, John, ci 

William, lix, xcii, xciii, xcv, cxi 
Collyer, Giles, xcv 
Colt, Captain, xxxi 
Colte, Captain George, xxxv, xl 
Commissioners, xv, xix, xx, xxiii, xxiv, 
xxv, xxvi, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxvii, xxxviii, 
xlvi, xlvii, xlviii, xlix, lix, Ixxii, Ixxxiii, 
Ixxxvi, xcix, ex 

City (Parliament), xcii, xciii 
County, lii 

Names of, xxvi, xxvii, Ixxiv 
Parliamentary, xci 
Royalist, xii 
Commission of Array, xx, xxv, xxvi, lii, Ixxiii 

Peace, cxi 

Commissioners of Array, xvii, xviii, xix, xx, 
xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xxviii, xlii, xliii, 
xlv, xlvi, lii, liii, liv, Iv, Iviii, Ixi, Ixii, Ixiv, 
Ixxiii, Ixxxv 

Names of, xxvi, xxvii 
Charges against, xlvii 
Commissioner of Assize, xcv 

Militia, ex, cxi 

Committee for Government of City, xc 
Commons, The, xvi, xvii 

House of, xii, xviii, xix, xcv, ci, cvi 
Commonwealth, xcix, c, cxi 
Concessions by Prince Rupert, liii 
Coney's case, xcv 
Conference at Hallow, Ixxxvii 
Coniers, Sir John, xvi 
Coningsby, Major, Ixxxvii 
Contributions, lii, liv, Ivii, Ixi, Ixii, Ixiv, 
Ixv, Ixxiv 

How levied, Ixvi 
Monthly, xii, xlvii, 1, liv 
Parliamentary, Ixxi 
Convention Parliament, ci 
Cooke, Thomas, lix 

Cookes, Thomas, xci, xcii, xciii 
Cooksey, xiii, Iv 
Coote, Chudley, Ixxviii 

Lord, cv 
Corbett, John, xciii, cxi 

Ursula, civ 
Corn Market, cii 

Price of, cviii 

Cornwallis, Charles, xcii, xciii 
Coronation Charles II., cvi, cviii 
Corporation of Worcester, Ixxxiii 
Corporations, Purging of, cix 
Cotheridge, Iv 
Cotswold, Ixviii 
Council, The, v 
of State, ci, cv 
of War, xxxviii, liii, Ixxxviii 
at Worcester, xxii 

Counties, Association of, xxvi, lix, Ixii, Ixxiii 
Combining, lix 
Consent to arm, lx 
Plan, Ixi 

Representatives, lx 
County Documents, i 
Justices, xx 

Rate, present day, vii, xi 
Royalist charge on, xliii 
State of, liii, Ixxi, Ixxii, Ixxiv 
Democratic ideas, liv 
Court of Marches of Wales, cvii, cviii 
Coventry, xv, xvi, xxiii, xlviii 
Lord, xx, xxi, xxii, cviii 
Lord Keeper, iv 
Thomas Lord, xxvi 
Thomas, cii 

Cox, Edward, xciii, xciv 
Cradley, Iv 

Cresfield, Richard, xci 
Cresheld, Richard, xciii 
Creswell, Richard, xlix 

Sergeant, xlix 
Crishold, Richard, lix 
Croft, Sir James, ex 
Cromwell, xciv, xcv, xcvi, xcvii, xcix,ci 

Lord Protector, xcv 
Cropthorne, Iv 
Cross, The, cii 
Crow, Richard, viii 
Crowle, Ivi 

Crown, The, xii, xvi, liii 
Crutch, xci, ex 
Cuba, cix 

Culpepper, Sir John, xlvi 
Custos Rotulorum, c 

Dacres, Francis Lord, xvi 
Dalton, xii 
Davies, John, lix 

William, vi 

Day of Humiliation, ci 
Dean, The, cviii, cix 

of Westminster, cix 



Dean of Worcester, civ, cvii, cviii 

Installation of, cvii 

and Chapter, cv, cviii 

and Prebends, ciii 
Deanery, The, cvii, cviii 
Defence, Association of Counties for, xxvi 

Aid for, xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxviii 
Defford, civ 
Delinquency, xciii, xcvi 
Delinquents, xii, xxvii, xxviii, xxxiv, xlviii, 
xlix, xc 

Estates of, Ixi, Ixvi, ci 
Denbigh, xcvi 

Basil, Earl of, lix 

Lord, lix 

Dennis, Captain, xxxv, xl 
Deputy- Lieutenants, viii, ix, xiii 
Derby, lix, xcviii 
Desborough, xcvii, xcviii 
Devereux, Sir Walter, xxxviii, xlii, lix 
Devon, Earl of, xvii 
Diary of Henry Townshend, i, ii, iv, viii, 

xii, xviii, xx, xciv, xcv, ci, cix, cxi 
Digby, Sir John, ix 
Diglis, Ixxxiv 
Dingley, Col., Ixxxvii 

Col. William, xci, xcii, xciii 

Edward, xlix, xci 

Sir Edward, Iviii, Ixxiii 
Dingley's Shrievalty, vi 
Dobbins, Dobbyns, Dobyns, lix, ex 

Anne, ii, xiii 

Daniel, xi, xii, xiii, xci, xcii, xciii 

Captain Daniel, lix 

Dorothea, ii 

John, ii 

Mrs., xii 
Document, Iviii 
Dodderhill, x, xiv 
Doddeswell, Dr., ciii 
Doddingtree, iii, v, xv, xxxix, xliii, Ixxvil 
Domestic Incidents, i, ii, cii 
Donnington, Ixxviii, Ixxxv 
Dormer, John, ex 
Dormston, Ivi 
Dorsnet, John, xcii 
Doverdale, xiv, Iv 
Droitwich, i, v, viii, ix, xi, xxi, xxii, xxv, 

liii, Iv, Ivi, Ivii, Ixxviii, xcviii, ex 
Duddeley, William, xxxii 
Dudley, x, xxxvi, Ii, Iv, Ixxiv 

Castle, Ivii 

Edward, Earl of, xxvi 

Garrison at, xxxvi 

Lord, xix 

Dunne, John, xciii 
Dunsmore, Lord, xxiv 

Earle, Dr. John, cix 
Earls Croome, Iv 
East Anglia, lix 

Eastern Counties, lix 

Edgehill, xxi 

Edgioke, John, xcii, xciii 

Edwards, Roland, viii 

Ejected Clergy, xcvii 

Eldersfield, Iv 

Election, Cromwell's Parliament, xcv 

Long Parliament, cv 
Elizabeth, Queen, xiv, xv 
Elm Bridge, xiv 
Elmley, v, viii, xcviii 

Castle, Iv 

Lovett, i, ii, iii, iv, vi, vii, viii, x, xi, 
xiii, xiv, xv, xxxix, xlii, xliv, 1, Ivi, 
Iviii, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxiii, Ixxvii, xci, ex, 

Elsynge, H., xviii 
Elton, Ambrose, xlix 
Elvins, Alderman, xcv 

Edward, xciii, xciv, cxi 
England, Army in, xciii 

Scotch Army enters, ix 
Enthronement of Bishop, cvii 
Escrig, Edward, Lord Howard of, xvi, xvii 
Essix, Earl of, xxviii, xxxiii, xiv, lix, Ixix, 

Robert, Earl of, xvi 
Estington, Iv 

Estrop, Foulke, xciii, xciv 
Evesbatch, ii, xiii 

Evesham, v, viii, ix, xxxvi, xiv, li, liv, Iv, 
Ivi, Ivii, Ixv, Ixxi, xcv, xcvii, ciii 

Garrison at, xxxvi 

Governor of, Ixvi 

Mayor of, xcii 
Evett, John, Ixxiv 

William, Ixxiv, Ixxviii 
Exchequer, vii 
Exeter, cix 

Fairfax, Ixxix 

Sir Thomas, Ixix, Ixxx, xc, xci 
Fairfax's forces, xcii 
Falkland, Viscount, xvi 
Farringdon, ix 
Feckenham, x, Iv, Ixvii 
Fenn, Edward, vi 
Field, John, xviii 
Fiennes, Nathaniel, xlviii 
Fifth Monarchy Men, civ 
Finch, xlvii 

Francis, xxvii, xxxiv 

Mr., cii 
Firth, xxxiv 
Fisher, Major, Ixxii 
Fitter, Captain, Iv, Ivi, Ivii 
Fladbury, Ivi, xcviii 
Fleetwood, xcviii 
Flint, xcvi 
Flyford Flavel, Ivi 
Foley, Mr., Ixxii 



Foord, Henry, xlix 
Force, Royalist, Ixi 
Ford, Henry, xxxix, xcii 

John, xxxv 

Foregate, The, xliv, Ixxxvii 
Forester, Colonel, ii 

George, ii 
Forts, xri 
Foster, W. Orme, ii 

Captain James, ii 
Fourd, Henry, xciii 
Fownes, John, lix, xci 

of Bromsgrove, Ixvii 
Fox, Colonel, lix 

Colonel John, lix 

Tinker, lix 
France, c 

Franck, John, xviii 
Frankes, Frances, xciii, xciv 
Frankley, Iv 
Free Quarters for Soldiers, liii, liv 

Governor of Madresfield, Ixxxiy 

of Worcester, xxix, xxxii, xxxv, xxxviii, 
xlvi, xlix, lii, liii, Iv, Ivi, Iviii, lix, 
Ixii, Ixvi, Ixvii, Ixix, Ixxiii, Ixxiv, 
Ixxv, Ixxvii, Ixxviii, Ixxix, Ixxxii, 
Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, Ixxxvi, Ixxxvii, 
Ixxxix, xc 

Governor's own Troops, xxxii 

Grafton, xv, Iv 
Flyford, Ivi 
Manor, xv 

Grand Jury, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxxviii, xli, 
xlii, liii, liv, Iviii, Ixiii, Ixxvi, Ixxvii 

Great and Little Comberton, Ivi 

Great Malvern, Ivi, xcviii 

Great Seal, Lord Keeper of, xvi 

Greaves, Thomas, xcii 

Greer, Thomas, xlix 

Greswold, Henry, xcii 

Greswolde, Humphrey, xciii 

Grievances, Ixiii, Ixvii 

Grimley, Iv 

Guildhall, Worcester, Ixx 

Gaol delivery at Worcester, civ, cv 

Fever, cv 
Gardiner, xcix 

Captain Samuel, lix 
Gardner, vi 

Samuel, xcii, xciii 
Garrison at Bewdley, xxxvi 

Dudley, xxxvi 

Evesham, xxxvi 

Worcester, xii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv, 
xxxvi, xl, xliv, Ivii, Ixx, Ixxvii, Ixxix, 
Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, Ixxxvii 
Gascoigne, Sir Thomas, lix 
Gauden, Dr., ci, cviii, cix 
Geers, Thomas, xlix 
Gerard, Colonel, Iv 

Sir Gilbert, liii, Ivi 
Gerrard, liv, Ixvi, Ixxi 

Sir Gilbert, xlix, Iv, xcviii 
Gides, John, lix 
Giles, Edmund, xci, ci, cxi 

John, Ixvii, xcii 

Walter, cxi 

a young lawyer, ci 
Glamorgan, Ixxxv 

Lord, xxi 

Gloucester, xxvii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xli, xliii, 
xlviii, Iviii, Ix 

City, xv, xvi, xxvii, xxxii, xlviii 
Gloucestershire, xv, xvi, xlviii, xcviii 

Lord Lieutenant of, xvi 
Goldicot, Iv 

Government, vii, xii, xiii, xciii, xcv, xcix, 
c, ci 

Departments, vii 
Governor, Iv 

of Evesham, Ixvi 

of Hartlebury, Ixxvii, Ixxviii 


Habington, Mr., Iviii, Ixxxvii 

Hackctt, Thomas, Ixxviii 

Hagley, xiv, Iv 

Hales, Sir Edward, cv 

Halfshire, Hundred of, i, iii, iv, v, ix, x, xiv, 

xv, xvi, xlii, xliii 
Hallow, Iv 

Conference, Ixxxvii 
Hamilton, Sir James, xxxv, xl 
Hampden's Case, iv, v, vii 
Hampton, Ivi 

Great and Little, Iv 

Lovett, xci 
Hanbury, ii, xx, Ivi 
Hanley Castle, x, Iv 
Harewell, William, cii 
Harley, Sir Robert, lix 
Harris, Baptist, cxi 

John, xxxii 

Hartlebury, xii, xiv, Ii, Ivi, Ivii, Ixv, Ixviii, 
Ixxiv, Ixxvii 

Castle, Ixviii 

Governor of, Ixxvii, Ixxviii 

Fortifications, Ixxvii 

Treasurer, Ixxvii 
Harvington, Iv 
Hastings, Henry, xvii 
Hemming, Richard, Ixxviii 
Henderson, Henry, i, vii, viii 

Sergt. -Major, xxxv 

Herbert, Lord Father's condition to ad- 
vance Money, xxix 

Lord, xxi, xxix 

Lord Chief Justice, cv 

Lord of Raglan, xvi 

Sir Henry, xxvi 



Herbert, Sir William, Ixxiv 
Hereford, xv, xxvi, xlviii, Ix, Ixii, Ixix, Ixx, 
Ixxii, Ixxiii, Ixxiv, Ixxv, xcv, xcviii 

Co., ii 
Herefordshire, xiii, xvi, xlviii, li, Ixvi, ex 

Lord Lieutenant of, xvi 
Herelite, Mr., Ixxi 
Herring, Michael, xciv 
Hertford, xcviii 
Herts, lix 

Hide (Officer), Conduct of, xxxix, xl 
Highward, Ixxxi 
Hill Croome, Iv 
Hill and Moor, Ivi 
Hill, Mr., xxxviii 

Surveyor, xxxviii 
Himbleton, Ivi 
Hindlip, x, Ixxxvii 
Hinton, xlv 

Historical MSS. Com., xxix 
His Majesty's Army, Ixviii 

Royal Person, xix 
Hoblench, Ivi 
Holdfast, Iv 
Holt, Iv 
Holy Cross, x 
Hopkins, Mr., xi, xcv 

William, xci, xcii 
Hornyold, Thomas, xcviii, cii 
Horses and Carts, viii 
Hostilities, xxiii 

Cessation of, Ixxxvii 
House of Commons, xii, xviii, xix, xcv, 

ci, cvi 

Howard of Escrigge, Edward Lord, xvi, 
xvii, lix 

Sir Robert, xii 
Howson, Iv 

Huddington, x, Ivi, xcviii 
Huet, Dr., ciii 

Hundred of Blakenhurst, iii, v, xv, xxxix, 

Doddingtree, iii, v, xv, xxxix, xliii, Ixxvii 

Halfshire, i, iii, iv, v, ix, x, xiv, xv, xvi, 
xxxix, xlii, xliii 

Oswaldslow, iii, v, xv, xxxix, xliii, Ixviii 

Pershore, iii, v, xv, xliii 
Hunt, Henry, lix, Ixvii, xcii 
Huntend, Ixvii 
Huntingdon, lix, xcviii 

Earl of, xvii 
Husbands, Edward, xviii 


Illegal Taxations, Ixvii 
Ingram, Henry, xxvii, Ixxiv, Ixxx 
Inkberrow, x, Iv 
Installation of Dean, cvii 
Ireland, xcii 

Army in, lix 
Irish, The, Ixxxv 
Isle of Ely, lix 

of Wight, xcv 


Jamaica, c 

Governor of, cix 
ames, King, xiv 
ames II, cv 
ames, John, xciii, cxi 
_effereys, William, xlix 
Jeffries, William, xcii, xciii 
"effryes, William, xlix 
ervis, Sir Thomas, xciii 
oyner, Mr., xxxi 
ustices, xx, Ix 
Committee, Ix 
County, xx 

of the Peace, xiii, xiv, xviii, xix, xxi 
The King's Majesties, xix 


Keite, John, xciii 

Kempsey, Iv, Ixxxiv, xcv 

Kidderminster, i, iii, v, ix, x, xi, xiv, xv, Ivi, 

Ixxii, xcv 

King, The, vii, viii, x, xvi, xvii, xix, xx, xxi, 
xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii, 
xxix, xxxii, xxxv, xxxvi, xlii, xliv, xlv, 
xlvi, xlvii, liii, Iviii, Ixi, Ixii, Ixiv, Ixvii, 
Ixix, Ixxi, Ixxiv, xci, xciii, xcv, ci, cv, 
cix, ex 

Address to, ciii 

Appeal by, xxxvi 

Commission, Appointment of, Ixxiv 

Execution of, xciv 

Libel on, cvi 

Orders by, Ixxiv 

,, Secret, Ixxv 
Petition to, Ixi, Ixii 
reply to, Ix 
Proclamation of, Ixii, cii 

,, by, xii, xliv, liii 

Royalists, Treatment of, xxxii 
Russell, Message to, xxxv, xxxvi 
Thanks to County, xxxix 
King James, xiv 
King's Arms, ci 

Army, ix, xlv, Ixx, Ixxii 
Commissioners, Ixx 
Forces, xii, xxvii, xxxviii, xii 
Judges, ciii 
Letter, ci 
Ministers, Hi 
Prerogative, cv 
Provision, cxi 

Euarters, Ixxii 
cholars, cvii 
Soldiers, Ixv 
Vicegerent, Ixvii 
King's Norton, iv, Iv 
Kington, xiii, Ivi 
Knightley, Samuel, lix 
Knighton, x, Ivi 
Knights, xviii 



Knole, The, cii 
Knotsford, Iv, Ivi 
John, Ixxviii 
Sir John, Ixxx 
Kyre, Ixii, ci 

Lambert, xcvii 
Lampreys, Scarcity of, cviii 
Lancaster, xxvi, xcviii 
Langston, Mr. Anthony, Ixxxvi 

Arthur, ex 

Latham, John, xcii, xciii 
Laud, Archbishop, xiii, xcv, cix 
Laudian party, xiv 
Law as to Sheriffs, xii 
Leach, Mr., Iviii 
Lechmere, Nicholas, Ixix, xci, xcii, xciii, 

xcv, ci, ciii, ex 
Leicester, lix, Ixxii, xcviii 

March, ex 
Leicestershire, Ix 

Commission of Array, Ix 
Leigh, Ivi 
Lench, John, ii 
Lenchwicke, Iv, Ivii 
Lenthall, Hon. William, xviii 
Leominster, ix 
Levy, iv 

Libel on King, cvi 
Lichfield, xvi, xlviii, Ixii, Ixxviii 
Ligon, William, ex 
Lincoln, xcviii 
Lindridge, Ivi 
Litany, Ixxxv 
Littelton, Capt.-Lieut., ciii 

Lord Keeper, xiii, xvi 

Sir Edward, xxvi, Ixxxvi 

Thomas, xxii, xxvi 
Little Malvern, Iv 
Littleton, J., xxvi 
Littletons, The, Ivii 
Liturgy, xiv 
Lloyd, Jo., Ixxi 
Loafers, vi 

Lodging House, Common, vi 
London, vi, xi, xiv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xx, xxi, 
xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xiv, xcv, xcix, cviii 

Bishop of, cvii 

Lord Mayor of, xvi 

Tower of, xvi 
Longdon, Iv 

Long Parliament, x, xiii, xcv, cv 
Lord Chief Baron, xcv 
Lord General, viii 
Lord Keeper, xiv, xvi 

Coventry, iv 

Littleton, xiii, xvi 
Lord Lieutenant, lix, ciii 
Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire, xxiv 

Lords, The, v, ciii 

Lords Lieutenant, viii, xvi, xvii 

of Privy Council, vi 
Lovelace, Lord, xxviii 
Low Countries, Ixxxvii 
Loyalty, Declaration of, Ixix, Ixx 
Ludlow, Ix 

Castle, cviii 
Lulsley, Iv 
Lunde, Mr., Ixxxiii 
Lunn, John, Ixxxvi 

Lygon, William, Ixix, Ixxviii, xci, xcii, xciii 
Lyttelton, Sir Edward, iv 

Sir Henry, xcv, xcix, c 

Sir Thomas, xxvii 


Macaulay, Lord, cv 
Mackintosh, St. James, cv 
Maddersfield, Ivi 
Madresfield, Ixxiv, Ixxviii, Ixxxiv 

Governor of, Ixxxiv 
Magazines, xxv, xxviii 

Keeper of, Ivii 

at Worcester, xxii, ciii, cxi 
Magdalen College, civ 
Mamble, x, Iv 
Manchester, Earl of, Ixix 
Marches of Wales, Court of, cvii, cviii 
Market Days, Ixxvii 
Marshall's Fees, Ixxvii 
Marshall of St. James, c 
Marshalsea to Garrison of Worcester, 


Martin, William, xcii 
Martley, Iv, Ivii 
Martyn Hussingtree, Ivi 
Massey, xli, li, Ix 

Colonel, Ixix 
Master of the Rolls, xlvi 
Match Maker, The, Ivi 
Mathon, Ivi 

Mattross, duty of a, Ixiv 
Mattrosses, xxxiv 

Maurice, Prince, xxxiv, xxxv, xliii, Ixiii, 
Ixviii, Ixix, Ixx, Ixxiii, Ixxiv, Ixxv, Ixxvi, 
xci, cix, ex 

Orders by, Ixvii, Ixviii, Ixx, Ixxiv 

Protestation, Ixix 

Provisions for, Ixiv 
Mayland, Thomas, xxxii 
Mayor of Evesham, xcii 

of Worcester, v, xxiv, xxvii, xxviii, 
xxxi, xxxix, xlix, Ixxiv, Ixxviii, 
Ixxix, Ixxxiii, Ixxxviii, Ixxxix, xc, xcii, 
cii, cxi 

Meeting of Nobility and Others, Ivii 
Merioneth, xcvi 

Military Forces, Control of, xvi 
Militia, xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, xxi, xxiii, 



Milward, xci 

Lieut., cxi 

Thomas, lix, Ixvii, xcii, xciii, cxi 
Minister, The, xiv 
Mohun, Lieut., ix 

Money, xiv, xv, xxv, xxvi, xxix, xxxiv, xxxv, 
xxxvii, xxxix, xlix, 1 

for Title and Garter, xxix 
Monk, xcix, cii 
Monmouth, Ix, xcviii 
Monmouthshire, xcvi 
Montgomery, xcvi 
Monthly Contributions, Ixi, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv, 

Ixv, xcii 

Moore or More, William, lix, xci, xcii, 

Capt. William, Ixxx 
More, Edmund, cxi 
Morgan, David, cvii 

General, Ixxviii 
Morley, Bishop, cviii 

George, cvi 

Dr. George, cvii 

Morning Prayer in Cathedral, ciii 
Mucklow, Major Thomas, ciii 
Muster Master, Ixviii, ciii, cix 

Oath for Mutual Assistance, Ixxix 

Oblivion and Pardon, Act of, xcix, c 

Oddingley, x, lv, Ivii 

Old Swinford, lv 

Oley, Mr., civ 

Oliver, Dr., civ 

Ombersley, x, xiv, lv 

Ordinance Association of Counties, lix 

for raising money, Iviii 
,, troops, Iviii 

of the Militia, xix 
Osburne, Edward, xcviii 
Oswaldslow, Hundred of, iii, v, xv, xxxix, 

xliii, Ixviii 
Overbury, lv 

Sir Giles, lix 
Oxford, xxxv, xiv, xlvi, xlviii, Ixiv, Ixxiii, 

Ixxiv, Ixxix, xcviii 
Oxfordshire, Lord Lieut, of, xvi 
Oxon, xcviii 
Oyer and Terminer, Commission of, cviii 


Nafford, lv 

Nanfan, John, xxii, xxvii 
Naseby, Ixx, Ixxii, ex 
Nash, iii 

John, lix, xcii 

Aid. John, xciii 
Navy, Victualler of, v 
Netherton, lv 
Newburn, ix 
Newcastle, viii, ix 
Newdigate, Judge, xcix 
Newent, xli 
New, John, xlix 
Newport, xcv 

Lord, xvi 

Newton, Brian, xxxiii 
New Year, Celebration of, xxxix 
Nicholas, Mr. Secretary, vi 
Norfolk, lix 
Northampton, xxiv, xcviii 

Earl of, xvi, xxiv 

Lord, c 

Northfield, xiv, lv 
North and Middle Littleton, lv 
North Piddle, lv 
North Wales, xxvi, xcv 
North and South Wales, xcviii 
Northumberland, Earl of, viii 
Norton, lv 

Luke, xviii 
Norwich, City of, lix 
Nott, Charles, Ixvi 
Nottingham, xxiv, xxvi, lix, xcviii 
Number of People in City, Ixxxi 

Pakington, Iviii 

Sir John, xi, xxii, xxvi, Iviii, xci, xcv, 

xcix, e, cii, cv, cvii, ex, cxi 
Papists, iv, x, xxiv, xxvi, xxvii, xxxiv, xlix 
Papist Estates, ci 

Parliament, i, iv, vii, viii, x, xi, xiii, xiv, xv, 
xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, xxiv, xxvii, 
xxviii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxvii, xlii, xliii, 
xlviii, xlix, liii, Iviii, lix, Ix, Ixviii, Ixxii, 
Ixxix, Ixxxix, xc, xci, xcii, xcvi, cii, cvi, 
cix, ex 

Army, Ixxviii, Ixxx 
Cromwell's, xcv 
Local Member, xiv 
Long, x, xiii, xcv, cv 
Petition to, xxxvii 
Short, viii 

Supplies forbidden, Ixix 
Warrant for Arrears, Ixxi 
Parliamentarians, xvi, xxxiv, xliv, xlix, 

Ixvii, Ixxxiii, Ixxxvii 

Parliamentary Forces, liii, Ixx, Ixxviii, Ixxx, 

Leaders, li 
Party, Ixvii, xci 
Parshawe, xxxi 
Pay, Military, xxxi 
Payment, according to rank, x 

Scale of, Ixv 
Pedmore, xiv, lv 
Pendock, lv 
Pennell, Ixxxvi 
Penny Rate, vii 
Penrice, John, lix 
Penruddock, Colonel, ciii 
Penruddock's Rising, xcv, xcix 
Peopleton, Ivi 



Pershore, iii, v, viii, ix, x, xv, xxv, xxxi, 

xliii, lv, Ixvi, c 
Petition, xiv 
Peverell, Edward, Ixxiv 
Philipps, Henry, xlix 
Pinvin, lv, Ivii 
Pirton, lv, Ixxxiv 
Pitchcroft, xx, xliii 
Pitcher, Captain, Ixxxv 
Pitt, Edmund, cxi 

Edward, xlix, xcii 
Captain Richard, xxv 
Pitts, Edward, xxvii, xciii, XCT, ci 
Plague, vi 
Plantations, The, c 
Poden, lv 
Poll Money, xi 
Poole, lv 

Poor, Overseers of, xiv 
Popish Recusants, xi, xiii 
Population of Worcester, Ixxix 
Poultney, Captain, Ixxxiii 
Powell, Henry, viii 

Vavasour, xcvii 
Powick, x, Ivi 

Prerogative, The King's, cv 
Prsbyterian Ministers, cix 
Present day assessments, vii, xi 
Presentment, Magistrates', Ixii, Ixiii 

Sheriff and Others, xxi 

Grand Jury, xxi, xxxvii, xxxviii, 


Price, Colonel Herbert, Ixxiv 
Prideaux, John, xlix 
Prince, The, xxx 
Prince of Wales, Ixi 
Pritchard, Thomas, xxxii 
Privy Council, V, vi 
Proclamation, The King's, xii, xliv, liii, 

Ixii, cii 

Protector, The, xcvi 
Protectorate, The, xcvi 
Protestation, Ixix, Ixxiii 
Provinder, Price of, 1, li 
Provisions in City, Ixxxvi 

in Garrisons, Ixviii 

Delivery of, li, Ixv 

Price of, 1, li 

Magazine, Ixviii 
Puritan Ministers, xcvi 

Party, xiv 

Purveyance, Abolition of, cxi 
Pytts, Iviii 

Edmund, xlvii 

Edward, Ixii 

Captain Scudamore, xxv 


Quakers, civ 

Imprisonment of, xcvii 
Quarter Sessions, vi, x, xiv, xviii, xix, xx, 
xxi, xxiii, xxviii, xxxiii, xxxvii, xxxviii, 

xli, xlii, xlvi, Hi, liv, Iviii, Ixiii, Ixiv, Ixvi, 

Ixxi, Ixxvi, xcii, c, cxi 
Queen, cvi 

Elizabeth, xiv, xv 
Queenhill, lv 


Raglan, Lord Herbert of, xvi 
Rainbow Hill, xc 
Rate, County, present day, vii, xi 
Raynsborough, Colonel, Ixxxix, xc 

General, xc, xci 
Rea, Captain, xxviii 
Recusants, xi, xiii, xvi, xxiii, xxvi 
Redditch, x, xiii, lv 
Redmarley D'Abitot, lv 
Reformadoes, lv, Ivi, Ixxv, Ixxx, Ixxxvii 
Religion, xiii 

Restoration, The, xcv, c, cxi 
Richardson, Mr., xxxi 

the Powder Maker, Ivi 
Ripple, x, lv, Ixiv 
Roberts, John, cxi 

Lieut.-Colonel, Ixxx 
Rodomontadoes, Ixxxvii 
Rolph, Major, xcv 
Roman Catholics, iii, x, xiii 
Roundheads, xi, xlix 
Rous Lench, Ivi, Ixvii 
Rous, Sir Thomas, xci, xcii, xciii, c, 

Rouse, Nicholas Edward, lix 

Sir John, xxvi, xxxviii, xlii 

Sir Thomas, xcv, ci, cii 
Royal Army, xliv, xlix, liii 

Camp, xiv 

Oak, Knights of, xciv 

Royalists, xiv, xvi, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, 
xxviii, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxvi, xlvi, xlviii, 
xlix, 1, liii, liv, Iviii, lix, Ix, Ixviii, Ixxv, 
Ixxvii, Ixxxiv, Ixxxvii, xc, xci, xciii, xcv, 
xcvi, xcvii, xcix, c, cii, cix, ex 

Army, Ixx, Ixxviii 

Association, Ix 

Caue, Ixiii, Ixxiv 

Commander-in-Chief, xxvii 

Commissioners, xii 

Delinquency, xciv 

Families, xiii 

Force, Ixi, Ixvii 

Garrison, Ixxviii 

Gentlemen, Ixx, xciii 

Horse, Ixxii 

Levies, xliii 

Officers, 1 

Party, xx 

Robbing, Ixxiii 

Secret Society, xcix 

Soldiers, Ixxvi 

Troops, xl 

Worcestershire List, xcviii 
Rump, The, xcviii 



Rupert, Prince, xii, xxvii, 1, li, Hi, liii, Ivii, 
Ixii, Ixiii, Ixv, Ixxiii, Ixxiv, cix 
Concessions by, liii 
Settlement by, Ivii 
Rushock, xiv, Iv 
Rushworth, viii, xvi 

Russell, Sir William, v, yi, xxi, xxvi, xxix, 
xxx, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, 
xxxvii, xxxviii, xxxix, xl, xli, xlii, xliii, 
xliv, xlvi, xlvii, xlix, Iviii, Ix, Ixii, Ixxiv, 
Ixxvi, Ixxx, xciv 

Accounts of, xxx, xxxiv, xl, xli, xlvi, 


Charges against, xlvii, xlviii 
Fine for delinquency, xciv 
Russell MSS., xxix, xxx, xxxii, xxxiii 
Russell, Newton, xxxi 
Rutland, lix, xcviii 

St. Andrew's Ward, Ixxxi 

St. Cross, x 

St. Jago, cix 

St. John's, vi, Ixxxiii, Ixxxviii, ci, civ 

in Bedwardine, Iv 
St. Martin's Ward, Ixxxi 
St. Michael's, vi 

in Bedwardine, Iv 

Church, cii 

Ward, Ixxxi 

St. Nicholas Ward, Ixxxi 
St. Oswald's Church, Ixxviii 
St. Peter's, Ixxxiv 

Ward, Ixxxi 

Salisbury, Bishop of, cvii 
Salop, xlviii, Ix, Ixii, Ixxiv, Ixxv, xcviii 

Lord Lieutenant, xvi 
Salwarp, Iv 
Salway, Edward, cxi 

Henry, xlix 

Humphrey, xyiii, xix, xxviii, xlix, lix, 
xci, xcii, xciii 

Richard, xci, ex 

Major Richard, lix 
Sandys, Ixxviii, xcix 

Captain William, Ixxvii 

Colonel, xxxvii, xxxviii, xlvii, Iv, Ivi, 
Ixxiii, Ixxx, xcv, cvii 

Samuel, xxii, xxvii, xxxviii, cv 

Colonel Samuel, xlii, xliii, liv, !xvi, 
Ixix, Ixxiv, Ixxv 

Martin, Ixxviii 

Sir Martin, Ixxiv 

Family, xiv 
Savage, John, v 

Thomas, xxvii, xcviii 

Captain Thomas, xcv, xcix 
Savile, Sir William, xxix 
Say, William, ex 
Say and Scale, William Lord, xvi 
Scaffolds, Erection of, cii 
Scale of Pay, Ixxv, Ixxyi 

Scandalous Ministers, xcy 

Scarborough Castle, xcix 

Scarlet, Keeper of Magazine, Ivi 

Scobel, H., c 

Scot, Stealing, Ixxiii 

Scotch, Ixxii, Ixxv 

Army, ix, x 

Charles' surrender to, Ixxv 

War, i 

Scotland, viii, ix 
Scots, Ixxii 

Army, civ 

Herd of, Ixx 

Invasion, xciv 
Scottish Wars, viii 
Seaburn, Roger, xlix 
Sealed Knot, The, xcix 
Searching for Arms, xxvii 
Sebright, Sir Edward, xxii, xxvi 
Secretary of State, xxi, xxiy 
Sedgberrow, Ivi 
Selby, ix 
Sessions, Grand Jury, xxi 

Papers, iii, xxxvii 

Records, x. xxxviii, xli, xlii 

Rolls, xcii, c 
Severn, The, xli, Ixxii, civ, cviii 

Bridge, Ixxvii 

Stoke, x, Ivi, xcviii 
Sheldon, William, xcviii 
Shelsley, Ixyi 

Sheriff, The, v, xi, xiii, xiv, xxi, xxiv, xliii, 
xlvi, xlvii 

of County, v, xlvi, liii, Ixxiv 

Law as to, xii 
Sheriff's Lench, Iv 

Warrant, vi 
Ship Money, iv, v, vi, vii, viii 

Amount levied, vii 

Judge, c 
Shipston, Iv 
Shrawley, Iv 
Shrewsbury, Ixii 

Earl of, Iviii, Ix 

Lord, xv, ciii 

Shropshire, ii, xv, li, Ixii, xcv 
Sidbury, Iv, Ixxxiv, Ixxxix 
Siege of Worcester, Ixxix, Ixxxvi 

Began, Ixxix, Ixxxii 

Change in Conducting, Ixxxix 

Council of War, Ixxxviii 

Discontent of Citizens, Ixxxiv 

Garrison, Ixxx 

Meeting to consider terms, Ixxxviii 

Negotiations at Hallow, Ixxxvii 

Order of Governor, Ixxxiii 

Question of Provision of, Ixxxvi, Ixxxix 

Question of Surrender, Ixxxiv 

Sorties, Ixxxiv 
Simons, Thomas, cxi 
Slaves to West Indies, xcvii 
Smith, a Baker, switched, Ixxxvi 

Major Edward, lix 
Soldiers, viii, ix, xxii, xxvii, xxviii 

Scale of Pay, xliv 



Soley, Lieut. -Colonel, Ixxix 

Thomas, xcii, xciii 
Somerset, xvii, xlviii 
Southampton, Lord, c 
South Littleton, Iv 
South Wales, xcvi 
Spaniards, cix 
Speaker, The, xiv, xviii 
Special Sessions, Ix 

Petition by, Ix 

King's reply, Ix 
Speites, Captain John, xxv 
Spetchley, iv, Iv, c 
Stafford, xv, xxvi, xlviii, lix, Ix, Ixii, Ixxiv, 

Ixxv, xcviii 
Staffordshire, Ivii 

Lord Lieutenant, xvi 
Stanford, Mr., xxviii 
Stephens, William, xcii 
Stirrup, Robert, xcii, xciii 
Stock and Bradley, Ixvii 
Stoke Prior, x 
Stone, xiv 
Stoneleigh, xxiv 

Abbey, xxiii 

Storm, Great, recorded, cviii 
Stoulton, Iv 
Stourbridge, Iv 
Stourton, ii 

Street, Thomas, cv, cvii 
Strensham, xxix, xciv 
Strike of Workmen, Ixxxix, xc 
Stutty, Christopher, viii 
Subsidies, viii, x, xi, xiii, xv 

Book of, xv 
Suckley, Iv, Ivi 
Sudeley, li 
Suffolk, lix 
Summer Campaign, Preparations for, 


Surrender of City, xc, xci, xciv 
Symonds, George, civ, cxi 

Thomas, xcii, c 

Mr., cii 

Talbot, The, in Sidbury, xx 

Sherrington, xviii, xix, xxvii 
Tardebigge, x, xiii, xiv, Iv 
Tax, ii, v, vii 

Collecting, xiii 
Taxing without authority (Present time), 


Taylor, James, xcii 
Teme, The, Ixxii 
Tenbury, xxxi, Iv, Ivii 
Tewkesbury, xxxii, xxxiv, li 
Thomas, Edward, xcii 
Thornborough, Giles, cviii 

Lady, xiii 

Thomas, ii 
Thorpe, Judge, xcix 

Throckmorton, x, Iv 
Thurlow, xcvii 
Tibberton, Ivi 
Tower, The, xcv, c 
of London, xvi 
Lieutenant of, xvi 
Town Clerk, Ixxxviii 
Hall, xxxix, xiv 

Festivities at, civ 

Townshend, Henry, i, ii, iii, iv, vi, vii, ix, 
x, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xv, xvii, xviii, xix, 
xx, xxii, xxvii, xxxiv, xxxix, xiii, xliv, 
xlvii, xlviii, 1, Iviii, Ixiii, Ixvi, Ixviii, 
Ixix, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxiii, Ixxiv, Ixxv, Ixxvi, 
Ixxviii, Ixxix, Ixxx, Ixxxi, Ixxxii, Ixxxiii, 
Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, Ixxxvi, Ixxxvii, Ixxxviii, 
xci, xciv, xcv 

Crutch, Dispute as to, xci, ex 

Death, cxi 

Diary, i, ii, iv, viii, xii, xviii, xx, xciv, 

xcv, ci, cix, cxi 
Domestic Matters, i, ii, cii 
Dorothea, ii, cii 
Dorothy, ii 

Muster Master, Ixviii, cix 
Payment, Discharged from, Ixxiii 
Picture of state of County, Ixxi, Ixxii 
Robert, ii 

Trained bands, viii, xvii, xx, xxvii 
Transport, xxii 
Trayned Banns, viii 
Treasurer, xvi, xii, Iii, liii, liv 
Treasury, xi 
Troops, Assignment to Parishes, Iv 

Parishes assigned to, Ivii 
Turvey, Mr., Ixxii 
Twitty, Mr. Thomas, Ixxxvi 
Tyner, Thomas, iv 
Tyrer, xxxix 


Upton, xii, xcii, cxi 
on Severn, Iv, xcv 
Snodsbury, Iv 
Warren, x, xiii, xiv, Iv 

Vavasour, Sir William, li 
Vernon, Capt. Aid., cii 

Edward, xx, xxvii, xxxvi 

Jane, ii 

Mary, ii 

Richard, cxi 

Thomas, ii 

William, ii 
Victualler of Nivy, v 
Voluntary Aid, xxxvi, xxxvii 
Volunteers, xxv, xxvi 




Walcot, x, Ivi 

Wales, Lord President of, cviii 

North, xxvl 
Walker, Mr., cii 

Francis, xii, c 
Waller, xliii, xliv, xlviii 

Sir William, x.xxiv, xlviii, Ixix 
Walsh, Joseph, xxvii, xxxiv, xlvii, Ixxiv 

Captain Joseph, xxxv, xl 
War, Civil, Appeal by the King, xxxvi 

Arms, food, etc., xxviii 

Attitude of City, xxviii 

Byron's occupation of City, xxviii 

Casting of Ordnance, xxxii, xxxiii 

Certain, xvii 

Cessation of Hostilities, Ixxxvii 

Contribution by City, xxxiii 

Council of War, xxxviii, Ixxxviii 

Defence of City, xliv 

Early Hostilities, xxiii 

Landowner's Liability, xliii 

Opening of last Act, xxix 

Preliminary Act, xxviii 

Re-occupation by Royalists, xxix 

Shifts and Expedients, xlviii 

Siege of Worcester (see Siege) 

Strength of Garrison, xxxv 

Surrender of Royalist, Ixxviii 

Termination of, xci 

Troops for Defence, xxix 

Want of Money, xxviii, xxix, xlviii 

Want of Preparation, xxviii 
Waring, Richard, xciv 
Warmstrey, Dr., cvii, cix 
Warmstrey Slip, cvii 
Warrant to obtain Arms, xxv 
Warwick, xv, xvi, xxiv, xxxiv, xlviii, lix, Ix, 
Ixix, xcviii 

Castle, xxiv 

Earl of, i 

Lord Lieutenant of, xvi, xxiv 
Warwickshire, ix, xxiii, xxiv, xlviii, Ivii, 

Commissioners of Array, xxiii 
Washbourn, John, xxii 

Washington, Ixxix, Ixxx, Ixxxi, Ixxxii, 
Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv, Ixxxvi, Ixxxvii, Ixxxviii, xc 

Henry, Ixxviii 

Assessment of City, Ixxxii, Ixxxvi 

Present of Buck, Ixxxiv 
Watch, Ward and Search, xxvii, xxviii 
Webb's Civil War, xl 
Welland, Iv 
Welsh Preacher, xcvii 
Wenlock, ii 
Western, Thomas, xciii 
West Indies, Slaves to, xcvii 
Westminster, cvi 
Dean of, cix 
Westwood, xi 

Whalley, Ixxix, Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv, Ixxxvii, 
Ixxxviii, xcviii 

General, superseded, Ixxxix 

White Ladies, Ixxviii 

Aston, Iv, ci 
Wichbold, x 
Wichenford, Iv 
Wick Episcopi, Iv 

juxta Pershore, Iv 
Wickhamford, Ivi 
Widow, Payment by, xi 
Wigorn, County of, xix 
Wilde, Chief Baron, xciv, xcv 
Lord Chief Baron, ex 
Edmund, xcii, xciii, ex 
George, lix, xciii 
John, xix, xlix, lix, xciii 
Sergeant, xlix, xciv, ciii 
Wildy, Nicholas, xcii 
William III., cv 
Wilmot, Captain, ix 
Wilts, xlviii 

Winchester, Bishop of, cviii 
Windsor, Lord, xvi, cii, cvii, cix 

Thomas Lord, ciii 
Winford, John, vii 

Sir John, Iviii, Ixxiv, Ixxxvi 
Winter, Sir George, xcviii 
Wintour, Sir George, xcv, xcix 
Withy, Mr., Ixxxiii 
Wolverley, Iv, Ixviii, Ixxvii 
Worcester, xxxvi, Ivii, Ixix, Ixx, Ixxii, Ixxiv, 
Ixxv, Ixxvi, Ixxix, Ixxx, Ixxxi, Ixxxiii, 
Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, xcv, xcvii| xcviii, xcix 
Arms, supply, xxvi 
Battle of, ex 
Billeting at, xxv 
Bishop of, ci, cvi, cvii, cviii, cix 
Captured by Essex, xxviii 

Regained by Royaliits, xxviii, 

xxix, xxxviii 

Chamber Meeting, Ixxxiv 
Citizens of, xxi, xxvii, xxxiv, xliv 

Reply by Mayor to, xxviii 
City of, V, vi, viii, ix, xiv, xv, xvi, xviii, 
xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, 
xxviii, xxxiii, xxxviii, xliii, xliv, xlv, 
xlvi, xlvii, xlviii, 1, Ivii, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv, 
Ixv, Ixxviii, xci, xcii, ci, cii, ciii, civ, 
cv, cvi, cix, ex 
Commissioners, xxvi, xlix 
Committee for Government of, xc 
Corporation of, Ixxxiii 
Council at, xxii 

County of, xxvi, xxxviii, xlii, xlv, xlviii , 
xlix, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv 

Divisions, xv 
Dean of, civ, cvii, cviii 
" Faithful Citizens," xliv, Ixxix, 


" Faithful City," xxvii, Ixxix, xc 
Fidelity of, xxxiii 
Fortifying of, Ixxvi, Ixxvii 
Gaol delivery, civ, cv 
Garrison, xii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, 
xl, xliv, Ivii, Ixx, Ixxvii, Ixxix, Ixxxiv, 
Ixxxv, Ixxxvii 



Worcester, Governor of, xxix, xxxii, xxxv, 
xxxviii, xlvi, xlix, lii, liii, Iv, Ivi, Iviii, 
lix, Ixii, Ixvi, Ixvii, Ixix, Ixxiii, Ixxiv, 
Ixxv, Ixxvii, Ixxviti, Ixxix, Ixxxii, 
Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv, Ixxxv, Ixxxvi, Ixxxvii, 
Ixxxix, xc 
Loyalty of, ciii 
Magazine, xxii, ciii, cxi 

Provisions, Ixviii 
Market days, Ixxvii 

Mayor of, v, xxiv, xxvii, xxviii, xxxi, 
xxxix, xlix, Ixxiv, Ixxviii, Ixxix, Ixxxiii, 
Ixxxix, xc, xcii, cii, cxi 
Men, Ixxvi 

Monthly Contributions, xlviii, 1, liv 
Papists or Recusants, xxvi 
Payments to troops, xxix, xxx, xxxi, 

Ixxxviii, Ixxxix 
People, cvi 
Population of, Ixxix 
Prisons, cv 
Quarter Sessions, divers passages at, 


Royalists, Ix 
Siege (see Siege) 
Surrender of, xc, xci, xciv 
Troops for defence, xxix, xxxv 

quartered in City, xxxv 
Volunteers, xxvi 

Worcestershire, vii, ix, xii, xiii, xiv, xv, 
xvi, xviii, xix, xxi, xxiii, xxiv, xxxv, xlii, 
xlviii, li, Ivii, Iviii, Ix, Ixii, Ixvi, Ixviii, 
Ixxiii, Ixxv, xcii, xciv, xcv, xcvi, xcviii, 
xcix, c, ci, ciii, civ, cviii, ex 

Commission of Array, xvii, xxiv 

Worcestershire, Contribution, ii, iv, vii, viii 

Families, iv 

Justices, xci 

Lieutenant-General of, Ixiii 

Lord Lieutenant of, xvi, xvii 

Members, xcv, cvi 

Parishes, Iv, Ivi 

Penny Rate (present day), vii, xi 

Soldiers, viii, ix 
Woodbury Hill, Ixvi 
Wordsley, Iv 
Worsley, xcviii 
Wray, Colonel, Ixxiii, ex 
Wright, Dr., civ 
Wyatt, Sir Dudley, ex 
Wylde, Iviii 

George, xi 

John, xi, xci, xcii 

Major, xcv, xcix 

Robert, ex 

Thomas, xcviii 

Mr. Sergeant, xviii, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, 


Wyllis, Sir Richard, Ixxiv 
Wyre Piddle, Ivi 

Yardley, x, Iv 

York, ix, xviii, xix, xxiii 

Young, Edward, lix 

Thomas, lix, xcii, xciii 












$rtntrti for tije OTorresterstire ^t0tortcal 




TTENRY TOWNSHEND of Elmley Lovett, a Magistrate 
for Worcestershire, kept an Account of current events 
from 1640 1663. This account gives in detail a large number 
of the public orders and notices affecting the County, especially 
his own parish of Elmley Lovett, and also a fragmentary diary. 

The first part of the Diary includes ten months, April 1640 
to February 1641 ; the second nearly four years of the Common- 
wealth, April 1653 to January 1657 ; the third part the Restora- 
tion, April 1660 to April 1663 ; and the last and most important, 
an account of the Siege of Worcester in 1646. Townshend was 
in Worcester during the whole time of the siege, and his narra- 
tive is a most interesting record of that struggle. It is the only 
full account that has come down to us, and so far has not been 
published in full. Nash, in the Appendix to his History, gave a 
condensed account, but like most abbreviations it left out a large 
number of most interesting local details. This part of the 
manuscript is here published in full. This has only been possible 
by the generosity of Mr. Dyson Perrins. After passing through 
several hands, the MS. became the property of the late Sir 
Thomas Phillips, and was included in one of the periodical sales 
of his manuscripts. There was a well-grounded fear that this 
manuscript might be bought by some American collector and so 
lost to the county. The Worcestershire Historical Society 
brought the matter to Mr. Dyson Perrins' notice, and he at once 
purchased the MS. and placed it at the disposal of the Society 
for publication. The thanks, not merely of the Society but of 



the whole county, are due to him for enabling so important a 
source of Worcestershire History being made generally available. 

The Diaries are published verbatim from the MS., with- 
out any alteration or notes except in the account of the siege. 
Here it was necessary to incorporate into the account some 
documents that are given in other parts of the MS., and also to 
add some short statements to shew the bearing of the different 
entries on the siege. 

It is hoped to publish the remainder of the MS. in next 
year's publications of the Society, and to give with it an Intro- 
duction shewing the bearing of the different documents on the 
history of the county during the Civil War. They cast con- 
siderable light on various matters during that time, and will 
shew that the part Worcestershire took in that struggle was not 
the least important of any county in the kingdom. 

December, 1915. 




29 April 1640 to 24 February 1641 i 22 


20 April 1653 to January 1657 23 34 


25 April 1660 to 8 April 1663 - - 35 98 

Siege of Worcester. 

26 March 1646 t 26 July 1646 - - - 99 197 


YEAR 1663. 

(i.) Diary from 29 April 1640 to 24 February 1641. 

Apr' 29. Annales 1640. Elmley Lovet, Wore'. 
p. i. 

My stable pluckt downe. 

600 prest for supplies to the traynd band for Scotish warrs 4 out 
of Elmley. Henry Powell, Rich. Crow, Roland Edwards, Christopher 
Stutty ; only 3 went, Crowe went not. 

Put in the Cherry Orchard Poole 77 carp of 3 years' growth, 34 
flounders of 2 yeares growth, 26 store breames of icd. the joo. 

In the poole at gate 4 breeding breames p 1 35. ^d., 6 tench $ i8d., 
gudgions 16. 

In Sapcott's great pitt put in 26 bream. 

The parlayment began at Westminster 13 Ap r 1640, none having 
bin this 1 1 yere, for assistance against the rebellious Scots. Serjeant 
Glanvill, Speaker. 

The ship money of Worcestershire this year is ^"3500 to be p d . 
Elmley Lovet pays igli. 3*. ^d., and the parson ios., but p d not, 
one p d . 

The swine houses tyled this 29*^ Ap r . 

Ap. 30. Bought at Rushocke 6o 100 of haie for my cattle, 
I4/. 10.5. od. An extream backward spring for grass, as also for 
fruit, wether to hinder sowinge. 

Warrants from the Deputy-Lieutenants to gather 1200/1 out of the 
County for setting forth of 600 soldiers and to buy 50 horses for cart, 
17 carts and 17 carters. 



Every soldier allowed 8rf. a day for his training day, the rest of the 
week to work and get what he may. They are to be trained until the 
20th May. 

Elmley Lovet pays of the a^iaoo the sum of ^7 los. od. There 
is 100 billeted at Droitvvich to be trayned for a week, some at Wor- 
cester, Evisham, Parshore Bewdley. 

/>. a. 

May 5. My Court wall began to be built by John Catto, Mason. 
I went to Sudbury and returned not until the 3 of June, to settle my 
brother Vernon's estate for his younger children and heirs. 

The King, by the Lord Keeper, demands the aid for the Scottish 
warrs ; the parliament grants, upon conditions that the grievances of 
the kingdom, which were great, might together be heard otherwise 
unwilling. The King promises that they shall be heard at winter. 
They hear them together, whereupon the King dissolved the Parlia- 
ment, to the great content of the fearful monopolists and some great 
ones, and to the infinite dislike, distaste and repining of the Commons 
that they visit complaints be no real redress. 

1 7 Car. Shortly after the dissolution many loose people about the 
Borough of Southwark came to Lambeth house, desiring to speak 
with the Archbishop of Canterbury, threatened him if they could meet 
with him, broke the Whitehouse prison ; in Suthwark one of them 
was killed, another was taken, a simple fellow, and hanged for the 
insurrection. *' 

Libells spread about London daily. 

The grievances of the subjects were drawn into 3 heads: Innovation 
of Religion and Ceremonies, which were in 5 particulars : 

i. By Commissions granted to the Convocation House, 
a. Innovations of religion. 

3. Deprivation of conformable minister for not yielding to matters 
enjoined without warrant of law. 

4. Licensing books, sermons, &c., of Popish tenets. 

5. Restraining preaching of conformable ministers in their own 

(a) Propriety of goods y* in six heads. 

i. All monopolies. 2. Ship money. 3. Enlargement of Forests 
beyond their bounds. 4. Military charges as conduct money, horses 
and carts by way of tax. 5. Imprisonment of refusers. 6. Denial of 
justice in the Courts to the subjects' prejudice. 



(3) Liberty of Parliament. 

I. In punishing men for speeches delivered there. 

All these it seems were voted in the house. 

There were other businesses proposed to be remedied, 
i. The sudden dissolving of Parliament without redressing of 

3. The not holding of Parliament according to Statute. 

3. The pressing of the trained bands to go out of their own country 
and county. 

4. Tonnage and Poundage. But the King, by the Lord Keeper, 
declared that he took it only de facto, according to example of former 
Kings, from the death of his predecessor, desirous not to claim it but 
by grant of parliament. 

5. Taking for knighthood for being absent at Coronation. 

6. Farming of nuisances whereof depopulation one. 

7. Star Chamber in meddling of small matters as sope. 

8. Hearing of private suits at Council table. 

Wyne 405. the hundred; the King hath ^30,000 per annum, and 
the subject loseth j J 130,000. 

June 7. The prest soldiers stopt there journey until I st July, and in 
the mean to live at there own costs and labour, not at the country's. 

July 7. Our soldiers commanded to march towards the north. 

A declaration from the King shewing the reasons that moved him 
to the dissolution of the parlyment, in which is expressed the reasons 
that the King called the parliament, and the necessity of supply of 
monies before the hearing of grievances, though upon his princely word 
they should be heard ; that it was a way to engage their prince who 
would not loose the honour of being entrusted and of such a gracious 
nature that disdayned his people should overcome him in kindness. 

P- 4- 

Then delivered himself to the Lords, 44 April, that whatever my Lord 
Keeper promised he would perform if the House of Commons would 
trust him. 

1. For religion that his heart and conscience went together with the 
religion established, and gave order that no innovation should 
creep in. 

2. For ship money he never meant to make any profit to himself 
but only to preserve the dominion of the seas; but for the ways and 
means by ship money or otherwise he left it to them. 


3. For property of goods and liberty of Parliament he ever intended 
his people should enjoy them, holding no King so great as he that was 
King of a rich and free people, and if they had not property of goods 
and liberty of person they could not be rich nor free. 

That if the Commons would not first trust him, all his business 
would be lost. 

The Lords upon consultation yielded that supply should have the 
pre-emince. The House of Commons delay, and speak of grievances. 
His Majesty expounded to the house. 

That upon granting of 12 subsidies there shall be an utter abolish- 
ment of ship money, and to be p d in 3 years, and for the grievances 
to begin now and go on with the rest at Michaelmas, but the house 
would not resolve. So His Majesty, by the advice of his Council, 
resolved to break up the Parliament, which was done the 5 May. 

His Majesty's speech was a brief repetition of the heads of his 
former speeches. Even their delay was as good as a denial, yet for 
their grievances they shall be as well heard out of Parliament as in. 
He shall be most careful to preserve the purity of religion established. 
Thanked the Lords for their affection, and as for the liberties of the 


people, no King in the world shall be more careful to maintain them in 
the property of their goods, liberty of their persons and true religion. 

At Farington the soldiers held up their Lieutenant Moon, and 
hanged him up. Dorsetshire men, they do mischief in all places as 
they march. 

July i. At Worcester the 600 pressed soldiers came to go with 
their Captains. They have put the country to a great charge. They 
went not until Saturday morning. 

1. 3 weeks' training at 8 d a soldier, being billeted by too in a place, 
and marching, running away, fresh men arriving in, they are no more 
new to knowledge, that this unnecessary charges might have been 

2. Many running away, new supplies must be got. 3. Conduct 
money. 4. Apparelling them, over 20' in money if they be well 

Besides the trouble of men to bring them in. Disliking these that 
coming, and alter as the Deputy Lieutenants please, some times 3 or 4 
times after they are allowed and prest, it seems will be provided. 

The bringing them some days after they have clothed them with 
watch for safety, that they should not run away. 

One M r Pargiter and M r Danvers of Northamptonshire was com- 
mitted for refusing to pay conduct money; he craved an habeas corpus 


out of the King's Bench, this Trinity term. The King's counsel pleaded 
not bailable. His lawyers, which were S e John and Holborn, argued 
the contrary, and their chief argument was in respect that the King's 
letters are for the country to deposit so much money and to be repaid, 
and no man can be imprisoned without bail for refusing to pay that 
which is desired by loan, and the King was wronged in his Royal pre- 

p. 6. 

rogative if he would crave and desire that which he might challenge as 
Prince ex debito. 

Judges Berkeley and Jones, also the Chief Justice Brampton's 
opinion was that it was a matter of great consequence, and they would 
peruse their books by the next term. But Judge Crooke said abso- 
lutely he was bailable, but the major part voted it otherwise, and he 
lies in prison. 

The 8th July, by the King's proclamation, there was a general fast 
throughout the kingdom, and a book of prayers made and sent to every 
parish for to remove God's heavy judgement due unto our sins and to 
divert the plague now begun in London, and other judgments, and also 
to obtain God's favour and graces. And the Queen's Majesty brought 
to bed this day of another son. 

The. 3, 4 and 5 of July great lightening and extreme fearful thunder 
and such abundance of rain, besides some great hail-storms, that it 
caused with us such a flood as hath not been, and also spoiled corn 
fields, took away the grass cut, and flooded in an excessive manner the 
uncut grass that the spoil is very much, and the time proved so tem- 
pestuous that the like was never remembered for so long together. 

A proclamation came forth for the taking of some 20 soldiers that 
had killed in a barbarous manner their Lieutenant Mohun, and another 
to all officers for to suppress the insolency of soldiers in their conduct 
to Scotland and to punish them. 

p. 7. 

Upon the 3 August my stable was reared. Upon the 8 th of 
August my dyning chamber comes, to in waynscot at 3" 4 d the yard 
at 120 yards, besides the chimney piece which cost 50 shillings, the new 
chamber at 72 yards besides the chimney piece which cost 30 shillings, 
and was finished by Francis Bowyer of Salop, Joiner, the 8 th August 
1640, and comes to in all the sum of ^"36 o o. 

The strangest hail fell between Burford and Stow the old in Glou- 
cestershire about this time, that it was most extraordinary in bigness 
and did cut off the sieves of corn and barley for whole fields together, 
that the loss valued to ^5000. 


Upon the i8 th in the morning fell from off a ladder, being 22 foot 
high, one Noble, a tyler (at Elmley Lovet) here, one of 60 years old 
and a very unsound man, yet by God's mercy put out no bone and not 
much bruised, but after three weeks went home. 

28 Aug'. The Scotish army, consisting of about 20,000 men and 
1000 women, with some light arms and 17 field pieces, came about six 
miles from Newcastle upon the river Teen, and were met by some horse 
and some foot which were accidentally, as they said, training without 
any show of powder or shot, yet for a while the English defended them- 
selves ; at last routed and 100 horse killed, with Sir John Digby and 
Captain Wylmot prisoners. The Scotch lost few, their great ordnance 
defended them. Upon the 30"", being Sunday, Newcastle was surren- 
dered, the best of the inhabitants and the goods being shipt away. 

The King's army lies at York, consisting of about 15,000 foot and 
horse, besides train bands. 


From the 5 th of September to the 21" fell such abundance of wet 
that small harvest for the time was carried in, and caused with us great 
floods one after another, and spoiled much grain, especially pease. 

The King assembled all his nobility to York touching the answers 
to the Scots' petition of grievances and demands. They appeared, the 
24' Sep' a treaty appointed between the King and Scots; 16 English 
Earls and Lords appointed, the place, Ripon. Parliament to be 3 

Mr. Endymion Porter, the King's servant, and Samuel Sandys, Esq., 
chosen burgesses for Droitwich, 21 October. 

21 Sep 1 . Chosen at Worcester knights for the shire. John Wylde, 
Esq., Serjeant-at-Lavv, and Humphrey Salway and Sir Thomas Little- 
ton, Baronet, had the canvas. 

23 d , at Bewdley, Sir H. Herbert chosen Burgess by the voices of the 
Magistrates, who conceive they have the only voice of election, and Sir 
Ralph Clare, Knight of the Bath, was chosen by the commonalty or 
common Burgesses, so the Parliament House is to decide the con- 

The Lords appeared at York the 24 th Sep', which went under the style 
of the King's great Council, when His Majesty desires of them what 
answer to make to the rebels' petition. 2. How the army should be 
kept on foot until supplies by Parliament which was to begin 3 
November. It was thought meet that the King should borrow 
^200,000 of the City of London, and that some Lords should engage 
themselves for security. To which purpose was chosen 6 Lords who 
went to the City, and they were my Lord Privy Seal, Lord Cham- 



berlain, Earl of Clare, Viscount Campden, Lord Coventry, Lord 

The Lords all joined in one letter, dated 25 th Sep', to desire the loan 
of two hundred thousand of the City for the present, and all subscribed 
except the Earl of Carlisle, and all declaring the miserable state of the 
County of Northumberland, the Bishoprick of Durham and Newcastle, 
and the hazard of the whole without speedy supply. 

The Londoners grant it who were to pay .^5,000 on the 12 
October, the 15 th November after ^"10,000, and the other ^50,000 
io th December. 

The Lords at York send a second letter, dated the 19 th October, 
with thanks for the loan, and a short persuasion not to fail of the days 
promised, together with another letter to the six Lords Commissioners 
to be urged to expedite the moneys. 

The Scotish League at Newcastle, 8 tu Sept., wrote a letter to the 
Earl of Laverick, Secretary of Scotland, then with the King, to desire 
His Majesty to remedy their grievances whereof the same are these: 

1. To confirm the last Acts of Parliament. 

2. That the Scotish castles of Edinburgh and others be furnished 
and used for the defence according to the first foundation. 

3. That all Scots in other countries free from censure for sub- 

4. That the incendiaries of this combustion may receive their 

5. That all ships and goods restored. 

6. That all wrongs, losses and charges which all this time we have 
sustained be repaired. 

7. A recalling of the proclamation of traitors, and by the advice of 
the Parliament the garrison on the borders removed and free Trade. 

Subscribed, Rothes, Montrose, Cassills, Dumfermline, Lothian, 
Lyndsay, Napier, Hume, Tho. Hope, W. Douglas, Gibson Smith, 
Packsfield Kenedy, Rutherford Wedderburn. 

p. 10. 

My Lord Laverick answer that upon the assembly of the English 
Lords the King did communicate to them their petition, and shall have 
answerable wise and honourable. 

The 29 th Sep 4 the King grants a commission to 16 Earls and Lords ; 
the Earls were : 

i. Bedford. 2. Hartford. 3. Essex. 4. Salisbury. 5. Warwick. 
6. Holland. 7. Bristol. 8. Berkshire. 


Lords: i. Wharton. 2. Paget. 3. Kimbolton. 4. Brooke. 5. 
Paulett. 6. Howard. 7. Saville. 8. Dunsmore. 

These or any 10 of them to have full power and authority to treat 
with Charles Earl of Dumfermline, John Lord London, Sir William 
Douglas, Sir Patrick Hepburn, J. Smith, Alec Wedclerburn, Alec Har- 
rison and Archibald Johnson, or any of them deputed by our subjects of 
Scotland. Their power was to compose, conclude and end all 
differences arising thereupon as you or any ten or more of you in your 
wisdom shall think fit. 

Assistants to the English were 6 : 

Earl of Traquair. 

Earl of Morton. 

Earl of Laverick. 

M r Secretary Vane. 

Sir Lewis Steward. 

Sir John Borough. 

The Scots at the first meeting, Oct. 2 nd , take exception against 
the assistants, and chiefly against the Earl of Traquair, as having 
done ill office in Scotland. They desired to set down heads for the 
treaty, present a paper containing: i. Their demands to be handled as 
they are expressed. 2. How, if armies should have an association, 
the army be provided? 3. If need be, that a greater number of com- 
missioners be sent from the Commissioners of the Scotish Parliament. 
4. A safe conduct for such as should be sent, and the postway to Edin- 
burgh freed. 5. Free trade and Commerce. 

p. ii. 

Answer. To the proposition of the safe conduct and freedom of 
the postway His Majesty grants during the treaty. 

As for the assistants, they are not authorized to confer or treat 
with the Commissioners of Scotland nor to have any voice, but to give 
a right understanding of such things as can no other ways fall under 
knowledge, they being wholly employed in it. 

Repl. The Scots were contented. 

The English Commissioners demanded what they thought reasonable 
to maintain their army a month during the treaty. 

They answer ^40,000 the month, and craved of the English Lords 
what they thought was sufficient, who made no answer before they 
acquainted the King and his great Council, which was I st October. 
The 7 th October His Majesty, upon advice of the peers, ordered to 
transfer the treaty from Ripon to York, and letters to the effect were 
sent and they to Scots. 


Proposition English. 16 Oct. The English Commissioners pro- 
posed to the Scots that they should have ^850 per diem out of 
Northumberland, Bishoprick and Newcastle. 

The Lands of the Bishops, Deans, Clergy and Papists shall be at 
no more charges than ordinary. 

To forbear to take any exaction, tax or pension beside, and to leave 
free his Majesty's Customs for "cohle" (coal) and all other Customs. 

The inhabitants of all these countreys shall have free liberty to 
return home and enjoy their own. 

The Scotish army to give security during their stay, and on their 
march home, not to plunder the country. 

Upon the settling of the payments a cessation of arms on both 
sides, and for securing payments all reasonable satisfaction. 

p. 12. 

The payments to begin the i6 th October 1640, and to continue for 
the space of two months if the treaty shall so long last, and to be paid 
weekly per rate. 

This being finished, the treaty to begin. 

The Scots accept of most, only the Customs, as to have some satis- 
faction in lein (linen ?). 

17 Oct. The opening of the Ports, saving no arms be brought in, 
and with liberty of trade. 

The ig" 1 October from York the great Council did write a letter to 
the Counties of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle, gives 
them notice that they should continue their contributions, and special 
commend it to the Parliament to repair your losses. 

To the High Sheriff, Deputy Lieutenant, Justices of the Peace, 
Gentlemen and Freeholders within the County of Northumberland, 
300 li. per diem. 

Alike to the High Sheriff of the County Palatine, 300 li. per diem. 

Alike to the Mayor, Aldermen, Burgesses and Commoners within 
the town and County of Newcastle upon Tyne, 200 li. per diem. 

The Parliament began the 9 th November. 

The King was pleased in two speeches to refer himself for all pro- 
ceedings to them. 

The n th day the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland* committed to the 
Black rod. 

All monopolists, any taxed for popery put out of the House this 
they do ex officio. 

* The words " sent to the Tower " were originally written, but are struck out, and 
"committed to the Black Rod" inserted. 



A proclamation that no recusant shall come or be within 10 miles 
of the King's or Queen's Court, and all convict recusant's arms to 
be taken from them by the Justices of Peace, except for defence. 

My Lord Cottington put from Constable of the Tower, and accused 
of many crimes. 

/> 13- 

A proclamation for a general fast to be held in London and West- 
minster and the suburbs on the 17 th of November, and throughout the 
rest of the kingdom the 8 th of December. 

My cousin Daniel Dobins, High Sheriff of Worcestershire. 

Bishop of Lincoln restored to all his honours and sits in the Par- 
liament House. 

Earl of Stratford, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, sent to the Tower 
for treason. 

The Parliament of Ireland sent one Sir G. Ratcliffe prisoner into 
England, and have executed divers and burnt the Bishop of . . . ., being 
guilty of rape, incest, and the like. 

On Saturday, 15 of November, about 3 of clock, Burton and Prinne, 
two Puritans formerly punished and banished, were brought into London 
with an infinite confluence of the vulgar, having in their hats and hands 
rosemary and bayes. A dinner given them of ,^?ioo. At Braynford 
2000 horse at least they came in with, Prinne riding bare from Charing 
Cross to Aldermanbury. Publick thanks given in many Churches. 

The King takes a great disgust, which cause the House of Com- 
mons to take it into their consideration to punish some giddy zealots. 

On the same day the peace was concluded with Scotland, and the 
Marquis Hamilton and Earl Traquair reconciled to their nation. All 
their desires are condescended unto, and to be established in Parliament. 
Their Acts in their assemblyes and Parliament shall stand good. No 
more Lawn sleeves for Bishops. 200,000 li. they shall have, and all the 
Scottish revenues for 3 years, and to depart speedily. 
p. 14. 

The Lower House on Monday, 3o th November, sent a message to 
the Queen, desiring to put off all her Popish servants. To which she 
answered that she would, but then she would put off all her Protestant 
servants too, and take such unto herself as by article of marriage she 
might do, which answer was not pleasing. 

Mr. Harbottle Grimston, a lawyer, made a speech, in repeating in 
brief the passages of the last Parliament, which was : 

i. First a subsidiary aid towards the war with Scotland before the 
audience of grievances. 


This was denied, for the House would first know whether they had 
any property in their goods, and drew their complaints to 3 heads : 

1. Was the privilege of Parliament. 

2. Matters of religion. 

3. Property of our goods and chattels. 

The violation of the first sort was resolved by vote, that the 
Speaker refusing to put a question being required, or to adjourn the 
house on any command whatsoever without the consent and approbation 
of the house itself, is a breach of privilege. 

The other two were spoken of but by some, our proceedings went 
not on, and the Parliament was unhappily dissolved. 

And here, by the way, let me remember to lay down some certain 
observations agreed and passed last parlyament, collected out of some 

There is a custom in the house that when the Speaker stands up 
the House must sit down. All speeches directed to M r Speaker. 

Bills to be despatched in order as they come in. 

A good election and a good return make a perfect member of the 

Magna Charta confirmed 30 times. 

Judges have been questioned in Parliament, but they not question 
Parliaments, which are above them all. Sir Francis Seymour. 

Non-residents complained of. Ministers deserve double honours, 
but not double benefices. 

P- IS- 

Grievances of high nature to be debated as well in the house as at 
the committee, and that better M r Pym. 

Committees appointed Mondays for religion ; Wednesday, grie- 
vances ; Friday, Courts of Justice, at 2 in the afternoon. 

The Sheriff of a County cannot adjourn the Freeholders from the 
usual place where the County Court is kept without the consent of the 
freeholders present. 

M r Trenchard moved of a grievance in Star Chamber concerning 
inmates, whether a tenant in Westminster be not able to pay his tax, 
his landlord must, or else he is threatened into the Star Chamber. 

2. Where there is a tenant the lord must not pay anything for him. 

A grievance moved by M r Charles Jones, that the Judges in Wales 
keep their Sessions when it is term time at Westminster. 

The House of Commons hath adjourned itself when the King hath 
sent a dissolution under seal. Sir Walter Earle. 

The King by record may call a parliament, and by record must 


dissolve it. M r St. Jones. The King by his verbal act cannot adjourn 
a Parliament. 

The Chancellor's oath, ex officio, a grievance. M r Glin. 

D r Farmony excommunicated a gentleman for refusal of the oath, 
to be debated in the Committee of the Courts of Justice not of 
religion. M r Morton. The contrary, M r Glin. 

A committee appointed about the Bill of Apparel!. April 21. 

An Act to avoid common recoveries suffered by infants under age of 
21. A common recovery a common assurance. 

By law one Burgess may be made one day, and the election of 
another adjourned to another day. 

At a Grand Committee of the House no one must ask the party 
examined a question but at a private Committee. 

Petition against D r Cosins by M r Smart, a minister : 

i. Consenting to put down morning prayer. 2. The mass taken 
away, Religion sinks down. 

3. The King not supreme head of the Church. 

4. 100 candles in a candlestick in Durham. 

5. Images set round about the quire of Durham. 

6. The King hath no more power in matters ecclesiastical than the 
Boy that rubs his horse's heels. Proved against him last Parliament. 

p. 16. 

No ordinances can be made by the Convocation but with the consent 
of the Commons and Lords. Statutes to confirm it are produced. 
M r Pym of Devonshire. 

The Commons come ad tractandum et consent tend um, the Clergy 
but ad cojisentiendum. M r St. Jones. 

The Canon laws an innate in England. The exposition of the 
articles subject to the Parliament. Upon either fear or fame the House 
of Commons may send to the Lords. 

A general declaration. Ship money an intolerable grievance. 

Three propositions maintayned : 

1. Ship money and such ways as produce moneys to his Majesty 
are not profitable for his Majesty's nor Commonwealth. 

2. No other way profitable but a parliamentary way. 

3. By Parliaments we may supply His Majesty and please the 

No property of goods, then nothing to give. No liberty of speech, 
no free discourse of debate, and no religion. No men. M r Kirby. 
April 27. M r Atkins, an alderman of London, delivered a petition 


from the Mayor and aldermen of Norwich ; the sum was 5 Bishops in 
12, Years there. 

About 200 articles for the Churchwarden to present unto. 

The sermon to end with " Gloria Patri." Communion Table 
railed. The contents of the Chapters omitted. The Litany to be read 
every Sunday. 

Conversion of Paul and Barnabas to be kept. 

Rogation week observed. 

No man weare a hatt in the Church. 

Women to come in veils, and to be churched at the Communion table. 

No Baptism but on Sundays and Holydays, and they to come 
before the second lesson. 

No tavern pots nor wicker bottles to be set on the Communion 

Half an hour for catechizing. No encroachment by stalls nor high 
Pews. Kneeling at the Confession. 

No Chaplains in houses but such men as by law may keep them. 

p. 17. 

The Lecturer first to read service ; no stranger to preach but who 
is allowed. 

Churchyard to be kept clean. 

Cardinal Poole had but 42 Articles. 

The preachers only read the 55 canons. No prayer. 

Three score conformable ministers in Norfolk and Suffolk, either 
disfrocked or deprived. 

5000 Communicants in Yarmouth, but one Church in that town 
and one sermon permitted on Sunday. 

The testament with the pictures presented to the country with the 
pictures of Saints that are openly sold. 

All these (as they say) innovations. 

A Bill preferred against the Clerk of the Market. But one weight 
or measure and yard throughout the Kingdom. 

A bill for better election of the Knights and Burgesses. They must 
be resident within the Borough, and pay scott and lot, and have 4<D/- 
per annum within the borough where he is elected. 

M r Massall informed the House that there were taken up at the 
Custom House two Chests of Popish Books to the number of 7000, 
which my Lord of Canterbury sent for, and they are in his registrar's 

A Bill read for disposing moneys for Contumacions. That the 
money may be disposed according to Law, and not otherwise. 


Another Bill read concerning administration. 10 days allowed 
the next of kin. 

Another Bill read concerning the disposing of the goods of the intes- 

An Act for reformation of elections. No letter must be sent by any 
peer or privy councillor for or in the behalf of any man to be elected, 
upon pain of censure of the house and Star chamber. 

D r Pocklington's Book read that Christ is really present in the 

When the rulers of the Church have not law to bring in ceremonies, 
their commands must not pass for Law. M r Pynn. 

p, 18. 

The King and Convocation may make ecclesiastical Laws. 

The innovation of removing the Communion Table, long debated, at 
last voted for one of the particulars for conference with the Lords. 

The first reading of the Bill that none of the cleargy to be justices 
of the peace, but only the Bishopps, Deans and Vice-chancellors in the 
2 Universities. 

A committee for trades. 

M r Maynard his report upon M r Hamden's case of ship money. 
When the safety of the kingdom is propounded, whether the Kine may 
compel his subjects to furnish him with aid at their own charge or no. 

De tallagio non concedendo 14 Ed. III. No charge to be levied on 
the subject but by Parliament, if ship money, this statute void. Vide 25 
Ed. 3, i H. 3, 25 Ed. 3. Damned loans, 21 Rich. i. Damned 
benevolences which the Law called exactions. 

The Petition of write (sic) full against all grievances and an act of 

Bishop Manwaring, for preaching "It a sin to deny his Majesty 
the loane money/' was sentencyed the last Parliament by both houses 
and never to be capable of spirituall livings. 

For the good of the subject the King cannot lay any imposition or 
tax ; this so resolved in former parliaments. 

Parliaments have been called sometimes on no other occasion than 
to expound the Statutes. 

The Petition of " write " (sic) is a rule for the Judges, and the 
Acts of Parliament to be their rule. Serjeant Wyld. 

Doctor Beale in Cambridge, 1635, preached that the King might 
institute laws himself without the Parliament. Ourselves and families 
are all at the King's dispose. If we give his Majesty, we must have a 
or 3 royal prerogatives from him. 


P- J 9- 

An order of the House that he that comes in at the end of a debate 

must withdraw and give no vote. 

When the House is divided upon a Bill, the affirmatives must out 
first, when upon a question the negatives. Mr. Pirn. 

Mr. Waller affirmed that a judge in the argument of ship money said 
"The King was so in the right of it that no Parliament could dissolve it." 

May 4. Mr. Treasurer brought a message from the King that if 
we would give him 12 subsidies in 3 years, the ship money should be 
damned to our desires. The debate held until 6 at night, referred to the 
morning. I mind he exceeded his message for the King was content 
with six subsidies. 

May the 5th. We were dissolved for want of consenting to have 
subsidiary aid towards the Scotish warres before the Bill of Grievances 
was heard. 

Passages since the last Parliament : 

1. Against the oath M r Grimston spoke in the late canons that they 
would have us swear a damnable heresy, that matters necessary to 
salvation are contained in the discipline of the church. 

2. That we should swear not to alter the Government by arch- 
bishops, bishops, archdeacons, etc. Whereas we meet not with any 
such name in Scripture but only of bishops whose jurisdiction is human 

3. They have granted a benevolence to the King but in English it 
is six subsidies to be paid in six years. The penalty of non-payment 
(i) deprived of their functions, (2) of their freeholds, (3) excommunicated. 

A poor man imprisoned for refusing to submit to a project desired 
bail, at length one of the judges said to the rest of his brethren " Come, 
brothers, so be let us bail him." For they begin to say in the town 
"the judges have overthrown the law and the bishops the gospel." 
M r Grimston. This is the age that hath produced Achitopheles, 
Hamons, Woolseys, Empsons, Dudleys, Tressilians and Belknaps, 
vipers and monsters, and I doubt not but we shall have that 
same judgment against them which were against such heretofore 

p. 20. 

1. The last summer was a year, 1000 of our best armes were taken 
from the owners in Kent and sent to Scotland, the refusers to go them- 
selves. Sir J. Culpepper. 

2. The heavy tax of ship money which strikes the first arm in every 
family and man or inheritance. If the laws give the King power in case 


of any danger of the kingdom whereof he is judge to impose what and 
when he pleaseth we owe all that is left to the goodness of the King 
not to the law. 

3. A nest of wasps, a swarm of vermin which have overspread the 
land, I mean the monopolies, the police of the people. 

They sip in our cups, dip in our dishes, sitt by our fires, find them 
in our deyffates, they share with our butler in his box, nay they would 
not bate us a penny. These are the leeches that have sucked the 

Nov r 23, 1640. Sir Edward Bering's speech of paralleling between 
our Church and the Roman as (i) an inquisition and a high com- 
mission. (2) They an Index expurgatorius, we an Imprimatur for 
licensing books. (3) They acknowledge one supreme Pope, here, our 
primate " quasi alterius orbis papa " pleads fair for a patriarchship, and 
if we must have one I had rather serve one as far as Tybur than to 
have him come as near as the Thames (meaning the Archbishop of 
Canterbury). His motion was that there might be a committee often 
at the most. 

1. And to empower them for the discovery of oppressed ministers 
and the Bishop's tyranny for two years last past. 

2. That the committee may examine the printers, what books, and 
by bad licenses have issued forth, And in another speech that religion 
may be the first thing treated of. Which was much pressed by him. 

p. 21. 

Nov r 28. Sir Robert Barley, Sir Edw. Deering, Sir Gilbert Gerard, 
M r Glin, M r Whitehead, M r Hatcher, M r Cromwell, M r Rheynotos, 
M r Bagshaw, M r Nathan Ffynes, M r James Ffynes, Sir Thomas 
Pelham, M r Corbet, M r Tate, M r Oliver Luke, Sir Thomas Harrington, 
Sir John Draiton, Sir William Massam, Sir Miles Fleetwood, Sir Henry 
Wallop, Sir Thomas Payton, M r Chicheley, M r John Lowry. 

This sub-committee is to take into consideration the condition of 
both universities concerning matters of religion and what innovations 
and superstitions is crept into both universities, and have power to send 
for parties, witnesses, books, writings and records that may conduce to 
the matters complained of, and to enquire what new statutes and 
oaths are made in the said universities concerning religion. And this 
committee to meet in the Court of Wards on Wednesday next at 2 of 
the clock. 

My Lord Archbishop of Canterbury wrote to the University and 
sent them about 80 manuscripts, the copy of the letter as followeth : 

[A blank in the MS. follows.] 
p. 22 blank. 


p. 23. 

Nov. 24. The extent of my Lord Lieutenant of Ireland regarding 
of treasons, rapines and other misdemeanours. 

1. That he hath designed to subvert the fundamental laws of 
England and Ireland, and to introduce an arbitrary and tyrannical form of 
government and to advise the King to establish it by violence and arms. 

Instance i. In that he said, England was now sick of peace and 
must he conquered. 

2. That he traitorously usurped within both realms regal power over 
the lives, estates and privileges of the subjects. 

Instance i. In that the earl of Thomond in desiring justice in a 
legal way was answered by the Lord Lieutenant " You shall have no 
other law but what comes from my own breast. 

2. The judgement of death given in my Lord Mountnorris's case. 

3. In taking away divers men's lands and inheritances by his own 

4. In displacing of judges and officers. 
p. 24. 

Art. 3. That he hath converted the King's revenue to his own use 
when both King and kingdom were in great necessity and had great use 
for it. 

Instance i. In setting of impositions upon merchandize for his 
own use and detayning the King's treasure without warrant. 

2. In not accounting for Recusants' money received by him. 

3. In not accounting for alien's money received by him. 

4. For taking ^"40,000 out of the King's Exchequer to buy tobacco 
for his own use, and leaving the King's army unpaid. 

Art. 4. That he conspired to alter the religion established. 

Instance i. In that he made himself a party with Papists, that he 
might the better effect his purposes and encouraging the Papists to work 
his ends. 

Art. 5. That the loss at Newcastle and defeat at Newburgh, 
and the dishonour that happened to the King and Kingdom in the 
north have been the effect of his evil counsel. 

Instance. My Lord Conway advised him that Newcastle was not 
to be held and that his army [too] weak to encounter with the Scots. 
The Lieutenant commanded him notwithstanding the advice by a letter 
under his own hand to fight. Come what would. 
p. 25. 

Art. 6. That he endeavoured to engage both nations of England 
and Scotland in mortal and irreconcilable quarrells. 



Instance. In that he endeavoured to stir up difference between 
both the nations, and that he advised the King to invade Scotland. 

Art. 7. That he hath endeavoured to divert our Parliament and 
infringe the liberties of them that so he might not be called to an account 
for his actions. 

Instance i. In Ireland he refused writs for 30 Burrough towns 
because they would not choose such as he commended. 

2. In that he had a hand in the declaration published after the 
breach of the last Parliament. 

A declaration that the House of Commons aver most of these things 
as high and heinous treason. 

The conclusion : 

Mr. Pym desired the Lords that the articles might be accepted. 
That the Lord of Strafford might be called to answer. That the House 
might give their charge to prove them, and then said that if the King 
would give them leave but to sit four months they would make him 
greater than any of his predecessors, and that these new obstructions 
whereof this was the chief which should be reduced ere long. 

/>. 26. 

The House of Commons do still reserve to themselves the power of 
adding to the charges as there shall be occasion hereafter. 

Sec 7 Windebank and his Sec? Read fled out of the Kingdom as 
being the first witness against the Lieutenant to avoid which and his 
own accusations, which were heinous chiefly about releasing and writing 
for the Releasement of Jesuits, and Preists went his way, and at 
Gravellines certain letters being taken of his to his wife and son where 
he was gone. 

Another month's treaty with the Scots upon the same terms of 
^"850 per diem to be paid them. 

(It is imagined that this was considered of both houses as fearing 
that if they were gone the Parliament would not last long after.) 

The Lieutenant since Windebank's escape kept close prisoner, having 
liberty only in three rooms, and Sir George Ratcliff in the gatehouse 
the 4 th of December. 

Dec 1 4. They receive the petition of Burton, Prynne and Bast- 
wick. D r Heylin is to produce the accusations he made against 
Prynne's Books. 

A petition preferred against the Bishops and abuses of the High 
Commission with about 10,000 hands to it. 


7 Dec r . Ship money condemned,* and two subsidies granted for the 
discharging of those 100 gentlemen bound. Scotch ministers preach 
openly against Bishops and the liturgy. 

On the 1 8 th day my Lord B. of Canterbury committed to the 
Black Rod. 

The Lord Keeper committed. 

p. 27. 

Those judges which were for ship money questioned, only Judge 
Jones escaped by death, who was thought that he would suffer beyond 
others in respect also for misdemeanours in justice place. 

3 Dec r . The Sheriff of Warwickshire committed to the Tower and 
fined j^ioo for his irregular proceedings^ and return of knights of the 
said county, and released about 4 days after. A Deputy Lieutenant in 
LeicestershireJ committed for saying Sir Anthony [Arthur] Haselrigg, 
since he was chosen Knight of the said County was but a flash. 

4 Dec'. The Upper House concluded that the Bishopps had no 
royces amongst them in case any member of that House were to have 
a trial for his life, and therefore ordered that they should not be there 
when the Earl of Stratford should come to his trial. 

Dec r 6. The Lords approved of the motion from the Lower House 
that the recusant papists in his Majesty's navy should be removed, 
and concluded with the Commons it should presently be put in 

7 Dec r . The ship money was by an universal vote damned as being 
contrary to the laws of the land, liberty of the subject, the property of 
goods, divers resolutions of Parliament and the late Petition of right. 

Then also the house sent unto each of the judges two of their 
members to examine whether they delivered their opinions that the ship 
money was legal; if they did, upon what ground, and by whose persuasions. 

The answer they gave was general, some denied it, and some con- 
fessed it and said they were persuaded by him that was now Lord 
Keeper, the Lord Finch and others waived it and put it off. 

p. 38. 

The Vicar of Banbury, committed by the Lords for opprobrious 
speeches against some of them saying they had sent for the Scots to 
come into England promising them aid, but now they were come they 
deceived them. 

* The words "As contrary to the laws of the " struck out. 

t The irregular proceedings were, he removed the election from place to place, denied 
a poll, granted a poll, broke it up before it was done and returned another. " Northcote's 
Diary," p. 26. 

t This was Mr. Hatford, " Northcote's Diary," p. 25. 


15 Dec'. A debate about the late sacred canons. Mr. Holborne 
argued that the canons made by the convocation lawfully called 
and sitting whilst a parliament sat were strong, at least to bind the 
clergy. Some replied the contrary, and after much debate the question 
was put to the vote, Whether canons made in a convocation law- 
fully convened, and in a time that the parliament sat, did bind the laity 
or the clergy in case the said canons were not confirmed by the 
parliament? By the general vote of the whole House not one voice 
against it, it was concluded. That no canons made by the clergy did 
either bind them or the laity except the said canons were confirmed in 

Whether the last canons and book for six subsidies made since the 
last Parliament broke up were legal or not ? which was resolved by the 
like vote to be illegal and not any way binding. 

3. How the authors and procurers of the last canons should be 
proceeded against, which was deferred. 

My Lord Keeper upon Monday before Christmas fled over sea. 

p. 29. Handwriting changes. 

Jan. 6 (1641). The 3 Dutch ambassadors concluded a marriage 
between the Lady,* the Queen of Bohemia's daughter, and the Prince 
of Orange's eldest son. He being about 15 years old and she 10. The 
young Prince to come shortly over to consumate the marriage, and then 
the young Princess to be bred with the Queen of Bohemia at the Hague. 

There is such enmity between the Spaniards and Catalonians 
that whosoever is taken by the Catalonians they admit no quarter, but 
if they betaken alive rip up their hearts and treat them most inhumanly 
and say, " Long live King Louis, King of France and Catalonia." 
This is the fruit of extreme taxation laid upon the subject. 

The Lord Commissioners have concluded another month's cessation 
of arms between us and the Scots ; and the Upper House did desire the 
lower house to pass an act that such delinquents as should be known 
might be tried by the Parliament here, and those of her nation there, 
and if not guilty of death yet made incapable of bearing any office. 

The next week there comes to their trial the Bishop of Bath and 
Wellsf and his son, M r Piers, Archdeacon there, D r Layfield about 
Images.J D r Cosin, D r Beale,|| D r Potter, Sir Henry Spiller,^ Alder- 
men Abel** and Bromfield,** Richard, Roland Wilson** and Con- 
radus,** M r Chant. 

* The words " Mary, the King's eldest daughter," are struck out. 

t William Piers. J Dr. Layfeld, Vicar of All Hallows, Barking. 

$ Dean of Peterborough. || Member of Convocation, preached at Cambridge. 

\ Refused to receive indictment at Sessions against Recusants. ** Monopolists, 


p. 30. 

Bishop of Ely .... against the Judges and to the Lord Chief 
Justice of England Bratnston, Lord Chief Baron Davenport, Baron 
Weston, Baron Trevor, Baron Crawley and Judge Berkeley for and 
about their opinions for ship money. 

It is reported the Irish are in arms, and are getting into the church 
at Londonderry, and there they say mass.* 

22 Jan. My Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas Sir Edward 
Littleton made Lord Keeper, Sir John Banks, the King's Attorney, 
Lord Chief Justice, Mr. Herbert the King's Attorney, who was 
Solicitor, andf made Solicitor. 

The King spoke to both Houses that let them vote Bishops to be no 
Bishops, yet they should not go down, and there should be Bishops to 
govern the Church. J 

To have triennial Parliaments. Mr. Goodman, the Bishop of 
Gloucester's brother, a priest, was convicted, and execution suspended. 

29 Jan y . The citizens refuse to lend the King 60,000 because 
M r Goodman is not executed. The Lord Finch in Granville, where 
the Queen of Bohemia and S e y Wyndebank are by the ambassador in 

The Queen Mother intends to go in April into France for her 
health, and supposed also to mediate for her mother the old Queen of 

His Majesty's answer concerning a reference from the Parliament 
3' d Feb y 1640 of a remonstrance. 

1. His Majesty takes in good part their care of the true religion 
from which he will never depart, as also for the tenderness of his safety 
and security of the state and government. 

2. It is against his mind popery, a superstition increase, and will 
cause the laws to be put in execution and very speedily. A proclamation 
for all Jesuits and priests to depart the Kingdom shall be set forth within 
one month in which if they fail execution of the law. 

3. About the Queen's servant Rossely [Rossetti] he hath no com- 
mission but to entertain a personal correspondence between her and the 
Pope about religion. Yet she is content to remove him since the mis- 
understanding of the person's condition gives offence. 

* Struck out : " There are 4 subsidies granted, 2 to ba paid 10 Feb. and 2 the 
10 of May." 

t Blank in original. Oliver S' John was the person appointed. 
\ " Nor would consent " struck out, 


p. 32. 

4. As for the reprieving of M r John Goodman the priest he is informed 
that neither Queen Elizabeth nor his father, King James, did yield that 
any Priest in their time was executed merely for religion, which to him 
seems to be this particular case : yet being pressed by both houses to 
give way to his execution to avoid the great discontent of his people as 
he perceives this mercy will produce, therefore he doth remit this par- 
ticular case to both houses, but desires them to take it into their serious 
consideration the inconveniences, which as he conceives, may upon this 
occasion fall upon his subjects and other Protestants abroad, especially 
since it may seem to other states to be a severity which surprizes. 
Having thus presented he thinks himself to be discharged from all ill 
consequences if I may refuse you the execution of this person. 

My Lord Lieutenant of Ireland upon motion made to the House of 
Lords had leave to present his answer in writing which he did 25 Feb*. 

D r Pocklington deprived of 3 prebendaries and a parsonages, which 
he had, for writing a book called " Altare Christianum," which is to 
be burnt as being Popish. 

The Parliament persecutes the clergy that are no preachers, causing 
them to give large stipends to preachers and puts out ill ministers. 
Restores many which were suspended. Puritans arise and Arminians 
go down. The Courts of Justice all to be reformed. Many scandalous 
pamphlets spread abroad against Bishops and their government. 

Jan. 7. M r S' John's the lawyer's speech and charge from the 
Lower house against ship money to the Upper House printed. 

P- 33- 

24 Feb. The King confirmed the act for a trienial Parliament, and 
the Bill for 3 subsidies. 

A question was moved whether the King had power to pardon or 
reprieve any one convicted of treason ? 

It was answered by my Lord Keeper Littelton that if the treason 
were towards the King's person or Oueen or prince he might, but if it 
was against the fundamental laws of the Kingdom, contra regimen et 
regnum, the King had no power without the consent of the Parliament. 

p. 34 blank. 

This terminates the first part of the Diary. Until 1 646 there 
are nothing but a series of documents. 

(ii.) From 20 April 1653 to January 1657. 

This part of the Diary begins with the celebrated expulsion 
of the Parliament by Cromwell and Harrison on the 2oth April 
1653. No details are recorded, only the fact stated. This 
part of the Diary ends on the iyth May 1655 ; there is nothing 
to shew who kept it. 

p. 634. 

Mem., the ao th day of April 1653. Gen. Cromwell and Major- 
General Harrison with some officers and soldiers forced the Speaker of 
the parliament and all the members then present out of the house and 
dissolved this perpetual parliament, which hath lasted since November 
1639 to the destruction and extirpation of the kingly power, and 
utmost ruin and poverty of the Commonwealth by taxes and burdens 

The reasons of the Dissolution thereof in such an extraordinary way 
the General set forth by a Declaration, Aprill 22 nd 1653. 

For that now the Parliament and its forces had by their sword 
reduced the nation to a great degree of peace, whereby the Parliament 
had liberty to give the people their freedom and to reform what was 
amiss in government, which was delayed, notwithstanding late 
petitions by them for the same, but rather endeavouring a perpetuity 
of the same by an Act for preventing thereof, The Soldiery were 
enforced to put an end to this parliament with an honest heart, with 
clear intention to call to the Government persons of approved fidelity 
and honesty, etc. 

In June the General sent letters to such as were to be chosen 
members of the new Representative as followeth : 

Forasmuch as upon the dissolution of the late Parliament it became 


necessary that the peace, safety and good Government of this Com- 
monwealth should be provided for. 

And in order thereunto divers persons fearing God and of approved 
fidelity and honesty are by MYSELF, with the advice of MY COUNCIL 
of Officers, nominated, to whom the great charge and trust of so weighty 
affairs is to be committed, and having good assurance of Your love to and 
Courage for God, and the Interest of his Cause and of the good people 
of this Commonwealth, I, OLIVER CROMWELL, Captain-General 
and Commander-in-Chief of all the Armies and forces raised and to be 
raised within this Commonwealth, Do hereby summon and require you 
(being one of the persons nominated) personally to be and appear at 
the Council Chamber, commonly known or called by the name of the 
Council Chamber, at Whitehall within the City of Westminster upon 
the 4 th clay of July next ensuing the date hereof, then and there to take 
upon you the said trust unto which you are hereby called and appointed 
to serve as a member for the County of .... 

And hereof you are not to fail. 

Given under my hand and Seal this .... day of June 1653. 


The 3, 4, and 5 of June 1653, between the English and Dutch fleets 
in the Downs, in which the Dutch had lost and taken some 21 sail, 
beside 1300 persons. English had General Deane slain, and many 
slain and hurt. 

p. 636. 

General Cromwell, by the advice of his Council of Officers, called 
and approved 120 persons out of the several Counties at Whitehall, 
4 th July 1653. Where after a preparatory speech shewing forth the 
clearness of their call, did by an Instrument under his own hand and 
seal devolve and entrust the supreme authority and Government of this 
Commonwealth unto the said persons who, or any 40 of them, are to 
be deemed the supreme authority of this Commonwealth, unto whom 
all persons ought to yield obedience. That they are to sit until 
3 rd Nov. 1654, and then other members to be called. 

The aforesaid members, 5 th July, met in the parliament house and 
kept a day of Bumiliation from 8 in the morning. And la of themselves 
so spoke and prayed, that they did not find any necessity to call for the 
help of a minister. 

Francis Rouse, Esq re , chosen Chairman for a month. Henry 
Scobell, the old parliament Clerk, chosen again. 

That the General Cromwell, Lieut.-General Lambert, Major-General 
Harrison, Cols. Desborough and Tomlinson be called to sit in the house, 


which said persons and Sir Gilbert Pickering, Col. Stapley, Bennett, 
Sydenham, and Jones, and M r Strickland, M r Carey, and M r Major 
are the Council of State. 

The 6 th July, another fast day in further seeking of God. 

Resolved upon the Vote, That this then Assembly shall be called 
A Parliament.* 

Ordained 30 members for a Council of State. Settled n several 
Committees: i. For prisoners. 2. Law. 3. Inspection of Treasuries. 
4. Army. 5. Petitions. 6. Public debts and public fraud. 7. Regu- 
lating Commissions for peace and provision for poor. 8. Advance of 
trade. 9. Advance of learning. 10. For Ireland, u. For Scotland. 

P- 6 37- 

July 12. About 40 of the first Rebels in Ireland executed at the 
high Court of Justice in Ulster. 

Divisions high in Holland between the States and the young prince 
of Orange Interests in the Militia. 

July 26. Several Acts passed for a Committee of the Army, 
Treasury, Navy, and Admiralty's Court. 

Petitions now presented to the House against Tithes and regulating 
Laws and religion. 

July 29 to 31. The great fight between the English and Dutch 
fleet, both being about an equal number of 130 sail, wherein the 
Dutch were beaten say our Admirals with the loss of many ships 
sunk and takenf and then sunk presently, besides very much Ammu- 
nition and provision. English lost only 2 ships and many other much 
torn, and many slain and wounded. 

Aug. i 9 '. An Act that after 5 th August no fines shall be upon bills 
or declarations or original writs. 

Aug. 5. The Court of Chancery voted down 5 th August. 

City of Bordeaux surrendered upon Composition to the King of 
France with an Amnesty. 

Aug. 25. Day of thanksgiving for the victory over the Dutch. 
It is said the Dutch have a thanksgiving for their victory over 
the English ; Then both may thank God that they are no worse beaten. 

Lieut.-Col. Lilburne acquitted at Sessions for Newgate for coming into 
England without licence being banished for ever, and felony that he return 
without licence, though the pretended crime was only a misdemeanour. 

p. 638. 

Dec. 12. General Cromwell dissolved the new Representatives as 
persons not able to undergo their trust. 

* The voting was ayes 65, noes 46. f The English put the number at 26. 



Dec. 16. General Cromwell made himself Protector of the 3 
nations and so to be styled, and all writs to go forth in his name by 
the name of " Oliver, Lord Protector of England," etc. 

Dec. 21. General Cromwell proclaimed at Worcester, Protector, 
and so in every market town their market days. 

Lord Protector made choice of a Council. 

41 Articles agreed by the Protector and sworn to concerning the 
future Government of this Nation. 

An Act set forth what shall be only reputed Treason. 

1654, Feb. 8. Lord Protector rode in State into London. Feasted 
at Grocers' Hall by the City. Knighted the Lord Mayor, and gave 
him his sword. The City gave him a silver Cistern, 2 silver Candle- 
sticks a man's height. 

The tide at London came in twice in a morning, which is reputed 
ominous for some strange events to follow, as it did formerly by obser- 
vation before the great plague 1625, the Queen mother of France coming 
in, the late King's Charles massacre, and the dissolution of the late 

p. 639. 

. . . .* Serjeants at law to be made, and new Judges . . . .* ot 
the old Judges take their writs of ease now they have done their work, 
viz., Chief Baron Wylde, Judge Puleston,f Jermin, and Warburton. 

July 12 th . Capt. Jo. Gerrard was beheaded on Tower hill, and 
M r Vowell, a good scholar and schoolmaster at Islington, was hanged 
at Charing Cross for an intended, as it is said, and pretended killing the 
protector in behalf of the Scots king and his Interest, in which business 
many more gentle persons are secured, one Somerset Fox, a Tradesman, 
a gentleman reprieved by reason as it is said of his discovery of the plot.J 

About an hour after, the Portugal Ambassador's brother was there 
beheaded for the great riot and murder made by him and some others 
in the new Exchange, 3 servants hanged at Tyburn, and the Knight 
Malta and other Reprieved as was his gentleman, but intending to 
make an escape in woman's apparel execution was presently com- 
manded to be done. 

* Blanks in MS. 

t Sir Mathew Hale was one of the new Judges in the place of Puleston. There 
seems to be doubt if Jermin was actually removed; he died i8th March 1655. War- 
burton was promoted from the Common Pleas to the Upper Bench. The vacancy 
caused by the removal of Wylde was not filled up for some time, but at last Sergt. Steele 
was appointed Chief Baron, May 28, 1655. 

J He was transported to Barbadoes. 


July 13. This day the 5 burgesses or knights of the shire for Wor- 
cester was chosen, for the next parliament 3 rd Sept., viz., Sir Tho. 
Rouse, M r Edward Pitt, M r Nicholas Lechmere, Colonel John Bridges, 
and Captain Talbot Badger. 

f>. 640. 

For the City of Worcester Alderman Elvins and Captain Wm. 
Collins, where was much contest between him and Captain Boone of 

An Assessment for 3 months from 24 th June after 130,000 per 
mensem, and for 3 months more to 35"" December after ^90,000 per 

Memd. at Rotterdam. A rare Engineer hath devised a ship to 
drive into the deep, where shall sail invisibly a league or 3 miles and 
then rise. The myscheif is to set fire on any Enemy's ship, or navy in 
the night suddenly coming amongst them. 

Another Engineer in France, the King's Armourer, hath devised 
an engine which will shoot 500 great bullets successively by 10 at a 
time without either charging or priming. It will shoot on right and 
left hand at a distance like so many muskets. 

1654. Assessments after ^90,000 from 6 mouths to 6 months 
ending on Dec. 35. 

Dec. 1 6. General Pen with a great Navy and Col. Venables with 
10,000 men went to the West Indies to take, if they could, the fort 
S l Domingo from the Spaniard, but at the first landing were repulsed, 
diverse 100 slain, and retreated to the Isle of Jamaica which they forti- 
fied, and so return poorly and weatherbeaten home, having lost in this 

p. 641. 

voyage (as it is supposed) by sickness, slain, and other misfortunes, above 
6000 men, our ships many lost and most shattered, which voyage cost 
the fitting out (as it. is said) above a million of money. 

F[eb]. 16. Colonel Overtoil sent prisoner to the Tower. 

A great fire in Fleet Street, London, damage ^"10,000. 

F[eb]. 22. Parliament dissolved. 

Feb. 38. Ordinance against Horse races. 

March. Lord Grey committed to Windsor Castle. 

13. Great Insurrection of Wiltshire Cavaliers under Colonel Penrud- 
dock, Jones, and Grove with about 300 Horse, but presently suppressed 
and they taken. 

A great fire in Threadneedle Street, London. 


June 27. A high Court of Justice erected.* 

July 12. Don Pantaleon Sa (the Portugal Ambassador's brother) 
beheaded for a desperate assault and murder of a Gent, in New 

Sept. 3. Began a parliament at Westminster. 

Sept. 6. Ordinance for ejecting members that would not subscribe 
to the Government as established and not to act against it. 

Sept. 12. The Recognition/)- 

Oct. 6. General Blake sailed from Plymouth with his Navy into 
the Mediterranean seas. 

p. 642. 

1655, Marc. 26. London Petition to revive the Militia. 

Marc. 30. Duke of Lennox died. 

April 5. Poor knights of Windsor continued in their places. 

April 18. Many executed at Exeter for last insurrection of Col. 

April 2,6. Barons Thorpe and Newdigate had writs of ease for not 
sitting on their Commission against the Cavaliers' pretended rising in 
the north. 

May 9. Col. Penruddock and Grove beheaded at Exeter. 

Marquis Leda, Spanish Ambassador, had Audience. 

May 17. Serjeants Maynard and Twisden and M r Wyndham com- 
mitted to the Tower for pleading M" Coney's the merchant's case 
concerning Excise and customs. 

Several Lords and Gents, sent out of the Tower to several prisons 
on Sea coasts. 

pp. 643 646 blank. 

The third fragment of the Diary begins on the 9th January 
1655, but with the exception of the first two entries, which ought 
to have come into the previous part, and the third under 
May i yth, which is a copy of the one under the same date in the 
previous part, it runs on in its proper chronological order to 1657. 


Observable passages in the 2 years of His Highness Oliver Crom- 
well Lord Protector of England, etc., 1655. 

* These two items should have come on the previous page. The High Court of 
Justice was set up to try Gerard Vowell and Fox. 

f This was really an oath of allegiance to Cromwell. 


Jan. 9. Col 1 Edward Vernon of Sudbury in the County of Derby 
took up by soldiers to London, and so sent to the Tower on suspicion 
of being in the late plot of the pretended general intended insurrection. 

Sir H. Littleton Baronet High Sheriff of Worcestershire and Sir 
John Pakington, Bart., committed to the Tower on suspicion. 

May 17. Serjeants Maynard and Twisclen and M r Wyndham sent 
to the Tower for pleading on the subjects' behalf in Mr. Coney the 
merchant's case about excise and new impost. 

June 6. Mr. Copleston, Sheriff of Devonshire, knighted for his zeal 
to apprehend the late risers in Wiltshire fled tither. 

June 7. Chief Justice Rolle delivered up his Commission and Lord 
Commissioners of Chancery theirs. 

Col. Fynes made Lord Privy Seal, Lambert Lieut. -General made Lord 
Warden of the Cinque ports, Commissary General Rheinolds knighted. 

June ao. Sir William Constable buried in Westminster Abbey. 
O. Strange ! 

Col. Penruddock and Grove beheaded for their last insurrection 
against the present Gov 4 , and proclaiming the King of Scots King 
of England, etc. 

Barons Thorp and Newdigate writs of ease for not executing their 
commissions in the north to try delinquents.* 

Serjeants Maynard and Twisden with Mr. Wyndham committed to 
the Tower for pleading on the subjects' right in M r Coney, the 
merchant's case. Released after upon petition and submission. 

p. 36. 

Cavaliers not to come within 20 miles of London. Monthly pay at 
^"600,000 until Dec r 35, 6 months. Many Royalist or Cavalier persons 
secured in all counters, especially in Tower, S' James, Lambeth Gate- 
house, etc., in suspicion for the late insurrection. 

At Worcester, Sir Ralph Clare, Sir George Wintour, Cap' Thomas 
Savage, Major Wyld, Col. Sandys and divers others which were not 
fully released until Major General Berry came to govern the country. 

The Kingdoms put in the hands of 1 1 persons and officers of the 
army who, under the title of Major-General, were to keep and secure 
the peace of the Commonwealth, Major-General Berry had the 
Counties of Worcester, Hereford and Salop, and six northern Welsh 
Counties, namely, Montgomery, Flint, Denbigh, Cardigan, Carnarvon, 
and Anglesea. 

* They refused, when on the Northern Circuit in 1655, to try prisoners, and so were 


A declaration from the Protector shewing the reasons why he is 
freed and discharged from the act of oblivion and pardons granted 
to the Cavaliers, especially by their late rising and intention to rise, with 
their correspondencys therein, whereby he is engaged more surely both 
to secure the peace of the Commonwealth by raising of force to secure 
the same, and also in respect of their own guilt that their estates 
should discharge the same in general be they guilty or not, whereby 
there came forth orders and instructions to Commissioners named in 
the several counties to put in execution, the same being only H. Scobell's 
hand, Clerk of the Council for their warrant. Dated 21 Sept. 1655. 


Sir John Pakington released on ^5,000 Bond to appear on summons 
and to be of good behaviour, so divers gents, more out of sundry 
places unless there were some strong presumptions, though few were 
ever particularly examined, or told why they were secured. 

Peace proclaimed with France and war with Spain. 

Our article with France that they should not harbour any enemies 
of the Commonwealth within their dominions whereby all the old royal 
Family of the Stewarts now in France, which are the Dukes of 
York and Gloucester, and divers other nobility and gentry, and many 
figures of English, Scottish and Irish, march away in high discon- 
tent, being a very sorry reward for all their great services during that 
cruise against the Spaniard. And the worse in respect the old 
Queen of England is aunt to the King of France and the two Dukes 
his cousins german, and especially the Duke of York, who, for his 
age, hath done wonders in the wars. The King of Sweden's conquest 
of all Poland, and drove the great King out of the same in less than 
four months having most of the Governors of Countrys and Cities sub- 
mitted themselves to him and sworn obedience, and that done also with 
small bloodshed or loss to the strange admiration of all Christendom. 

One Manaseh Ben Israel with some other principal Jews came over to 
treat for liberty of living and trading, offering ^ 100,000 fine and 
^50,000 per annum, and also securing all persons from any Jewish 
Merchant breaking out of the public stock, and to bring in a Bank of 
^300,000 at 4 per cent. There hath been committees of divines, 
lawyers and statesmen about it. The divines meeting, and lawyers 
against their admittance, and all the merchants and citizens of London. 

p. 38. 

In December Earl of Southampton for taking the liberty to plead in 


his own defence the Parliament's pardon and the act of oblivion against 
the new orders and instructions for keeping all the Royal party or 
delinquent cavaliers in their io th of the true value of their real estates 
per annum, and refusing to bring in a particular thereof and submit to 
pay 10 per centum in lands was committed to the Tower and, as it is 
said, some others. 

Divers loose persons and such as have not any visible estate, seized 
on in several counties and sent away to the ships to be transported for 
Jamaica, service in the Indies, and to some other plantations abroad. 

Henry Townshend of Elmley seised after ^"103 05. od. per annum, 
for which he pays accordingly. 

Cavaliers to give sufficient security according to their quality, some 
after ^500, .#1,000, ^"5,000 per annum for good and peaceable 
behaviour to the Protector and all the good people of this Common- 
wealth. To discover all treason, etc., for which Bond the Major- 
General Berry's clerk hath ^"5 a year. 

And one bond more of #200 for your servant's good behaviour, 
and to be ready to appear upon reasonable summons with them your- 
self. The clerk hath i8 d for this bond. 

All gaming Houses within London and Westminster to be sup- 
pressed, and all inns, taverns and alehouses which lodge traitors, and in 
the country all alehouses which stand alone. 


[1656] Jan. to. One M r Lewis of the market-town of Bromsgrove, 
Worcestershire, with his wife and family bound and robbed of ^120 in 
silver and . . . .* in gold by some 10 horse, which came armed about 
13 in the night and broke his house, the property gone, and vanished 
undiscovered as yet, though pursuance was speedily made after. They 
took all his lynen, his own clothes and horses besides, so dangerous 
are these times now the power of sword ruleth. Since they are most 
of them taken and a great part of the money. 

15. Sir Thomas Rouse, Baronett, made Gustos Rotulorum, and 
presented his Commission at the Quarter Sessions now after Christmas 
for the County of Worcester, and did bring in M r Thomas Symonds of 
Pershore for his deputy and clerk of the Peace, about whose reception 
there was much contest, all the Justices being for M 1 ' Francis Walker, 
the old clerk. 

Feb. Col. Pride, now Sir Thomas Pride, by reason of some 

* Blank in MS. 


difference between him and the Keeper Godfrey of the Bears in the 
Bear Garden in Southwark, as a justice of peace there caused all the 
Bears to be fast tied up by the noses and then valiantly brought some 
files of musketeers, drew up and gave fire and killed six or more bears 
in the place (only leaving one white innocent cub), and also all courts 
of the game. It is said all the mastifs are for to be shipt for Jamaica. 

500 maids about the City of London (or should be) prest and 
enrolled to go in the great fleet to Jamaica. 

Merchant ships all stayed by an embargo on them for 21 days, 
which hinders much trading. 

The Spaniards have proclaimed open war with England. 

p. 40. 

Herefordshire carrier in Maidenhead thicket was robbed of ^"1,000 
in money and one trunk of plate by some low fareres by Windsor 

All the Irish in the five Counties of Dublin, Caterclough, Kildare, 
Wexford and Wicklow must go to hear public (i to come to the 
assemblys of the church) or transplant. 

Cap* Richard Badeley made Vice-Admiral, my wife's nephew. 

Bishop Godfrey Goodman of Gloucester died at Westminster* and 
by his will, inroled in the Prerogative Office, declared himself an 
adherer to the Communion of the Roman Church. 

Sir Thomas Alcock killed himself in his chamber at London with 
a dagger. 

28 of March 1656. A day of humiliation generally appointed for 
the going forth and success of the great Fleet. 

James Usher, the most learned scholar and late Archbishop of 
Armagh in Ireland, died near London. 

Since the middle of March to the ... .f of April never remembered 
such strong cold winds, storm, snow, sleet and slobery weather to so 
great hindrance of the countryman's sowing and grass and floods. 

From middle of May until . . . .,f except one whole day in middle 
of June, so great a drought that hay is at 4O 1 the load. Grass mostly 
burnt up. 

Hayman, the notablest theif for a picklock in Christendom, executed 
at Smithfield, who robbed divers princes and great persons and store 
of rich men's houses of their money. 

The Spaniards of Dunkirk took at one time 22 of our merchant and 
coal ships, a loss so great as seldom the like known and many 
merchants broke. 

" Died 19 January 1656. f Blank in MS, 


p. 41. 

July. This hot, dry year has caused great sickness, especially the 
small pox and meazles, whereof many have died in all places. 

Sir H. Littelton of Worcestershire released out of the Tower and 
remitted to the custody of the Marshal of S' James', by which he hath 
much freedom abroad and refreshment. 

Major G. Harrison and Major Wildman released on bail. 

Writs come to Sheriff to summon Knights for Parliament Election 
for Worcestershire 2,0 August. Parliament begins 17 Sep* at West- 

The Spaniards beat the French from the siege of Valenciennes in 
Flanders, where the French left at least 10,000 killed and taken 
too pieces of canon, and all ammunition, provisions and tents. 

Prince Rupert said to be dead of a consumption, which proves false. 
Daily the Spaniards of Dunkirk and Ostend take English ships. 

Lord Conway taken going into France to see his Lady, who is 

August 5. Sir Robert Berkeley, lately Judge, buried at Spetchley. 

20. The Knights of the Shire chosen for Parliament : Major-General 
Berry, Sir Thomas Rouse, Bart., Edward Pitt, Esq., Nicholas Lechmere, 
Esq., Attorney of the Dutchy, and John Nanfan, Esquire, for Worces- 
tershire, and for the city Cap' John Collins and one M r Giles, a young 

An ordinance for six months' contribution before hand by the Pro- 
tector and Council was levied to be paid, the first payment in Novemb., 
3 months before hand, and the other in Ffeb? at i J 6o,ooo per mensen. 

p. 42. 

Many gentlemen remanded to the Tower and many more committed 
thither, and to several other places. 

Most of the army drawn up to London and new places made 
garrisons, as Earl of Leir house, new Piccadilla, Smithfield. 

Many chosen Parliament men when they came to sit were, by the 
command of the Proctector to whom until they were approved by the 
Council of State so that divers returned into their own Counties, 
amongst whom M r Nanfan of Worcestershire. 

A public fast the last of October and a day of thanksgiving for the 
taking of part of the Spanish West Indian fleet, being nearly 2 million 
in plate and bullion (if report says truth), on the 5 th of November. 

A motion made by G. L. in the House for a new survey of all 



delinquent and Papists' estates so that if there be any estate of them 
concealed and uncompounded for to be seized and sold as the State's 
(they not owning the same by non-compounding), a committee of 40 
about to sit upon it. 

Jan. One Lieut. Sindercombe, a Leveller, condemned for treason in 
intending to burn Whitehall Chapel and in the confusion to kill the 
Protector. One Cecill of the Life Guards, his associate, betrayed and 
discovered him, and the night before he suffered he snuft up (as is 
conceived) some poisonous powder in his head and was found dead and 
by a jury found in the Tower felo de se. 

This concludes the diary as far as relates to the Common- 
wealth. There is nothing as to the death of Cromwell or about 
Richard Cromwell. 

(iii.) From 25 April 1660 to 8 April 1663. 

25 April 1660. The Parliament began to sit. Sir Harbottle 
Griinston chosen Speaker, D r Rheynolds preached, M r Jessop Clerk of 
the House. 

A Committee of Elections chosen, whereof Mr. John Talbot, 
M r Street, and M r Hall were members therein. 

A House of Lords voted, 37 entered upon it and chose the Earl of 
Manchester Speaker, M r John Brown Clerk of the House. 

30. A day of humiliation, when M r Calamy, Dr. Gauden, and 
M r Richard Baxter preached before the Houses. 

Col. Lambert being seized on by Col. Ingoldsby, Easter day, 
20 April, near Daventry, and his party scattered. The fanatics was with 
Major Creed, Colonclls Collett and Axhill with other officers brought to 
London. Lambert committed close prisoner to the Tower 22 April. 
On the 22 nd the City of London Militia in Hide Park mustered, and was 
about 18,000 foot and 2,000 Horse, and 60,000 persons at least spec- 
tators, in which many Hon ble persons and gents, trayled pikes. 

On 23 rd a butcher of Worcester was shot by a Fanatic who was 
stopt going out of the City, and though he had a pass he would not 
shew it, whereby he was guilty of murder by inquest. 

I" March. House of Commons sit upon the settlement of the gov*. 
No private business to intervene until it be finished and perfected. 

A day of thanksgiving for the taking of Col 1 Lambert and dispersing 
the fanatiques at their rendevous at Daintry. 

A declaration from the King to the House of Lords and Commons 
dated 14 April Breda 1660, 12 Regni, presented by Sir John Grenville 
to the Speaker voted to be read. The heads whereof are (i) an act of 
Oblivion, Confirmation of sales to all but such as the Parliament should 
except, liberty of conscience to all that live peaceably, a free National 
Council to settle church discipline, soldiers' arrears which are under 
General Monk, and return to his Majesty's pay. 

p. 44. 

The Lords upon a conference with the House of Commons voted the 
declaration satisfactory, and that according to the ancient fundamental 
laws of the kingdom the government is and ought to be by King, Lords, 
and Commons. 


Ordered jf 50,000 to be sent to the King for his charges, with 
humble and hearty thanks, together with all professions of loyalty and 
duty. That 6 Lords and 12 Commoners be appointed to attend His 
Majesty with the answer of Parliament to his gracious declaration, and 
Doctor Clargis with the General's answer. 

That ^"70,000 a month for 3 months to commence from June be 
set upon England and Wales for the securing the City for the ^50,000 
borrowed, and to pay the sums of the Army. 

The State Arms in Guildhall in London taken down and the King's 
set up, so some of the Navy hath already done. At St. John's near 
Worcester done at first, and before any order, and the Church new 
beautified and the King's arms drawn in the walls. 

3. Memd. At Worcester City upon hearing of the Parliament's 
reception of the King and of the King's declaration in night such a number 
of bonfires throughout, with ringing of bells, that the City seemed all in 
a flame most part of the night, every street having at least 4 or 5. 
Some 13 bonfires, with high and general rejoicings and acclamations. 

[May a.] ^500 given to Sir John Grenville by the House of 
Commons for bringing His Majesty's letter,* and as much to the Lord 

3 Aldermen and 6 Common Councilmen and M r Wyld, Recorder of 
London, appointed to bring the City's answer to the King's letter. 

The State's seal broken and a new one. 

The late King Charles' picture to be reset up in the old Exchange, 
with this inscription, " Rex optimus." 

The death of the late King Charles voted cruel and horrible murder. 


Col 1 Lambert had passed two guards in the Tower to make his escape, 
but is now put in and up on high in a little dark chamber, where he 
must have a candle lighted to see in. 

M r Luke Robinson, an anti-monarchical man, acknowledged his 
error in the House, and professed his loyal submission on reading His 
Majesty's declaration and his letter to the House. 

The rabble in London demolished the Anabaptist's church. 

5. The Term adjourned until 28 th May, and not trials at Bar until 
Michaelmas term. 

House of Commons consented to the Earl of Manchester to be one 
of the Commissioners of the great seal. 

* In the Journals it is stated the .500 was to buy a jewel as a testimony of respect 
and a badge of honour. 


9. Ministers in all churches to pray for the King's Majesty 
Charles 2 nd , Duke of York, and all the Royal progeny. 

^100,000 borrowed by the Parliament of the City. The assessment 
monthly for security, then to ease it. 

Votes and resolutions in House of Lords (i) To consider of the 
speedy reception of His Majesty into England; (2) The manner of his 
reception ; (3) The revenue for His Majesty and to sieze and secure 
the Crown jewels. A crown and sceptre and other Royall orna- 
ments to be speedily made. 

Several Acts for His Majesty to pass which the Parliament agents 
are to bring with them. 

The names of the 6 Lords and 12 Commoners, Earls of Oxford, War- 
wick, and Middlesex, Viscounts Hereford, Berkeley, and Brooke, Lord 
Castleton, Lord Herbert, Lord Bruce, Lord Fairfax, Lord Mandeville, 
Lord Falkland, Sir G. Booth, Sir Horace Townshend, Sir Anthony Ashley 
Couper, Sir John Holland, Sir H. Cholmondeley, M r Denzil Hollis. 

The names of the Citizens, Alderman Robinson, Langham, Buchanan, 
Brown, Reynolds senior, Vincent, Walter Tompson, Sir James Bruce, 
Baronet, M r William Wylde, Recorder., Col. Bromfield, Major Chamber- 
layn, Bludsworth, Ford, Bateman, Lewis and Biddulph, Esq, Citizens. 

p. 46. 

8. On Tuesday Charles the Second was proclaimed in most solemn 
and magnificent manner King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, 
first in Palace Yard at Westminster, then at the Temple Bar, where the 
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Livery received the guard, Parliament men 
and Council of state, and go through the City to the High rejoicings of 
all in general except the fanatics, who love no church or government. 

14. Troops cashiered for running to Col 1 Lambert at Edgehill. 

A declaration of the nobility and gentry of the County of Worcester 
adhering to the late King was presented to Genl 1 Monk by Lord 
Windsor, Sir John Pakington, M v Finch and M r Thomas Hornihold, 
for the vindication of themselves from those scandalous aspersions as 
full of Recusancy for the great losses since the last wars, declaring they 
neither do nor will harbour any such thought of Ransom or Revenge 
against them or any other person, but willing to lay aside all animosity 
and return to all mutual Christian love, etc. 

Earl of Shrewsbury. Hen. Finch, Esq r . 

The Lord Windsor. Tho. Horniold, Esq r . 

Sir John Pakington, Bart. John Hickson, Esq r . 

Sir William Russell, Bart. Tho. Wyld, Esq r . 

Sir Ralph Clare, K' of the Bath. Jo. Key t, Esq'. 


Sir Rowland Berkeley. Wm. Sheldon, Esq*. 

Sir John Wynford. Philip Bearcroft, Esq r . 

Sir Edward Barrett. Edward Barret, gent. 

Samuel Sandys, Esq r . Herbert Bushell, gent. 

Sherrington Talbot, Esq r . William Sheldon, gent. 

Tho. Savadge, Esq r . Jo. Sandys, gent. 
Hen. Townshend, Esq 1 . 

Mem d . This declaration was well received by the General, and 
thanks to the gentlemen which presented it as coming opportunely in 
respect that the County is in report to be the most malignant through 
the. nation. 


7. Declaration of the Lords to continue all Justices of Peace, 
Mayors, and all officers in the places which were in 25 April last, and 
to take care to suppress all tumults and insurrections, and to summon 
all which utter any treasonable or seditious speeches, reports, and 
rumours against His Majestic or his authority. All military officers 
to be aiding, etc. 

10. The n th a day of thanksgiving at Westminster by the Par- 
liament, from their then thraldom and misery by Genl 1 Monk, and the 
24 th to be kept throughout the nation with the reading of His Majesty's 

Resolved by the Lords That the King be invited to come in with all 
necessary speed. 2. What the manner of his reception. 3. That 
Generals Monk and Montague yield obedience to all orders directed to 
him from His Majesty with the Navy. 

The Mayor of Wicken committed for making a false return of M r 
Thomas Scot against M r Brown, who had most voyces in the election. 

Mem d . This day at the City of Worcester were placed on high 
four scaffolds, one at the Cross ; 2, Corn Markett ; 3, at the Knole ; 
and 4, at or near All Hallows' well. 

The scaffold at the Cross was encompassed with green, white, and 
purple colours, the two first are his own colours, being prince, the 3 rd 
as King. 

M r Ashby, the Mayor, a mercer and all Aldermen in scarlet, the 
Sheriff of the City, the 24 and 48 in their Liveries, each Trade and 
freemen marching with their colours. 

First went too trained city band men after their Cap 4 Alderman 
Vernon, then came the Sheriff Thomas Coventry, Esq r , the Lord Coven- 
try's eldest son, Servants, then the two Army Companies, then the 
several livery companies with their showmen or banners, then the City 



officers, then the maces and sword bearer, then the Mayor with 
M* High Sheriff and some gents., then all the 24 and 48, then part of a 
troop of Horse of the Army. 

The Mayor, mounting the scaffold with the gents, and Aldermen, 
M r Jo. Astley reading softly by degrees the Proclamation of Charles the 
Second to be King of England, Scotland, France, Ireland. The Mayor 
himself spoke it aloud to all the people which then all with a shout 
said, " God save the King." Then all guns went off, swords drawn and 
flourishing over their heads, drums beating, and trumpets blowing, loud 

p. 48. 

music playing before the Mayor and Company to every scaffold, which 
was done in the same manner throughout, and all finished the Mayor 
and City gave wine and biscuits in the Chamber liberally. Bonfires 
made at night throughout the City, and the King's good health with 
store of wine was drunk freely, never such a concourse of people seen 
upon so short a notice with high rejoicings and acclamations for the 
prosperity of the King, God guard him from his enemies as he ever hath 
done most miraculously and send him a prosperous peaceable reign and 
long healthful life for the happiness of his subjects who is their delight. 

13. ^10,000 given to the Duke of York and ^"5,000 to the Duke 
of Gloucester by the Parliament as a token of their thankfulness. 

The King's judges left to the law by the Parliament, who as yet 
refuse to meddle in it. Col 1 Ingoldsby made an humble and sorrowful 
speech for his great crime therein and was much pitied, and as it is 
said he hath his majestie's pardon ready. 

Commissioner Lisle did somewhat like, but laid aside. 

Commissioner Nathaniel Finnes with the great seal went over to 
his Majestic to implore his pardon, who told him (as Col 1 Okey before) 
that he had left all delinquents that had a hand in his Father's death to 
the justice or mercy of the Parliament. 

The Old Protectress Cromwell is gone aside, and divers goods of hers 
which were formerly belonging to the King were seized on in Thames 
Street, being of great worth and value. 

At the great thanksgiving Day at Westminster the Book of 
Common Prayer was said before the Lords, the like at S* Margaret's 
before the House of Commons, and so daily in the morning in the 
House. M r Baxter of Kidderminster preached that day at Paul's 
before the Lord Mayor. 

P- 49- 

The old King's Statute is again set up in the old Exchange, and this 
King's portraiture to be made speedily. 


The Presbyterian ministers tendered a Bill in the House for the con- 
firmation of them in the sequestered churches, but rejected and thrown 

Ordered that the Scots colours hung in Westminster Hall be 
taken down. 

Ordered that his Majesty's pleasure be known to which of his 
Houses he pleases to reside, that it may be speedily prepared for his 

It is said General George Monk is to be Duke of Somerset and 
Knight of the Garter. 

14. A Bill of Attainder presented against Oliver Cromwell, late 
Protector, President Bradshaw, Commissary General Ireton, and Colonel 
Pride, who, though all dead, yet their estates to be forfeited for con- 
demning the King to death, as the principal plotters of the late King 
Charles the first's death, and shall relate from January I st , 1648. 

A Bill of attainder against Chief Justice S' John, Commissioner 
Lisle of the Great Seal, and Thomas Scott, who said he would have it 
written in his Tomb as a monument that he was one of the King's 
Judges, and 4 more. 

M r W m Prinne moved the House of Commons that M r William 
Lenthall the speaker might be hanged, and all others of the Long Robed 
Parliament who went clearly against their own knowledge of the law. 

Lord Fairfax came to Gen 1 Monk to desire that the House would 
not be so violent against those that fought for their rights and liberties. 
He answered he might do well to move the House therein, or else that 
he may try to fight over the cause again. 

f. 50. 

A rich golden tablet set with Diamonds given and sent by the King 
with his picture to Lady Monke. 

Thurlow, late Secretary of State, accused of Treason in Parliament, 
and his person to be secured. 

All those officers, as Broughton, Phelps, Clerks of the indictment 
and court, Dandy the Serjeant, and others that are messengers secured 
their persons. 

Four witches from Kidderminster brought to goal in Worcester, one 
Widow Robinson and her two daughters and a man. The eldest 
daughter was said to say that if they had not been taken the King 
should never have come into England, and though he now doth come 
yet he shall not live long, but shall die as ill a death as they. And that 
they would have made corn like pepper. Many great charges against 
them and little proved. Now they were put to the ducking in the 


River, and they would not sink but swam aloft. The man had 5 teats, 
the mother 3, and the eldest daughter had one, and when they went to 
search the women none were visible. One advised them to lay them on 
their backs and keep open their mouths and they would appear, and so 
they presently appeared in sight. 

n. Whitehall, the place for his Majesty's reception, and Somerset 
House, S' James and Mews to be cleansed from all sojourners and 
made for the King's service. 

Ordered that M r Phelps, Clerk of the High Court of Justice, deliver 
in all papers and books concerning the King's trial, and what he hath in 
his hands, so for Secretary Thurlow's and Hugh Peters, and judges of 
Archbishop Laud's Books to the Committee. 

D r Thomas Clargis knighted by the King at Breda. 

Earl of Winchelsea, Governor of Dover, and Earl of Warwick of 
Landguard Castle. 

/>. 51. 

That Alderman Langham provide the rich furs and ermines for the 
King's coronation, and Alderman Viner the Crown. 

M r Mooreland, Thurlow's Secretary, carryed over the black book of 
his master's, who were false to his Majesty for which his Majesty 
knighted him, being about 40 persons, pensioners, and the other* who 
was also to his Majesty unknown, got his majesty's intelligence. 

All the King's judges fled. Only Sir H. Mildmay taken at Rye into 
France, going with 50" in gold, 50" in money, and 50" in a diamond. 

^"400,000 voted to be raised by way of Poll Money for payment of 
the soldiers' arrears and Navy. 

All Honours and dignities given by Oliver, Protector, or his son 
Richard to be void and null. 

13. The estates, real and personal, of the King's judges, to the 
number of 66 persons, by order of the House of Lords secured and 
seized by the several! Sheriffs of Counties upon the complaint of the 
House of Commons to the House of Lords. 

Richard, late Protector, and Henry Cromwell, the deputy of Ireland, 
sons of Oliver, gone aside. 

House of Commons excepted only 7 from mercy, the Lords 16, so 
the number not yet agreed upon. 

Many Trapanners, which were late of the King's party and turned 
to Oliver protector, betraying all designs for the restoring of the King, 
discovered by a book of their names in all counties, with their pensions, 
and delivered to his Majesty by M r Mooreland. 

* Probably Sir Richard Willis is meant as " the other." 

4 2 ANNALS. 

24. The great day of thanksgiving to be kept throughout England 
and Wales, to be kept with all solemnity for our happy deliverance out 
of slavery and bondage by the late several usurpers, and for the restoring 
of our gracious and long banished prince and King Charles the Second 
to the Government of these 3 nations by the hands of good and loyal 
General Monk, which day was solemnly kept at Worcester and by the 
Royalists at S' Michael's Church by M r William Harewell, a sequestered 

P- 53- 

Major-General Harrison committed to Tower prison. His horses 
to be sent to the King's stable at mews. 

D r Hewit's widow petitioned the Parliament for justice against the 
illegal President Lisle that he may be as a murderer excepted from 
pardon in the act of oblivion. And that Tichborne, Ireton, and Pack, 
Aldermen, Serj' Cooke, John Backstead, and Jo. Phelps, and the rest, 
may make her due reparation for her husband's death. 

Hollanders presented the King with 60,000 guilders. 

In Scotland, by the Commissioners for the gov* of Scotland, do con- 
firm all powers of Justices, Sheriffs, that submitted in April until further 
order from the Parliament of England or Council of State or ourselves, 
11 May 1660, Thomas Morgan, Philip Twistleton, John Daniell, 
M r Disney. 

D r Oliver restored to the President's place in Magdalen College in 
Oxford, for his not submitting to the Visitation, which was contrary to 
the local Statutes of the College. By order of the Lords 18 May 1660. 

M r Clement Kinerley ordered by the Lords' committee of the King's 
goods to seize and secure all goods, pictures, jewels, and other Crown 
moveables in the hands of any person until his Majesty's pleasure be 
further signified 1 9 May, Dorsett. 

A Bill read for stating public debts and discovering frauds and con- 
cealments. Another for taking away the Court of Wards, read first 
time May 22 and again 24. 

And making void all honours since 1642. 

Ordered two new maces (i) for the House and (2) for the Council 
of State. 

A Bill read for maintenance of just rights and privileges of Parlia- 
ment in confirmation of the fundamental laws 23 May and again 24. 

The King proclaimed on the 14 th in Ireland. 

The Convention have ordered ^20,000 for a present to his Majesty 
and ^2,000 a piece to the two Dukes York and Gloucester. 



Lord Broghill, Sir Charles Coot, Sir Theophilus Jones, Col 1 Hall, 
Col 1 Mervin, M r Richard Kennady, and Sir James Barry appointed 
Commissioners with Sir John Clotworthy, Major Aston, Col 1 King, and 
Major Rawdon. 

Notice given that one Lieut.-Col 1 Eyre, with some rebellious spirits, 
were gathered into a body, enforced Sir Theophilus Jones to stay behind 
for their suppression. 

Col 1 Desborough seized on and brought to the Council of State and 
committed to the Tower. 

23. General Monk marched from London with a gallant train of 
attendance to meet the King. 

It is said that several Fanatics intermingled themselves with the 
troops but were discovered, whereof 3 killed and some hurt, and 3 
taken who do confess their design was to pistol the King. One (24 th ) to 
be put to the rack for discovery. It is said the King escaped a plot 
of some Frenchmen at the Hague to pistol the King in his coach, 
but discovered by one who was in private, overhearing them and they 
suspecting it shot him as dead, but recovering to speak discovered their 
intentions. From all such or any other God ever preserve and protect 
his pious Majesty. 

Orders for Commissioners of Assessment to bring all arrears now due. 

May 17. Resolved that Col 1 Mathew Tomlinson shall not be 
secured nor his estate seized on. 

A committee for the Bills of sale of Arms and Church lands sitt. 

M r Marten at the 3 Nuns in Cheapside to provide all linens for his 
Majesty's service, and M r Trussell the mercer in Pater Noster Row 
all velvetts, silks, etc., for His Majesty's Coaches, Beds and Cham- 
bers, etc. 


26. The King landed at Dover about 3 in the afternoon with the 
two Dukes York and Gloucester, his brothers, and went to Canterbury 
that night. 

At his departure from the Hague to take ship in the Naseby 
frigate, to which the Oueen of Bohemia and Princess Royal his sister 
brought him. Their great guns by land and water went off, so 
many and so thick that there could not be seen sky, land or water for 
a long season. The Presbyterians that went to the King to move him 
for the settlement of presbitery received, it seems, such satisfaction 
that they craved His Majesty's pardon and left him to settle the 
church and state as he pleased. His Majesty's Chaplains and they going 


visibly one to the other. The King knighted all the Citizens who were 
commissioners to His Majesty to the Hague. He lay at Canterbury on 
Saturday and stayed Sunday, and knighted there M r Clerke and M r Swan. 

Gregory Clement sent to the Tower, being one of the King's 
J udges. 

Ordered that the Serjeant at Arms seize all goods of the persons 
sat as the Judges of the King. 

7 Horses of Oliver Cromwell and all other horses belonging to such 
persons be carried to the mews. 

The Hollanders at the feasting of his Majesty at the Hague for 
satisfaction to His Majesty's they presented to the young Prince 
of Orange full confirmation of all honours and profit which his Father 
enjoyed. They gave his Majesty cash ^7000 and ^1,000 worth in 
Diamonds, and serving him all with gold plate to the value of 60,000 
gave it to His Majesty. 

His Majesty chose 80 gentlemen of his life guard. Lord Gerrard 

The Naseby frigate now called the Royal Charles, the Swiftsure 
called the James from the Admirals James, Duke of York, and the 
Spanker called the Princess Mary. 

M r Morris is made Secretary of State and knighted. 

24. A declaration passed both Houses for bringing in the arrears 
of customs and excise. 

25. All Irish rebels except such as came in upon Articles, nor 
since forfeited the same, be apprehended and proceeded according to 
law, and no adventurer disturbed of his possessions until the Parliament 
here or there do take further order. 

29, Memd' about midnight. My daughter Dorothea Townshend 

/> 55- 

died 29 th May 1660 in the Colledg at Worcester and was buried in the 
colledgiate church, on the right side of her brother Thomas, the fifth of 
June following in the body of the Church near the steps into the 
Choir by M r Harewell, who said the first prayer for the dead since the 
rending up of Worcester to the pretended Parliament, 24 July 1660,* 
and the now new entrance of Charles the Second in power to his 
Crown and authority. 

Memd' On the 29 th of this May, being the King's birthday and now 
30 years of age, His Majesty came with all magnificence into London 
and so to his palace at Whitehall, with the olive branch of peace for this 

* This is a mistake for 1646, which was the date Worcester surrendered at the siege. 


23 years' troubles beginning with the first Scots' war and the 14"' year of 
his exile and the 12 th year of his reign from his native Kingdom and rights. 

Sir E-Iarbottle Grimston, Speaker of the Parliament, who attending 
his Majesty's corning in the Banquetting house at Whitehall, made a 
speech testifying their loyalty and duty at his Majesty's happy and 
safe return unto his Parliament and people. The like the Earl of 
Manchester on behalf of the House of Lords. Who briefly replied 
that his chiefest care was the uniting of divisions, settling of religion 
and liberties of his people, which he was as tender as his own interest. 

Genl 1 Monk made Knight of the Garter, and General of all the 
Land forces. Lord Mayor Allen knighted with his Mayor's sword. 

Great bonfires made throughout the city at night, and at West- 
minster Oliver Cromwell's effigy was set up on a high post, with the 
Rump's arms were burnt both together. The like in many other places. 

A great quantity of goods of M r Andrew Broughton, Clerk of the 
High Court of Justice, was seized on at Rochester. So an Irish coach of 
Oliver Cromwell was seized on at a coachmakers, who pretends debt 
due for it. 

Great seal broken of the Commissioners and given as their fees to 

/>. 56. 

A committee appointed to state the public debt of the nation, and 
how and when contracted and to whom, what monies have been 
received by persons, and in whose hands any money rests. 

An Act to be drawn for the 2g th May for ever to be as a day of 
thanksgiving unto God for the restoration of His Majesty. 

Sir Edward Hide made Lord Chancellor, Sir John Culpepper Master 
of the Rolls, Marquiss of Ormonde Lord High Steward, Marquiss of 
Hertford Groom of the Stole, Earl of Manchester Chamberlain of 
the Household. 

M r Denzil Hollis and M r John Pierpoint Privy Councillors, so 
Sir Anthony Ashley Cowper, General Monk, Earl of Southampton, and 
Sir William Morris Secretary. 

Gen 1 Monk Master of the Horse, Gen 1 Montague Knight of the 
Garter, so Earl of Oxford and Lord Roberts. 

June i. The King's first entrance was on Friday, June i, to the 
Parliament, when he passed three Bills: i. For confirmation of this 
Parliament. 2. For courts of Judicature continuing all judicial pro- 
ceedings. 3. For raising ^70,000 per mensem for 3 months. 

Sir Orlando Bridgman, Chief Baron, M r Geoffrey Palmer, King's 


80 gentlemen chosen for the Life Guards, Lord Gerrard Captain. 

30 May. 12 K. C. A proclamation against vicious and debauched 
persons, 30 May, drinking the King's health. Some of dissolute 
purpose were now discrediting His Majesty, cannot 
then any other 

Major General Massey knighted, so Sir Edward Rossiter, Sir 
Philip Howard, Sir Robert Paston, and 2 at Cambridge, M r Clarke and 

A proclamation against the Rebels in Ireland: That all those that 
are not upon Articles, or be and have forfeited the benefit thereof, be 
seized and proceeded as against Rebels and traitors according to Law. 
That all adventurers, soldiers, and others who are in possession of any 
rebels' estates shall not be disturbed until further order by advice 
of Lords and Commons, and that they be legally evicted by due course 
of law and all Justices of peace that be, aiding in execution of his 
proclamation. June 12, K. C., 12 y r . 


June i. Judge Mallet sat in King's Bench, Judge Hale and Forster 
in Common Pleas, and Sir Orlando Bridgeman in Exchequer, sat in 
Court of Chief Baron. M r Jo. Blackstone, one of the King's Judges, 
goods secured. 

Lord Chancellor Hide began to hear Causes. 

4. A proclamation signed that all of those who sat as judges upon 
His late Majesty to surrender themselves upon a certain day or forfeit 
life and estate. 

Marquess of Ormonde, an High Steward of His Majesty's family, 
tendered the oaths of allegiance and supremacy to all members of the 
House of Commons before they entered the House. 

Major-Gen 1 Massey to have the ^1,000 in arrear and 12 years use 
in arrear be charged on the excise and paid in course. 

Memd. William Lilly, astrologer, was brought in as declaring in 
print who was the King's executioner, to be examined but put off until 
another day, and some say one Cornet Joyse to be the man. 

His Majesty sat in Privy Council, of whom these are said to be 
named : Duke of York, Duke of Gloucester, Lord Chancellor Hide, 
Genl 1 Monk, Marquis of Ormond, Marq. of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain, 
Earl of Lindsay, Earl of Manchester, Chamberlain of the Household, 
Earl of Berkshire, Earl of Northumberland, Earl of Southampton, Earl 
of S l Albans, Earl of Norwich, Earl of Leicester, Viscount Seymour, Vis- 
count Say, Lord Colepepper, Lord Wentworth, Sir Edward Nicholas, 


Serjeant, Sir William Morris, Serjeant, M r Ainsley, Sir Anthony 
Ashley Cowper, M r Denzil Hollis, Clerks of the Council, Sir Richard 
Brown, Sir Edward Walker, Sir George Lane, M r John Nicholas. 

Ordered all laws against Sabath breaking, swearing, drunkenness, 
etc., be put in execution, and peace to be kept in all places, in Ireland , 
and suppression of Forgers. 

6. Persons excepted from Pardon, Col 1 Harrison, Cornelius Holland, 
William Say, John Lisle, Col 1 John Jones, Thomas Scot, Alderman 
Barkstead, Lieutenant late of the Tower, Andrew Broughton, Sir Patrick 

p. 58. 

Sir Jeffrey Palmer, King's Attorney, Sir Heneage Finch, M r Solicitor, 
M r Heath, Attorney of the Duchy. 

M r Prim, coming to kiss his Majesty's hand, prayed God to bless 
him, "and so also you M r Prim," and smilingly slapt him on the shoulder. 

M r Cooke, Chief Justice in Ireland, by Oliver made was of Counsel 
against the King, and was sent for up to Parliament. Denies he put 
his hand to any examination to answer any questions, and so out of 

All those that sat in private or consented to the dealings in the late 
King's trial of Parliament men to be secured, and their estates like to be 
confiscate, though sat not as judges in the Court, so all those that 
advanced petitions for justice against the grand delinquent (i) King, and 
put their hands to such petitions, to be sequestered. 

The Parliament declines meddling with the Militia of the nation, 
leaving it to the King, who intends to make Deputy Lieutenants in 
all counties according to the old manner. 

The City of London surrendered up New Park to the King, and told 
his Majesty they kept it only as his stewards both preserving his wood 
and game which they prayed to tender unto him by the Mayor. His 
Majesty answered that he looked upon their tender not as stewards, 
but would receive it as a gift from them. 

On Sunday June 3 rd Bishop Wren, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
preached before the King. 

Some of the King's pretended friends but betrayers of his cause and 
interest were apprehended and sent to the Tower for their trial. 

M r John Cann, one of the King's judges, taken at Plymouth. 

A proclamation for suppressing all riots, and for quiet possession of 
any ecclesiastical or temporal possessions by any lawful or pretended 
authority placed and settled until the Parliament take further order or by 
direction of Law recovered. 


It is said that M r Calamy, a Presbyterian and one of the King's 
Chaplains, desired His Majesty that he might not officiate in their 
Canonical habits, especially in a surplice, for it was against his con- 
science, who answered he would not press it on him, and as he refused 
to do in the one so he would spare his pains in the other. 


It is also said when His Majesty was at private prayers in his 
presence Chamber and seeing all on their knees but the Earl of Man- 
chester, his chamberlain who stood by him (a presbyterian), His Majesty 
suddenly took a cushion and said, " My Lord, there is a cushion, you 
may now kneel, which for shame he was patiently to do." 

I mark a zealous and pious prince. 

It is reported M r Thomas Scot, one of the King's Judges, is seized 
on in Flanders by the Marquis Carasour, Governor of Flanders. 

9. The House of Commons desired His Majesty's proclamation 
that they in the name of all the Commons of England (except such as 
the parliament hath or shall except) do accept of His Majesty's gracious 

Many sequestered ministers are advised to give declarations to the 
present intruding incumbents of the livings to try their Titles at law 
forthwith, that they may not lose their whole years benefit, but as they 
were so divested and ejected so they may be restored. And that they 
should by trial recover they may also recover the mesne profits for all the 
years past. 

That Cornet George Joyse and Hugh Peters be taken into custody 
for supposed beheading the King, and all those excepted from pardon 
who were concerned in cutting off" the King's head. 

8. Resolved that 20 more besides the King's judges be excepted out 
of the Bill for free pardon upon such penalties and forfeitures (not capital) 
as shall be declared by Act of Parliament for that purpose. And a 
Committee to bring in their names. And also if those who sat in 
judgement in the pretended High Court of Justice yet did not sit and 
give sentence the said day. 

5. A proclamation for the 28"" of June to be a day of thanksgiving 
for His Majesty's happy return to his government, and to be read in 
all churches one Sunday before. And the day to be kept with all 
sobriety and reverence and thankfulness as becomes so solemn occasion. 

M r William Henningham of Norfolk, one of the King's judges, 
rendered himself to the Speaker, committed to the Serg'-at-arms. 
Sir William Lane Scott tryed his case and so compounded with her. 


p. 60. 

7. A proclamation for all those that are fled which were the King's 
judges to render their bodies within 14 days or be excepted for estates 
and persons from all pardon, unto the Speaker, Lord Mayor, 
Sheriffs, etc. 

6. Several reports of persons who sat as judges and were absent at 
sentence of the King's death, as L. Moimson 5 times, Thomas Chaloner 
5, James Chaloner 5, John Lisle 5, John ffynes 5, Sir Gilbert 
Pickering 3, Sir James Harrington 2, Sir H. Mildmay 4, who were all 
not extending to life. 

Excepted out of the act of pardon for forfeitures, so M r Phelps, one 
of the Clerks, so Robert Walton, Esq., so Sir Harry Vane. 12. M r 
Lenthall, Esq., the old Speaker. 

Col 1 Adrian Scroop pay a year's fine for mercy shewed him. 

Lord Grey to be left out of the List. 

Report that 450 members (being all who sat) took their oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy.* 

Resolved the like for all the officers and soldiers of the army and 
navy. And all those who by law ought to take the oaths be injoined by 
his Majesty's proclamation to take the same. 

Luke Robinson, one of the King's judges, acknowledged the 
heinousness of his offence, and was discharged of being a member. 

An act passed for removing all obstructions questions and disputes 
concerning the assembling and sitting of the present parliament. 

Chief Justice S' John excepted out of pardon only life reserved. 

Sir Arthur Haselrigg, Col. Sydenham, Col 1 Desborough, Alder- 
man Jocelyn, William Burton, Col. Axtell, Serjeant Keble, Cap* J. 
Black well, Major Creed, Lieutenant General Charles Ffleetwood, Col 1 
Lambert, Alderman Pack, Col. Penne, Col. Cobett, Cap' Downe, jun., 
Phill Nye, and M r Jo. Goodwin ministers. 

Town of Ipswich presented his Majesty with 600 pieces of gold. 

General Monk desired by the Bailiff of Westminster in the name of 
all to be chosen to the office of High Steward of Westminster. 

Lord of Faukland presented his Majesty with the fee farm rent due 
from the city of Oxford and lately purchased by them. 

p. 61. 

Resolved that the Lord Grey of Groby be not excepted out of the 
act of Pardon, nor Col 1 Butler. 

6. The long expected peace between Denmark and Sweden 
agreed on. 

* The number given in the Commons Journal is 455. 



On June the 4 th morning at Fontarabia on the frontiers of Spain 
the Infanta of Spain, before her marriage, renounced all claim to the 
Crown of Spain, to the King her Father, and all the Grandees of Court 
in presence under her hand. 

13. Sir Orlando Bridgman, Chief Baron, constituted Speaker, pro 
tcmpore, in the absence of the Lord Chancellor. 

Col. Phayre, Col 1 Hunks, Mr. Cook, and one Hulett, against whom 
evidence was given in Ireland that he cut off his late Majesty's head, 
were brought up prisoners to the Tower. Phayre and Hunks were 
employed to see execution done against the King's person. 

Marquis of Hertford and General Montagu receive the honour of 
the order of the Garter. Genl. Montagu made Earl of Sandwich. 

M* Meyer, Col 1 Wait, and Col 1 Temple, 3 of His Majestie's Judges, 
had rendered their bodies to the Speaker and committed to the Black rod. 

14. Ordered by the Lords that the Duke of Buckingham be restored 
to all his lands in whose hands soever they be, and all arrears of rent, 
fines, and other profits which have been unjustly kept from him, and 
all timber and woods felled, and to all materials of Houses and buildings 
taken off any part of the said estate, and hereof all persons are to take 
notice and return a ready obedience. 

That M r John Goodwin and Milton's books be burnt; moved by 
the House of Commons to His Majesty, and the Attorney General to 
proceed against them.* 

Earl of Bristol and Lord Windsor restored by patent, sat in the 
Lords' House. 

Lord Windsor made Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire. 

The General Monk made Lord Monk of Potheridge, Earl of Tor- 
rington, and sitts in the Lords' House, and made Duke of Albemarle 
and General of the forces of the three nations, Master of His Majesty's 
Horse, Knight of the Garter, and one of the Privy Council. 

p. 62. 

12. His Majesty conferred several titles of Honours and offices 
upon deserving persons, as 

Marquis of Hertford, Groom of the Stole, ^ 

Earl of Oxford, [ Knights of the Garter. 

Vice Admiral Montague, Earl of Sandwich, ) 

Sir Edward Sydenham, Knight Marshall. 

Sir Ralph Sydenham, Master of Sutton's Hospital. 

* The order was, Mr. Attorney-General proceed against John Milton in respect of 
two books, "Pro populo Anglicano defensis" and "Portraiture of His Sacred Majesty," 
and against John Goodwin for the " Otstructors of Justice." 


Sir Hen. (not Edward) Herbert, Master of the Revels. 
Sir William Fleming, -\ 

Sir William Killigrew. / . 

,., T , >Grooms of the Privy Chamber. 

Mr. John Pooley, V 

Mr. Marmaduke Drury,^ 

Sir Edward Walker, Garter, ) Ki tArmg . 

Sir William Le Neve, ") Clarenceux, J 

Mr. William Dugdale, J Norroy. 

Henry Howard, j -^ Q{ ^ Bod 

Ferdmando Masham, J 

Sir William Salkeld. ") . . ,-,, , 

_,, _ , ' _. J- Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. 

Sir 1 homas Dawbndge Court, J 

Col' Wait, Col 1 Temple, and M r Simon Meyer, late Judges of the 
King, tendered themselves and committed to the Serjeant at Arms, so 
Major General Ludlow. 

14. At Whitehall was represented to the view of all out of the 
late chamber of Sir H. Mildmay the grand Effigies of wax of Oliver 
Cromwell, late Protector, which was made and shewed with such 
pomp which seemed fit hung with a cord about his neck, which was tied 
to one of the bars of the House. 

Several addresses from several counties made to His Majesty. 

p. 63. 

1 8. M r Hugh Peters excepted from pardon for life and estate, that 
grand incendiary and wicked profane man, though as it is said a true 
ordained minister and one suspected to cut off" the King's Head. 

It is said the Post Office being farmed at a about ^"20,000 
per annum is settled on the Duke of Gloucester towards his main- 

His Majesty confirmed 14 Serjeants at Law, which were made in 
the late Protector Oliver's time, namely, Witherington, Brown, Glin, 
Erie, Berners, Hales, Twisden, Maynard, Newdigate, Wyndham, Fan- 
shaw, Syse, Archer, Willie. 

Lord Mayor and Common Council, in the name of the whole city, 
invited the King's Majesty, the two Dukes, the two houses of Parlia- 
ment to a dinner, and accepted, upon the 5 th of July to be the day. 

The Lords passed an order that the present profits of all livings 
now in question by the sequestered Divines and others be secured in 
the present Churchwardens till the right be determined. 

25. And another order to release all sequestrations of persons not 
legally convict. 

140 Lords sit in the House of Peers. 


The envoy of the Marquis of Brandenburgh the first foreigner that 
came over to congratulate His Majesty's Happy return. 

Ordered by both Houses that Tonnage and poundage and new 
imposts be paid after the proportion now set and due until 25 th July 
next and so excise. 

Mcmdum. Upon examination of the account of Richard Black- 
well, John Sparrow and Humphrey Blake there was due in arrears of 
prize goods from 1649 to 1652 .^41,495 5$. 3^., and ordered to be 
proceeded against in Exchequer. 

The Queen's Majesty hath restored to her these several manors, 
part of her jointure and purchased by such, whose estates are 
liable to forfeiture, namely, Old Court, Richmond, Egham, Ampthill, 
Milbrook, Somersham, Crowland, Spalding, Eastham, West Walton, 
Tringham, Eye, Nonsuch. 

Resolved, that Somerset House and Greenwich be likewise restored 
to Her Majesty, and all arrears of rent be paid unto Her Majesty. 

25. Resolved, that no person whatsoever do presume at his peril to 
print any votes or proceedings of this House without the special leave 
and order of the house. Jo. Jessop, Clerk of the Commons House in 

p. 64. 

23. Ordered by the Lords in Parliament assembled, that all theTithes, 
glebes and other profits of or belonging to the Rectory of A B in the county 
of D, and other ecclesiastical living or benefice of A B, who hath been 
sequestered or ejected without due course of law in or since the time of 
the late war, Be by authority hereof, stayed and secured in the hands of 
the Churchwardens or overseers of the poor of the said parish until the 
title of the said sequestered A B and the present possessor thereof 
shall be determined by the further order of Parliament or decision by 
due course of law. 

Jo. Browne Clerc : 

Col 1 John Court made Knight and Baronet. 

M r Roger Maston made gent, of the Privy Chamber. 

25. The Earl of Shrewsbury presented to his Majesty an address 
of the nobility and gentry of the County of Worcester, subscribed with 
about 50 hands. His Majesty returned them his hearty thanks, telling 
them he was well assured of their loyalty and affection and should ever 
have a good esteem of them. 

One Payne, a messenger of Oliver Cromwell, is secured as supposed 
executioner of the late King but acquit. 

28. The great day of Thanksgiving for his Majesty's Restoration 


was generally celebrated over the nation, and as His Majesty went to his 
closet to prayer M r G. Charnock, Serjeant at Arms, seeing a man 
standing by the wall with a naked sword which glistened, seized on his 
person and secured, and under examination his sword was hacked half 
way from the point. 

Dr. Sheldon preached on xviii Psalm, 19. 

Francis Lord Hawley commander of Horse in place of Col. 
Hacker's Regiment. 

The Duke of York chosen Leader by the militia of the artillery of 
London, and gave him the leading staff as a token, which he freely 
accepted, being made one of the Company in 1641. 

The city of Gallicia in Greece had between 30 and 40,000 houses 
burnt, the English saving most part of the goods. 

Some Anabaptists as Disborough, Markly, and Wingforth smartly 
secured in Ireland for endeavouring to disturb the peace of the nation. 

p. 65. 

July. The care and security of the garrison of Dunkirk by pact is 
charged upon the excise, the Duke of York's troop going as an addi- 
tional strength thither. 

From Germany news came that the Prince of Transilvania, Ragots- 
lisky by name, was slain after a long battle fought between him and 
the Turks, and lost field, 5000 Turks also slain. 

Sir John Robinson made Lieutenant of the Tower. 

Lord Bellaisis made Governor of Hull and of one Riding of York- 

Lord Falconbridge and Lord Scarsdale of the other two. 

Serjeant Hale, Chief Justice of Common Pleas, and Serjeant 
Twisden one of the Judges of Upper Bench, and Serjeant Tyrrell. 

Over 250 touched by His Majesty for the King's evil, and hath 
appointed Friday ; only aoo to be presented for cure at a time, and 
M r Knight, the King's Chirurgeon, being at the Cross Guns in Russell 
Street, Covent Garden, grants out the tickets. 

Sir William Compton made master of the ordinance, Major Francis 
Nichols surveyor, Edward Sherborn clerk. 

Col 1 Crook's Regiment is called the Royal Regiment, and the Lord 
Falconbridge's Regiment is now the Duke of York's ; who made him 
again Lieutenant-Colonel. 

5. The great festival made at Guildhall for the King, Dukes, 
Houses of Peers and Commons, and many of the nobility and court. 

Memd. The Scotish Lords being in discourse with His Majesty, 
the Marquis of Ormonde told them that they broke the covenant them- 


selves in betraying the King at Worcester fight, and so the King was 
disobliged, and the Duke of York told His Majesty was too patient, 
for give him but 10,000 horse he would bring them to a conformity. 

The King going one night to swim in the Thames, and being in his 
shirt, there were divers ladies and gentlemen looking out of the windows 
of Whitehall, which he beholding sent a message that unless they 
should shut their windows and pray for his safety or be gone out of 
Court. A chaste and good prince. 

Memd' it is said that any Worcestershire gent, hath great civil 
admittance to His Majesty's presence, but above all Sir Ralph Clare, 
who hath conference sometimes two hours together. 

p. 66. 

July 10. Marquis of Argyll and Marquis of Ancrum, Scotts, and 
Sir Arthur Haselrig and Sir Henry Vane committed to the Tower for 
suspicion of stiring up commotion, and some others will follow. 

Oliver S* John, late Chief Justice of the Common Pleas also com- 
mitted to the Tower. 

14. Brian Duppa, Bishop of Salisbury, made the King's Almoner. 

Serjeant Ternell, one of the Judges of . . . .* and Serjeant Turner 
of . . . .* 

Bishop of Londonderry made Lord Primate of Ireland, D r Nicholas 
Dean of Paul's, and D r Earle Dean of Westminster. 

13. All the King's Revenues voted to be restored free to His 

Earl of Oxford has Col 1 George Simpson's regiment. Sir William 
Blackstone Cap* Lieutenant, and Col. Simpson major. 

Viscount Mordant hath Col 1 Fagg's Regiment, and Sir Thomas 
Woodcock Lieut' Colonel. 

Lord Herbert hath Col 1 Pury's Regiment, and Thomas Pury 
Lieutenant Col 1 , and old officers descending lower. 

Sir Edward Mason Colonel of Col 1 Twistleton's Regiment, Col 1 
Twistleton now Lieut* Colonel. Lieutenant Col 1 Barry now Major. 

Sir John Thoroughgood committed to the Black Rod for being one 
of the judges against Lord Capell, so Sir William Rowe and M r 
Samuel Meyer, M r G. Langham, M r William Wiborn, Col 1 Richard 
Downes, Serjeant Keble, M r Bacon. 

Col 1 Hacker committed to the Tower for Treason, who commanded 
the Guards at His Majesty's death, and Col 1 Axtell and M r Thomas 
Scot, the late Secretary to the Committee of Safety (who said that he 
would have it written on his tomb that he was one of the King's Judges). 

* Blank in MS. 


Lord Culpepper, Master of the Rolls, died. 

The Church of Canterbury by Deans and prebends settled for the 
election of a new Archbishop. 

16. After a long debate until 10 at night in the House of 
Commons about the government of the Church between the 
Episcopal and the Presbyterian party, who would not put it to 
the vote for so they had lost it. It was referred to His Majesty 
to be satisfied by writings and discourses with either party, and 
adjourned until 23 October next. 

p. 67. 

The Lords fly high on the Bill of indemnity or pardon as intending 
to include all the late King's Judges who sat on their sovereign, and 
all such as sat in other High Courts of Justice, as on Col 1 Penruddock, 
Captain Burley, D r Huet, and especially on the Lord Capell, etc. 

Serjeants Wylde, Glinn and Windham for the cause in question and 
M r Nicholas Lechmere as being of the states counsel. 

At the Grand Committee for Religion, July 16, 1660, the question 
expounded : 

That the one Christian Protestant faith contained in the scriptures 
of the old and new Testament and the outward administration of the 
government of the Church and the public worship of God as they stand 
established by the laws of the land, and no other shall be publicly 
professed and maintained within the Kingdom of England and the 
Dominion of Wales and the Territories thereunto belonging. 

Resolved by the Grand Committee for religion, That it be reported 
to the House as the opinion of the Committee. 

That the King's Majesty be desired to call such a number ot 
Divines as His Majesty shall think fit to advise concerning matters ot 
religion, and that the Grand Committee do forbear to sitt until the 
23 rd October next. 

The Parliament hath adjourned all the Assizes of England for one 
month longer by reason of their great affairs in settling the act of 
Indemnity and pole money and the power of the nation, so that our 
Assizes at Worcester begin not until 24 th of September, as adjourned 
from the 23 rd of August. 

p. 68. 

The King's Majesty have touched 1700 already of the disease called 
the King's evil, and 1400 more to do, and then there is a respite until 
further order for those apprehensive. 

Lord Thomas Windsor had his patent sealed for Lord Lieutenant 
of Worcestershire, who made his Deputy Lieutenants. The patent will 


cost ^50. Major Thomas Muckley,* his muster master, whose stipend 
is ^47 per annum.t 

830. Wigorn ss. To Major Thomas Mucklow. 

Whereas there is a necessity of replenishing and making good of 
the Magazine of this County, And that there be full provision of 
Powder and lead always in readiness for the use of His Majesty's 
service, These are therefore to require and authorize you upon receipt 
hereof with all convenient speed to take view of the state of the 
Magazine in the several places of the County of Worcester, viz., 
Worcester, Bromsgrove, Evesham, and all the rest of the Towns in the 
said Countie, And that you may return a true Certificate thereof unto 
me, or any tsvo of my deputy Lieutenants. And this shall be your 
sufficient Warrant therein. Dated this 2i st day of July 1660. 

Thomas Windsor. 

831. A copy of the muster master's Grant from my Lord Windsor, Lord 
Lieutenant of the County of Worcester, to Major Mucklow. 

Whereas I am amply informed of your sufficient experience in 
military affairs, whereby you are enabled to undergo and discharge a 
plan of Command for his Majesty's service I have thought good to 
make choice of you, and by virtue of his Majesty's Commission to 
appoint you muster master of the trained bands in the County of 
Wigorn, And I do hereby authorize you to hold and enjoy all such 
rights, privileges, stipends, Commodities, and allowances as have been 
enjoyed by any other who hath formerly held the said office or more 
upon the allowance or allotment of me or the Deputy Lieutenants of 
the same county. These are therefore to will and require you to take 
that charge upon you, And at every muster taken in the said County 
to be present there to take view of the Arms and Ammunition and 
after such view taken to certify me the State of the Militia of the said 
County by a Roll subscribed by my Deputy Lieutenants or some of 
them, as also by yourself. And to do and to perform all and every 
such thing and things as shall be requisite, And as you shall receive 
directions from myself or my Deputy Lieutenants. Hereof you are 
not to fail. And these shall be your sufficient warrant in that behalf. 
Given under my hand and seal the 2i Bt day of July 1660. 

To my very loving friend Tho ' Windsor. 

Tho. Mucklow, gent., muster master 
of the County of Worcester. 

* Sic. 

t The two following documents are inserted here as they are copied separately in 
a later part of the MS., p. 830. 


Aug. Marquis of Ormond created Earl of Brecknock and received 
into the House of Peers. 

The King's Majesty hath signed 3 bills, i of excise, 2 of Tunnage 
and poundage, 3 Commissioners of sewers. 

The Lord Roberts to be deputy of Ireland. 

Sir Arthur Haselrig, Sir Henry Vane, Major-General Lambert, 
Col. Axtell excepted out of all pardon as well for life as estate by the 
Lords, and the Duke of Gloucester moved the like for others. 

His Majesty, 27 th July last, made a speech in the House of Lords 
for to despatch the act of oblivion and renewed it now again. 

Major Waring excepted out of pardon for life and lands. 

Col. Crogan secured. 

6. The Committeeforconfirmation of sales passed these resolutions: 

1. That no persons of the High Court of Justice for trying the late 
King shall take benefit of the Act. 

2. Nor any person that were Committee of the safety. 

3. Nor any abjurors of the late King's title. 

4. Nor John Lambert, esq., nor such as took part with him since 
2 I st February last. 

5. Nor such persons as are excepted out of the general pardon. 

6. Nor such as sat in the House of Commons between 8 th January 
1648 and 20 April 1653. 

7. Nor such who sat in any High Court of Justice. 

p.6 9 . 

8. Nor being Major-General, nor any other person that acted as a 

9. Nor of the Council of Oliver Cromwell. 

10. Nor any that sat in Barebones Parliament in 1653. 

[I. Northatsatas Commissioners for sale of any public lands, or for 
removing obstructions upon such sales, nor the Trustees for sales, Con- 
tractors, Surveyors, Registrars, nor any other officer employed in those 
sales purchasing in their own name or in the name of others for their use. 

12. None that sat in that Convention, 1656, when the act for dis- 
annulling the King's Title was passed, and gave their vote for the same. 
7. His Majesty sent a message to the Lords that he had writ to 
all Archbishops, Bishops, Deans and Chapters, not to lease any appro- 
priations, But that out of every of them can be taken that j8o per 
annum when they are of a greater value, and when of less value or less 
sum, be settled by due form of Law upon the Vicars and Curates of 
their respective Churches. Order is taken to Sir Henry Finch to bring 
in a Bill to that purpose. 



Duke of Buckingham confined to the Black Rod for* speeches against 
the Earl of Bristol in the House of Lords, some say both. 

One Frensham hath brought his bark up to Whitehall which he 
wafted over the King's Majesty, 1651, after his Worcester defeat and 
miraculous escape, and is made Cap* of a man of warre at sea. 

The Lords would have the Irish included in the act of oblivion, but 
the Commons will not as yet assent to. 

p. 70. 

Aug. 2 nd . Lord Bellasis entered Governor of Hull the same day as 
he was brought prisoner into the same place a year before. 

From Rome it is said none shall presume to send any news abroad 
in writing upon pain of life and estate from hence. 

13. A proclamation against duels: i. None to send or receive 
any challenge, which, if done, then uncapable of holding any office in 
His Majesty's service, and none permitted to come to Court or presence 
beside the punishment of the law ; 2. All persons that accept or know 
of such challenges and do not reveal the same to one of His Majesty's 
Privy Council or the next Justice of Peace shall be liable to the same 
penalties; 3. All intercession forbidden to be made for such offenders. 

14. A proclamation commanding all persons who either have or do 
know in whose custody power any plate, jewels, etc., or any goods and chat- 
tels belonging to the said King's father, mother, himself which have been 
purloined or embezzled, or upon pretences seized, disposed into several 
hands, and are yet detained and concealed, to deliver them or make 
discovery thereof to the Earl of Sandwich, Master of the Wardrobe, 
on or before the 2g th of September next at their perils, and to be 
proceeded against according to law. 

13. A proclamation against John Milton's book, " Pro populo 
Anglicano defensio," and his answer to the " Pourtrature of his Sacred 
Majesty in his sufferings," and John Goodwin's book called the "Obstruc- 
tors of Justice," to be brought in within 10 days after proclamation to 
the Mayor or Chief Magistrate in cities, and out of Towns to the next 
Justice of Peace, and if in the Universities to the Vice-Chancellor, and 
if after found then the books to be seized and the persons' names notified 
to Privy Council. The Magistrate to deliver them to the Sheriff and 
the Sheriff at the Assizes to burn them. 

It is said M r Denzil Hollis at Council Table made a speech for the 
settling presbytery and abolishing episcopacy, the King present, when he 
expressed himself with some disgust to the speaker therein. 

* In MS. a blank space for a word is left before " speeches." 


A facetious Divine, being commended to Lord Chancellor Sir Edward 
Hyde, who loves witty men, desired to converse with him. Being 
come to him the Chancellor asked him his name. He said, Bull. He 
replyed he never saw a Bull without Horns. It is true, for, saith he, 
" Horns go with the Hide." 

25. 7 of the King's Judges sent to the Tower, namely, Col. H. 
Martin, M r Carey, Col. Wait, Col. Temple, Col. Robert Lilburn, 
. . . .* Smith, Col. Downes. 

Orders from the General that no new soldiers, either for horse or 
foot, be listed in any troop or Company upon the disbanding, or death 
of any soldier. 

28. Lord Windsor's troop being of the King's Regiment and under 
Cap* Lieutenant Charles Littelton, M r Chicheley, Cornet, came to 
quarter in the City of Worcester this winter. 

21. In Scotland the King has reserved 8 strongholds, namely, Leith, 
S' Johnston, Ayr, Inverness, Stirling, Dumbarton, Dunstafnall, and 
Doune Castles. 

Earl of Glencarn made Lord Chancellor of Scotland. 

General Middleton Commissioner for His Majesty. 

Earl of Crawford, Treasurer, Earls of Cassillis, general justice, Earl of 
Lauderdale, Secretary, Sir John Fletcher, advocate, Sir Archibald Prim- 
rose, Clerk Register, M r Gilbert Stewart, Lion King at Arms. 

25. i, For confirmation of judicial proceedings ; 2, For restraining 
the taking of excessive usury ; 3, For a principal anniversary Thanks- 
giving on the 29 th May, the day of His Majesty's nativity and restoration; 
4, A free pardon ; 5, Poll money. 

Earl of Southampton made Lord Treasurer. 

p. 72. 

29. Parliament voted the disbanding of the army, paying the 
arrears due since the 25"" March last. 

31. Mem. At the Cathedral Church of Worcester was at six in 
the morning the first morning prayer said in the body of the Church 
according to the ancient custom by M r Richard Brown ever since the 
reducing of Worcester to the then parliamentary forces, July 24 th , 1646. 

Sept. 2. Mem. There was a very great assembly at morning 
prayer by six in the morn in the Cathedral of Worcester; and at 9 of 
the Clock there appeared again at prayers all the gentry, many citizens, 
and others numerous, and after prayers D r Doddeswell, a new prebend, 

Blank in MS. 


did preach the first sermon, and the Dean and Prebends being to resettle 
the Church in its service. And also to repair the same by degrees, 
which hardly <^?io,ooo will put the whole fabric in that order it was 
before the barbarous civil wars. 

An Act 12 anno Regis Caroli, 1660, for the speedy provision of money 
for disbanding and paying of the forces of the kingdom both by land 
and sea by way of poll money, almost as it was 16 Car: i" for 
disbanding the Scottish army. 

An Act of Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion came forth. Voted by 
parliament the disbanding of all the soldiery both by sea and land, other 
than such as must be for a continued necessary defence for the nation. 

29. Mem. 29 Aug. 1660. The King said at the passing of the 
Act of pardon in his speech, That he willingly pardons all that is 
pardoned by the Act, and that to this day he will not use great severity 
except in notorious cases, but for the time to come the same discretion 
which disposed him to clemency will oblige him to all rigour and 
severity, how contrary soever it be to his nature, conjuring the Lords 
and Commons to concur with him in that just and necessary severity. 
And that you will do exemplary justice upon those who were guilty of 
seditious speeches or writings as well as those that break out into 
seditious actions. 

/> 73- 

Mem. This day, memorable for the miraculous escape and 
deliverance of his Majesty from the hands of his enemies upon his 
defeat (or rather treachery of Scots Army) at this City of Worcester, 
was kept as a high and solemn day of thanksgiving at the Cathedral in 
Worcester, where was the first solemn service said, and preached 
D r Wright of S* John's upon i Sam. xii, 24 and 25 verses. All the 
Gentry of the Country were invited and many came. And a solemn 
entertainment was made in the Town hall where the first table for the 
Nobility and Gentry was made upon the other great table higher to be 
level with the benches, and there were 8 long tables more. And in the 
Council Chamber the long table full, 80 of Gentry, and citizens were 
about 400. And 5 bucks spent and zs. 6d. allowed by every man to 
come in with ticketts. The attendance with better sort of Citizens. 
No Gentleman's servant admitted to attend his master. 

At Edinburgh a proclamation 14 th Aug. 1660 to prohibit and 
disband all unlawful meetings or conventicles in any place without 
his Majesty's special authority, and likewise all seditious petitions and 
remonstrances under what pretence soever which may lead to the dis- 
turbance of the peace of the kingdom. 

ANfoALS. 6l 

Lord States of Zealand declare the Prince of Orange Captain and 
Admiral General. 

2. Hugh Peters, that great Buffoon, king killer, taken in South- 
wark at Nath. Man, a Tap women's house, who said in one of his books 
had 6 innovations, i. That Paul's church may be pulled down to pave 
Thamas Street. 2. To destroy Colleges, since they are never in the 
Gospel. 3. Physicians to take small fees. 4. That Adultery should 
be punished with a merciful heart. 5. That all unmarried maids be 
put to spin. 6. That all records in the Tower may be burned. 

p. 74. 

It was agreed at a Grand Committee where Sergeant Littleton had 
the chair that all delinquent estates and lands should be restored to their 
owners without compensation of any moneys to the purchaser. 

The House of Commons voted to the Duke of York ^10,000 and 
the Duke of Gloucester j^jooo towards their present subsistence. 

The House desired his Majesty not to alienate any of the lands 
fallen by attainder in the last rebellion, nor any other, without 
reserving a 3 rd part upon improvement of their yearly value as of ^300, 
j^ioo per annum rent. And that of the estates of the rebels, some 
revenues may be settled on his two brothers. 

13. D r Oliver, president of Magdalen College and Dean of Wor- 
cester, came to Worcester to be installed Dean and settle thechurch in order. 

A proclamation bearing date i Sept. 1660 against Colonel Edmund 
Ludlow, who was an excepted person out of the Act of pardon and 
broke out of the Serjeant of Arms' Custody. And ^"300 for a reward 
to him that can seize on him, and upon seizing Justice of the Peace to 
commit him, and certify speedily the Privy Council, was made at Wor- 
cester 12 Sept. Since retaken. 

Princess Dowager of Orange is to come speedily to stay in England 
out of Holland. 

The House of Commons voted all those rents of persons excepted 
out of pardon and debts to be secured. 

A proclamation of peace with Spain since 25"' of May last, and all 
ships and goods taken since to be restored. The same peace concluded 
as in his father's days. 

Parliament sits for some time longer to finish some special affairs. 

Duke of Gloucester sick of the small pox. So Earl of Oxford, and 
divers other great persons, but in hope of recovery. 

Marquis of Hertford by the Parliament restored to the Dukedom of 

13. Duke of Gloucester died of the small pox. 


P- 75- 

Duke of York gone with some ships to meet his sister Mary Prin- 
cess Dowager of Orange, who is coming out of Holland to stay here 
for a time. 

Prince of Ligne and Duke of Ascott and divers eminent nobles of 
Flanders came to Gravesend as Ambassadors from the King of Spain 
in a stately equipage, some say 300 Attendants. 

King of Portugal courts our King and offers Royal conditions to his 
Majesty to marry his sister, whereby it is and may be hoped thereby a 
peace with Spain and Portugal. 

The Parliament hath given 3 months' contribution more after 
^"70,000 promised, whereof one month for the King's present use, 
and the other as a supplement to the poll money. 

14. This day the Militia foot of the County of Worcester were 
summoned in, where were a great appearance. On i8 th the Horse . . . .* 

Memd. There was a report made to his Majesty of a man now 
living and his wife that had at 25 births 50 sonnes, 2 at a birth and 
all living at this present, and are to present themselves to the King. 
The like never seen nor recorded in history by one man and woman, all 
sons and all living. 

Marquis of Hartford restored to the Dukedom of Somerset and 
Marquis of Worcester put by as pretended, the patent not to be rightly 
come by and made out. 

Parliament adjourned until 6 tb Nov. next. 

The Anagram of (protector) an Archdeacon made Oportet. C. R. in 
his sermon at Gloucester assize. 

20. D r Juxon, Bishop of London, was installed Archbishop of 

Colonel Goff and Colonel Whaley, who had a hand of the King's 
death, to be seized on and ^"100 for their pains for each of them. 

23. Mary Princess of Orange, his Majesty's sister, arrived in 
England and brought to Whitehall. 

An Act for raising ^"70,000 for the King's use from 29 th of Sep- 
tember, to be assessed 5 th Oct., to be paid into the Exchequer and to 
sign and seal a duplicate and return it before 10 Nov. 

Act for ^40,000 for 2 months, to be paid beginning 10 Nov. next, 
to be assessed 6 th Nov. The old Commissioners to act. 

p. 76. 

Roger Lord Broughill created Earl of Orrery. 

Sir Charles Coot, K' and Bar*, Lord President of Connaught, 
made Earl of Mountrath. 

Blank in MS. 


Colonel Richard Coot, his brother, made Baron of Colooney. 

Sir John King made Baron of Kingston. 

All these gentlemen were very instrumental in his Majesty's happy 

Oct. The Fees by his Majesty abated to jio 10.5. for the suing 
out of pardons under the seals. 

I. Prince Rupert arrived in England. 

5. The King gone down to Portsmouth to see his Navy, etc., but 
some say to be absent from the clamour of petitions concerning putting 
to death the late King's triers and Judges for mercy in the nature of 
their punishment. 

4. D r Frewen, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, installed Arch- 
bishop of York. 

6. The King gone down to Portsmouth to see the navy. 

10. The first day of trial and arraignment of several of the late 
King C. I. Judges at the Session house in Old Baily. 

13. Colonel Harrison hanged, drawn, and quartered at Charing 
Cross for being one of the King's Judges. So John Carew 15 th day. 

Colonel Adrian Scroope, Thomas Scott, Gregory Clement, Colonel 
John Jones, and . . . .* hanged, drawn, and quartered at Charing Cross. 

19. Colonel Hacker hanged at Tyburn, and Colonel Axtell hanged, 
drawn, and quartered there. Carew and Hacker's bodies were begged 
by their friends. 

9. Colonels Ludlow, GofF, and Whaley taken in London and 
committed to the Tower. 

p. 77. 

23. D r Barlow installed prebend of Worcester. 

Solicitor Cook and Hugh Peters hanged, drawn, and quartered at 
Charing Cross. The heads of Cook and Hacker set upon poles over 
Westminster Hall Gate, and Peters' head over London Bridge. And 
their quarters hanged over several gates. 

The other 18 delinquents condemned, but execution respited until 
the Result of King and the two houses thereon be known for their 

D r Gilbert Sheldon created Bishop of London and chancellor of the 
province of Canterbury. D r Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln. D r 
[Humfrey] Henchman, Bishop of Salisbury, and D r George Morley, 
Bishop of Worcester, at S* Mary Bow Church. 

Sir Robert Forster made Chief Justice of England. 

Sir Orlando Bridgman Chief Justice of Common Pleas. 

* Blank in MS. 


A settling of the King's household according as the book was, 
6"> Car. i., wherein his Majesty declares that his officers should collect 
out of the same all such wholesome orders, decrees, and directions as 
may tend most to the planting, establishing, and countenancing of 
work and piety in his family, and to the discountenancing of all manner 
of disorder, debauchery, and vice in any persons of what degree or 
quality soever. 

22. A proclamation against the multitude of Hackney Coaches 
bein<j and standing in the streets as a common nuisance. And that no 

O D 

person keeping Hackney coaches after 6 Nov. next suffer any coaches 
to stand in the streets but in their yards, coach houses, where such as 
desire to hire them may resort. The content tiers to be presented to his 
Majesty's Privy Council, etc. 

25. 14 new Serjeants, M r Beare, Mirifold, Holloway, Browne, 
Hoskins, Keeling, Rainford, Wyndham, Parker, Hide, Charlton, Sir 
Ch. Dalison, Sir W' n Moreton, were called by writ. 

Sir Ed. Hyde, Lord Chancellor of England, on the death of the 
Duke of Somerset made Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 

30. Mary Queen Mother and Henrietta Maria the King's sister and 
Prince Edward the Palsgrave's brother came to Whitehall from France. 

29. On Thursday before there were 3 tides in 12 hours at London. 

23. Denmark agreed by all the estates to be an hereditary kingdom. 
And the 30"" the King and Oueen received the Oath of Allegiance taken 
by all officers of state, and acknowledgement of the people. 

p. 78. 

Nov. 6. Parliament resat and gave ^10,000 to be presented to 
the Lady Henrietta for her safe return into England. 

Ordered that humble and hearty thanks of the House be presented 
to his Majesty for his gracious declaration concerning Ecclesiastical 
affairs. And in return to their affection his Majesty hath made Sir 
Harbottle Grimston, their speaker, to be Master of the Rolls. 

Dec. 2. 7 Bishops made, Durham, Peterborough, Carlisle, Exeter, 
S' David's, and Llandaff.* 

7. Voted that the bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw, 
and . . . .,f which were buried in H. VI I. 's Chapel at Westminster, 
should be hanged at Tyburn and buried under the gallows which 

* Their names were: Durham, ]. Cosin ; Peterborough, Benjamin Lancy; Carlisle, 
Richard Stearne ; Exeter, John Ganden ; S' David's, William Lucy ; Llandaff, John Lloyd. 

( Blank in MS. The only three of 'he Regicides actually buried in Henry VII. 's 
Chapel were those named. Which of the 21 persons who were unwarrantably buried it was 
intended to take up and hang, etc., does not appear. But it was possibly Pride, see p. 68. 


day was terrible windy like the day of Oliver Cromwell's death, and 
so all the week after. 

A great plot of the fanatics discovered to embroil the nation in 
blood to the destruction of King, General, and all Loyalty, by Major 
Gen. Overbury. 

17. Lord Mayor of London up with the City all night to keep the 
City in order. Daily store of them are secured and the whole plot 
discovered by Major White, one of the chief Agents, whom the King 
himself examined with his secretary. And after a hours revealed 
the whole design upon his Majesty's gracious promise of pardon to him. 

A Proclamation for the removing of all disbanded Soldiers and all 
others who cannot give a good account for their abode in the Cities of 
London and Westminster, etc. And not to be within 20 miles of the 
said Cities until new orders the better to secure the court and city. 

18. Memd. The Cathedral Church of Worcester was by the care 
and industry of M r Oley, one of the prebends, this day secured and 
made dry from wet until it can be fully repaired. 

20. The Parliament should have ended, but in respect that many 
bills could not be perfected it was by the King continued until* 

f- 79- 

24. Mary Princess of Orange and eldest sister to the King died of 
the small poxf at Whitehall, being not a week sick at all. It is gene- 
rally conceived that the old queen's French doctors by letting thrice 
blood was one principal natural cause of her death, being contrary to 
the cold climate and English bodies so to be used, but permitting 
nature to work its course. The Duke of Gloucester! might have been a 
fair caution and example. Lady 

Earl of Cork made Lord Treasurer of Ireland. 

So great Tempests have been of late in most parts of Christendom 
that the like hath never been known. Most of the Minster in York 
blown down, and much hurt in the north. 150 Dutch ships cast 
away, and ^"500,000 loss and damage. 

His Majesty passed a Acts, one for excise of liquors, || a, The taking 
of Court of Wards, knight's service, and purveyance.^ 

Lord Justices made for Government of Ireland. And General 
Middleton Great Commissioner for Scotland. 

All Regiments disbanded, except the General's Regiments of foot 
and Horse and some Garrisons. 

* Blank in MS. It was continued to 2gth December 1660. 
t " Measles " written over "Small pox," but struck out. 
t See his death, ante p. 61. $ Blank in MS. 

|| 12 Car. II., c. 23. ^12 Car. II., c. 24. 



29. His Majesty went to the House of Peers, passed many bills,* 
and dissolved the Parliament. 

The old Commissioners of Excise are to continue and all officers 
during the King's pleasure. 

Jan. i. His Majesty, Duke of Albemarle, and Marchioness of 
Ormonde christened the Duke of York's son, whose name was Charles. 
The marchioness stood for the queen mother. The King and the Duchess 
of York christened my lord Herbert the Marquess of Worcester's 
grandchild Charles after Duke of York. 

Duchess was by the king brought to Whitehall to the Queen mother 
and graciously received, so all is like to be well. 

2. Queen mother goes from London down to Portsmouth and so 
to France, and returns as it is believed next summer. 

8. Upon the Act of Excise, the Justices of peace in all counties 
are by certificate to commend to the Lord Treasurer some able person 
or persons for the same, and they now at the Quarter Sessions have 
chosen . . . .f 

p. So. 

Jan. 6. On Sunday night an Insurrection made in the City of 
London by the fanatics or fifth monarchy men ; to the number of 
5000 listed, some began to rise and there were at Paul's some 5 or 6 
killed, some taken and many arms. Upon search, there should be 30,000 
in the country beside. 

9. On Wednesday another insurrection which was suppressed, 
some few killed and divers hurt. The prisons in London full of them. 

15. The City of Worcester hath ever since the first knowledge 
kept guards of horse and foot to assist, out of the County trained 
bands, and the passages over Severn guarded. 

6. 4 Bishops consecrated. D r Gilbert Ironside, Bishop of Bristol, 
D r Edward Rheynolds, Bishop of Norwich, D r Nich. Monk, Bishop of 
Hereford, and D r W m Nicholson, Bishop of Gloucester. 

Oxfordshire and Cheshire have put themselves in a posture of 
defence against the fanatic party, which did endeavour to head them- 
selves in most places, but many were seized and suspected persons 
secured. Papers and declarations found for King Jesus. 

16, 17. Many fanatics tried at the Old Bailey taken in Arms and 
i6J Condemned to be hanged; who were so obstinate in their opinions, 
that they believe they shall live to see their King Jesus come down and 

* The numbers were for this Parliament : Public Acts 36, Private 20. 

t Blank in MS. The section is 16 of the 12 Car. II., c. 23. 

J "22" is in the original; this has been struck out and " 16" inserted. 


sit in Judgment upon their judges, and do not repent, but if it were to 
do again, they would do the same, they so said. 

19. Venner and Hodgkins were quartered before their meeting 
house in Coleman Street, and eleven more were hanged and five beheaded 
and their heads set on London Bridge, viz., Oxenden and Pritchard, 
and Venner and Hodgkins' quarters hanged up on the city gates. 

17. A proclamation that no person shall be seized nor any House 
searched without special warrants under the hand and seal of some or 
one of the Privy Council, or of the Lord Lieutenant, Deputy Lieu- 
tenant, or Justices of the Peace in their respective limits, and all war- 
rants to be directed to the Constable or some other known legal 

31. Lord Chancellor's eldest son married to my Lord Capel's 
youngest sister. The King gave her in marriage at the great Marquis 
of Worcester's house in Strand. 

p. 81. 

30. An Act of Parliament to keep the 30"' of Jan. annually as a 
perpetual fasting day to desire God to divert his punishing the nation 
for shedding the innocent blood of King Charles the first, and that the 
guilt may not be laid upon all for the wickedness of Some particulars 
who were only guilty. 

The Form of the Oath which the Parliament of Scotland took before 
they sat to the King, which is the form of the Oaths of Allegiance or 
supremacy : 

I, A. B., for Testification of my faithful obedience to my most 
gracious redoubted sovereign Charles King of Great Britain France 
and Ireland Defender of the faith etc. affirm testify and declare by 
this my solemn oath that I acknowledge my said Sovereign only 
supreme Governor of this kingdom over all persons and in all causes. 
And that no foreign prince power state nor person civil or ecclesiastic 
hath any Jurisdiction power or superiority over the same. And there- 
fore I do utterly renounce and forsake all foreign jurisdiction power and 
Authority, And shall to my utmost power defend assist and maintain 
his Majesty's jurisdiction foresaid against all whomsoever, And never 
decline his Majesty's power or jurisdiction. As I shall answer to God. 

The Parliament hath repealed all Acts to the prejudice of his 
Majesty's crown or Royal prerogative, and particularly the Act for 
triennal Parliaments, choosing the Officers of State and Lords of Session. 

His Majesty commanded the Bones of the Marquess of Montrose 
to be preserved until the dissolution of the parliament there, and then 
solemn funerals for him, which was consented to by the parliament. 



p. 82. 

Jan. 8. In Scotland parliament approved of an Act asserting the 
King's prerogative for calling, continuing, and dissolving of all sub- 
sequent parliaments, and no parliaments and acts in force without the 
Royal assent or his commissioners. Expelling all former Acts in 
Opposition. So in choosing all Officers of State and Lords of 

84 Hogsheads of Scottish Records sent from London lost at Sea. 

2000 marks given to the Minister's wife who kept the Crown, 
Sceptre, and Sword during all the times of oppression. 

His Majesty to enjoy the Militia wholly by sea and land. 

Making void all Leagues and Contracts without the King's assent. 

a6. The Carcases of those two horrid Regicides, Oliver Cromwell 
and Henry Ireton, were digged up in H. 7 Chapel, which with those of 
John Bradshaw (and Tom Pride)* are to be hanged up at Tyburn and 
buried under the Gallows the 3o th , which was performed, and hung at 
the 3 Corners of the Gallows until Sunset. Then taken down, having 
their heads cut off and carcases thrown in a hole, being the day they 
murthered Charles the first, 1648. 

19. News came that Q. mother and Lady Henrietta arrived safely, 
landed at Deep, and the Duke of Anjou there received them with much joy. 

The mass book is said to be translated into French, which Cardinal 
Mazarin is much troubled at. The Bible may follow after. We have 
it in French in England, and so in the Reformed Churches in France. 

At Plymouth was discovered 800 daggers short, lodged in a private 
house, which caused further search, and several Arms found in dis- 
affected houses as some discovery of a new plot. 

M r Ch. Howard, brother to the Lord Ch. Howard of the north, 
with his 2 footmen were found guilty at King's Bench bar for killing 
of a servant of Walton, the Horse Courser, in Smithfield, the fact 
being done in April last. 

p. 83. 

Commissions issued out of the Exchequer to enquire after all estates, 
real and personal (who are attainted by Act of Parliament for the 
murder of the late King), whereof they were possessed since 25 Marc. 
1646. Those who know any concealed estates and discover them to 
the Commissioners in each County shall do an acceptable service and 
receive to themselves a suitable reward. 

29. A Proclamation for restraint of killing, dressing, and eating 

* These words are struck out in MS., see ante p. 64. 


flesh in Lent or on fishdays to be observed, appointed by law. Very 

At Edinburgh, 25 Jan., the Parliament declare all leagues and 
Bonds without his Majesty's special warrant had or to rise or continue 
in Arms to be High Treason; and Have rescinded and cancelled all 
Acts to the contrary. No obligation by Covenant to endeavour 
Reformation of Religion in England. 

His Majesty forbids the Renewing of the Covenant nor to offer to 
swear the same. And repeals the Commission, 16 July 1644, con- 
cerning the League with England. And declares all Acts passed or done 
therein to be void and null. 

Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw's heads are set up over West- 
minster Hall, where that monstrous Court of Justice sat, Bradshaw's 
head in the middle. 

A proclamation in Ireland by the Lord Justices against the meetings 
and unlawful assemblies held by papists, presbyterians, Independents, 
Anabaptists, Quakers, and other fanatic persons, 22 Jan., under the 
name of days of Humiliation, Thanksgiving, Consistorial days, or 
under any other pretence whatsoever. 

Don Francisco de Mello, Earl of Ponte, Ambassador extraordinary 
from the King of Portugal, returned into England. 

14. A Blazing star observed at Stockholm in Swedland every 
morning about 3 or 4 of the clock extending his tail towards the North.* 

At Dresden in Saxony many strange visions seen. As the City 
itself to stand in full fire and flame, meat converted into blood on the 
tables. And a citizen met a man completely armed, who presently 
vanished. These, if true, portend no good. 

f>- 84- 

27. Lord Ablefeild, the Danish Ambassador, gone, having con- 
cluded a treaty of Alliance between their Majesties. 

Mar. i. Spaniard hath 2 armies ready against Portugal. The 
differences high between Don Juan de Austria and Don Lewis de 
Haro for the Government of the Armies. 

Count Maurice of Nassau, ambassador for Marquess of Branden- 
burg, received audience. 

9. The eminent Cardinal and favourite, Mazarine, of the King of 
France, died at Bois de Vincennes. Cj*. Who shall be Administrators 
to the King, who is a person of no strength of judgment. 

17 ships paid off. Money comes in slowly. 

* An entry following in the MS. " Arthur Lord Capel created Earl of Essex " has been 
struck out, but the striking out is modern. The actual creation was on the 20 April 1661 


The Match with the Duke of Parma's daughter broke off and the 
Portuguese on again. 

15. One Ursula Corbett of Defford, in the County of Worcester, 
burnt at Worcester for poisoning her husband, being not married past 
3 weeks. An ill fate certainly attends when parents enforce their 
children to marry against their liking. 

2i. Count Salviati, Ambassador extraordinary from the Duke of 
Tuscany, had audience in the banquetting house at Whitehall. 

23. One Zachary Crofton, a notorious publisher, committed to 
the Tower for preaching and writing seditious doctrines. 

Hugh Peters was there before. 

23. 1661. Memd. I and M r George Symonds as Justices released 
out of the Castle Gaol at Worcester this day 44 Quakers and 14 
anabaptists upon their promise to appear at the next Gaol delivery, and 
in the mean to keep the peace towards the King and all people. They 
drew up a Recognizances containing 3 heads: 1. To acknowledge Charles 
the 2 nd King. a. To live peaceably. 3. To appear at the next Assize. 

p. 85. 

The pope at Rome hath published a year of Jubilee for a blessing by 
fervent prayers upon the Annies against the Turks. 

The City of London Officers of the Militia, of the trained bands, and 
auxiliaries presented a declaration to his Majesty of their fidelity and 
readiness to serve him, and to submit to the Government according to 


the Laws, and to employ with their lives and fortunes to destroy their 
enemies in defence of the royal person and authority. 

April 9. Upon the Election day of Burgesses for the City of Wor- 
cester for the Parliament, Sir Rowland Berkeley, who had 615 voices, 
and M r Tho. Street, the Counsilor, who had 589, were chosen Bur- 
gesses. And M r Jo. Nanfan, who had 544, lost the same. 

10. Sir Jo. Pakington, Bar', and Samuel Sandys, Esq r , chosen 
Knights of Worcester. 

At Edinburgh agreed, March 28, by the Lords of Articles for 
settling of ^40,000 per annum upon his Majesty during life. 

James, Marquess of Ormond, made Duke of Ormond. 

7. One Isaac Gosner of Smyrna, a Jew, converted by D r Warms- 
try, and christened Paul at the Savoy. 

13. First quire service said and sung in the Cathedral Church of 
Worcester since the reducing of the City of Worcester by the Parlia- 
mentary forces, 25 July 1646. 


II. The King, according to the ancient custom before his Coro- 
nation, washed and kissed the feet of 31 persons, being as many as he 
is years in age. 

21. On Sunday night the King went to the Tower by water to 
prepare against the next day's glorious show through the City. 

22. On Monday morn the King rode through the City of London 
to Whitehall, the City having prepared most magnificent fabricks, and 
raised with strange and unparalleled preparations the whole manner of 
his show and entertainments his own Attendants which arc in 
M r Ogilby's book of description at large. 

p. 86. 

1661, April 23. The day was the solemn and most glorious Coro- 
nation of Charles the second at Westminster ; where did preach George 
Morley, Bishop of Worcester. 

This day all the trained bands, Horse and foot, were up in arms in 
several places to prevent Insurrections and tumults of seditious fanatics 
and schismatics, haters of Monarchy and Episcopacy. 

This morn also at Worcester about break of day was posted up in 
several places of the City a base, scurrilous, seditious and factious 
Libel, as followeth : 

A seasonable memento. Apr. 23, 1661. 

This day it is said the King shall swear once more 
Just contrary to what he sware before. 
Great God, O can thy potent eyes behold 
This height of sin and can thy vengeance hold ? 
Nip thou the Bud before the Bloom begins 
And save our Sovereign from presumptuous sins. 
Let him remember, Lord ; in mercy grant 
That solemnly he sware the Covenant. 

News, 15 March, dated at Rome. Great store of rain here as in 
other countries. The Pope hath set out a Breve That all that keep any 
missals or mass books new translated into French and used in France 
publicly And doth not burn them is to be excommunicated ipso facto, 
Requiring all Apostolical obedience thereunto. 

A Jubilee and pardon granted to all that assist the Emperor against 
the Turkish invasion. 

Many Quakers got to Rome and there condemned to Bedlam. One 
Bury is there rose up, as mad as others, and is called by his 12 Apostles 


King Christ, but he is fled into Germany and his disciples have abjured 
their master and doctrine. 

p. 87. 

22. It is reported that the King going privately in his barge from 
Whitehall the night before or 2 of his great Solemnity was for a hours 
suddenly missed, which made the Court in great whisper and murmur 
and disquiet. The Duke of York his brother making great inquiry 
after him. At last news being brought he was safe and landing, the 
Duke met him, and told him he was so bold that he would come to 
some mischief or other by going in this slender manner of guard. The 
King told him he feared it not, for they will never kill a Lambe to have 
a Lion rule over them. 

May 8.* His Majesty's speech in Parliament tended to shew the 
conclusion of the match between him and the princess of Portugal. 
And that they should not meddle with the Act of Oblivion. The rest 
to the Chancellor to speak. 

May 8. The Parliament sat at Westminster. Sir Edward Turner 
chosen speaker. Bishop of Bristol preached before His Majesty, who 
rode with his crown on his head. 

Mrnd as the Gentlemen of the House of Commons pressed out to 
the Lord's House Alderman Foukes of London lost 40 links of his 
gold chain. 

This day, 1641, two bills were refused to be signed by Charles the 
first. One for the execution of Earl of Strafford. 2, for perpetual 
parliament. Mem. both signed after that. 

10. Lord Chancellor declared to both Houses of parliament his 
Majesty's intention of a progress towards the end of July, and to hasten 
their Bills in the mean. 2. That then he will adjourn the parliament 
until winter. 3. That he will make a progress to Worcester and all 
other places where God had preserved him. And to meet again at 
winter and find him with a queen in his arms. 

This day the Committee of privileges chosen, on which Sir John 
Pakington and Colonel Sandys, our two knights of the shire, and Sir 
Rowland Berkeley, and M r Thomas Street, burgess for the City of 
Worcester, are voted of the Committee. Who first begin with double 
returns, after which petitions. 

p. 88. 

Saturday, Tuesdays and Thursdays in the afternoon appointed for 
the Committee of privileges and Elections. 

A blank in MS. 


Monday for Committees of Religion. Wednesday for Grievances. 
Friday for Trade : for Highways in Speaker's chamber. 

10. On Friday last an order past the House of Commons to give 
his Majesty thanks for his gracious favour in declaring to them his 
intention of the marriage with the princess of Portugal, and their 
general Approbation of it, And therein all the Commons of England, 
And that they will join with him in it for the effecting thereof against 
all opposition. 

13. War like to be with Spain and Holland by reason of the match, 
but much talked of the great Advantage to the whole nation by the 
match by reason traffic into the Indies, etc. 

5. Charles young Duke of Cambridge, the Duke of York's eldest 
son, an Infant, buried in H. 7 Chapel. 

A proclamation to put in Execution the Statute of 39 Eliz. 4 con- 
cerning vagabonds, rogues, etc., within the City of London, West- 
minster and Suburbs, And that any found 24 May to be apprehended 
and publicly (whipped and sent away, except such as are willing to go 
to the English plantations) and all justices, etc., to put the said statute 
in Execution, and i Jac. 7 concerning the same. And so 43 Eliz. a 
for the poor. 

A proclamation for release of all prisoners called quakers for not 
taking the oaths of 3 Jac. and 7 Jac., of all against or for any meetings 
contrary to the late proclamation, or for matter referring to opinion or 
scruple of conscience, or for not finding security, without demanding 
any other fees, than for lodging, diet and other necessaries. And doth 

p. 89. 

hereafter expect return of loyalty and due obedience from such persons 
who have their liberty, His Majesty not intending their impunity if they 
offend in the future. Proviso except they be not in debt or other civil 
and criminal matter. 

18. Covenant voted to be burnt by the Hangman under the Gallows. 

Act for securing the King's person, etc.* 

Bishop of London president of the Convocation, D r Fern prolocutor, 
D r Thomas Peirce preached the Latin sermon. 

17. Queen of Bohemia comes into England, the King's aunt, and 
lies at Drury House. 

Sir John Morley, a member of Parliament and one of the King's 
servants, was impeached for treason in betraying the Kind's Council 
during the Rumpists' time, etc. The House sent him to the Marshal- 
sea to be tried by law. 

* 13 Car. II., c. i. 



5. Parliament began in Ireland the same day as in England. Sir 
Audley Merwin chosen speaker. 

ii. Marquess of Montrose entombed with such relics of banners 
as were left in all magnificence in Edinburgh. 

14. All members of Parliament's letters to or from them for the 
time being free from postage, they being single letters, not packets. 
14 May. Edward Nicholas, W m Morrice, secretaries of State so 

p. go. 

May 20. Mem. the same day being May 20, the Covenanters in 
Scotland condemned Marquess of Montrose to barbarous execution. 
The House of peers ordered the Covenant to be burnt by the Hangman 
in England in the new palace at Westminster, Cheapside, and before the 
old Exchange on 22 nd of May. And the same Covenant to be taken 
off the Record in the house of peers and in all other courts ; and all 
copies thereof be taken down out of all churches, chapels and other 
public places in England and Wales. The Covenant consisted of 666 
words neither more or less. 

The Ambassadors extraordinary from Holland within five days after 
his Majesty's declaration to the parliament of his resolution to marry 
with the Infanta of Portugal attended his Majesty to congratulate his 
most happy choice. 

The Portugal Ambassador in Holland, May 26, caused great bon- 
fires for the conclusion of the match, and entertainments, and threw 
away to the people 4,000 florins as the Earl of Ponte did revel here in 

In Parliament of Ireland. Ordered that none that sat in any high 
Court of Justice upon any of His Majesty's subjects, nor had a hand in 
the murder of his late Majesty should sit in the house except Colonel 
Thomas Scott, who always did disfavour his father's proceedings and 
exertions against Colonel Ludlow, and instrumental to his Majesty's 
happy Restoration. 

From Scotland several letters report of divers witches, men and 
women, burnt at Edinburgh, and some of them when they came to die 
said Marquess of Argylle was a witch, and did often appear in the like- 
ness of a fox. And one who upon his execution said that the devil had 
bound him to renounce his creed and Christendom, but gave him leave 
to keep his Covenant. 

p. 91. 

Parliament voted a power and liberty to the king to raise a monthly 
contribution after ^70,000 for his services. 

ANNALS. *j$ 

Memd. So great is the King's justice that he having given a par- 
sonage to one of his chaplains worth ^"160 per annum at Henley upon 
Thames, where one M r Brice was then Incumbent, and was possessed 
thereof by the present powers. The said M r Brice being an ancient 
man and well-behaved, and desiring to stay, and offered to be Curate for 
him ; who at length told him he should, but would give him only j^zo 
per annum; he answered that a so small a competency; but if that was his 
resolve, he must leave it, and so did. And went after to London where, 
walking in Westminster hall, casually, the Earl of Manchester met him 
and knowing him, asked him how he did, he answered " never worse." 
Why, said my Lord. Because I am put out, and told him as before; 
he replied, Come away with me to the King, who being acquainted 
therewith, asked whether it were past the great seal, he knew not ; but 
presently sent to know, And it was not. Then said the King to the 
Earl, go yourself to the Chancellor and see that this M r Brice hath it 
passed over to him the parsonage; which was done. M r Brice would 
needs, howsoever, be the other's Curate, And asked him what he would 
have, Why, said he, l$ shall be the uttermost ; Then, he said, here 
I have it under the great Seal, and here it is, so I will hold it by the 
King's gracious Concession. 

34. So great a storm fell in London of Rain that in Coleman 
Street and other places the great sinks were suddenly choked up at the 
Grate that the water rose 4 foot high and rushed into cellars and ware- 
houses, destroying 10,000 of goods. 

29. The Anniversary of the birth of our Sovereign Charles the 
Second for ever to be kept festival. And on that day 1549 the Book of 
Common Prayer was first established. And on that day 1660 his 
Majesty rode in triumph after 19 years' absence through London to 

28. Proclamation by the crier within the City of Worcester That 
whosoever can discover the persons that made, posted or published in 
Worcester that Infamous Libel upon the day of the King's Coronation, 
April 23, shall have 20 for a reward. 

p. 92. 

May 28. This day the Engagement Act to make the nation a free 
state, Oath of Abjuration of the late King Charles' family, the Act for 
trial of the King with some other of that stamp were burnt at West- 
minster Hall, Old Exchange, by the common Hangman by vote of 
Parliament 27"", And Act for securing Oliver Lord Protector's person. 
The Judges sitting in court. 


A strong fleet going under the command of the Earl of Sandwich to 
fetch home the intended Queen, the princess of Portugal. 

Fees for knighthood amount to ^64. Drew purchase. In Scot- 
land a Declaration of Parliament for the 29 th day of May to be kept 
holiday for the King's birth and happy restoration. Bill drawing up by 
Sir Heneage Finch to vacate the Act of 17 Car. i for their restoring to 
the Lords' House again. It was moved in the House of Commons, 
and nemine contradicente consented to the same. 

Act to pass by way of speedy supply of money for his Majesty's 
present use by way of Benevolence like that of* 

24. Marquess of Argylle in Scotland to be beheaded on the 37 th of 
May : His head to be placed in the Room of Marquess Montrose. 
His posterity to be incapable of any public trust, all his lands and goods 
to be confiscate to his Majesty's use. Edinburgh. Execution so done. 

17. The Parliament of Ireland, which consist of Lords Spiritual and 
temporal and Commons ordered That the Lawes should be put in 
operation against all contemners of the Government of the Church by 
Archbishops and Bishops, etc., and Common Prayer Book either by 
disobediences, words or otherwise. And the Declaration and order to be 
read in all churches. 

7. Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle's corpses, which were 
shot to death at the surrender of Colchester and obscurely buried, were 
taken up and buried in great solemnity in Lord Lucas' vault in S* Giles 
Church in Colchester. 

12. The garrison of Dunkirk consist of between 6 and 7000 officers 
and men. That day the fleet moved towards Lisbon to bring in the 
princess of Portugal. 

June i. M r James Guthrie, a minister, and one Captain Giflen 

P- 93- 

were both hanged at Edinburgh for treason, dying in an obstinate reso- 
lution in defence of the Remonstrance and Scottish Covenant. 

Ordered and declared by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and 
Commons assembled in Parliament in Ireland, that the Solemn League 
and Covenant was and is against the laws of God and the fundamental 
Constitution of this Kingdom. And therefore do condemn it as schis- 
maticall, seditious, and treasonable. And do order it to be burnt in all 
cities and market towns by the common hangman. And adjudge and 
declare that whosoever shall by word or writing defend or justify the 
said treasonable Covenant shall be esteemed as an enemy to his sacred 
Majesty and to the public peace of the Church and kingdom. 

Blank in MS. 


The Irish Parliament approve and congratulate his Majesty for his 
intended choice and match with the princess of Portugal. 

20. It is said in Parliament that had not His Majesty preserved 
his Act of Oblivion from question, there were many who would have 
torn the same in pieces, so that his enemies all owe their preservation 
to his Majesty's goodness and mercy for their lives and estates through- 
out the nation. 

27. His Majesty feasted the Portugal Ambassador for his good 
services about the marriage of the Infanta of Portugal, Donna Katrina, 
which the King intended ; the ambassador is Don Francisco de Mello 
Count de Ponte. 

July a. The Conference between the Portuguese and Holland for 
peace sent over to King Charles to be viewed. 

3. Portugal Ambassador took his leave and gone homewards. 

p. 94. 

July i. Lord Munson, Sir James Harrington, and Sir Henry Mild- 
may sentenced (as being regicides, and having their lives by the Act of 
Oblivion saved) to be degraded of all Honour and Titles. Prisoners 
in Tower during life, so M r Robert Wallop. And all 4 drawn upon 
sledges with ropes about their necks from the Tower to and under the 
Gallows at Tyburn, then back to the Tower. Their estates confiscate. 
Lord Munson confessed his fault and was sorry. Sir H. Mildmay was 
sorry he was so misguided and was enticed to Westminster Hall, but 
voted not. M r Wallop craved pardon, he was old and frail and did not 
remember he sat in High Court of Justice. 

A Bill preparing to confiscate all the estates of the regicides, etc., 
that are dead. And a clause for execution of the 19 traitors in Tower 
condemned and reprieved. 

n. The King by declaration to the Scots, II th June last, allows 
the present administration by Sessions, presbyteries, and synods (they 
keeping within their bounds) promise to be such as he shall call to 
settle and secure the Government as before never to intermeddle with 
the public Government of the Church any ways. 

Convocation of estates in Poland hath enacted to tolerate none in 
that kingdom but professed good Catholics, and published by sound of 
trumpet from Dantzig. June 25. Prince Radziwill at first desired as 
a Reformed prince to shift, but after by the earnest motion of General 
Prince Czarnosky admitted. 

M r Prim in Parliament acknowledged a paper to be his concerning 
regulating of corporations, which the House voted to be illegal, false, 


scandalous and seditious. He submitted and repented, and so par- 
doned with a sharp reprehension from the speaker. 

Earl of Sandwich gone with a fleet to Algiers to desire reparation of 
the Turkish pirates for the injuries done the English. And if denied, 
then to fall upon them. 

30. The King's Majesty came to the House of Peers and passed 
many bills, both public and private. And adjourned until 2o tk of Nov. 

/> 95- 

Bernard de Foix, Duke de Epernon de la Valette et Candale, K' of 
the King's orders and the Garter, Colonel General of France and 
Governor of Guienne, being 62 years old died. General of Mainzt and 
of the country of Messin. 

English admiral, Captain Holms, sent to the Governor of Cape de 
Verde, New Guinea, the factory of Seralone, and divers other places 
along the Coast of Africa, to give them warning to quit these several 
places by December next, until which time they may freely trade, but 
after must leave them to the English East India Company. 

A fortress taken by the English, and since place called James 
Island upon the River Gambo a new fort built called Charles Island. 

Sept. J 2. D r George Morley, Bishop of Worcester, was solemnly 
brought in to Worcester by my Lord Windsor, Lord Lieutenant of the 
County, and most of the Gentry and all the Clergy, there being 10 
trumpets then attending, and some volunteer militia Horse, the Trained 
bands of the City, and clergy band of foot in Arms, giving divers 
volleys of shot. As soon as he had rested within half an hour the 
Bishop with all the prebends, and the quire meeting him at the College 
steps in their formalities sang to the Quire, where he was enthroned 
performing the ceremonies. Then Quire Service. So to his palace, 
where was noble treatment prepared. 

15. On Sunday the Reverend Bishop made an admired sermon on 
2 Cor., 8, 20, in the Collegiate Church of Worcester. 

7. Lord Chancellor Earl of Clarendon, Chancellor of Oxford, was 
received there with great honour, and so his house at Cornbury. 

p. 96. 

17. Richard, Earl of Carbury, Lord president of Wales and Lord 
Lieutenant of North Wales and South Wales, was sworn of his 
Majesty's Privy Council. 


30. The Count of Brahe, Ambassador Extraordinary from the 
King of Sweden, landing at the Tower, The King's guards of Horse 
and 3 companies of foot attended ready ; where proclamation and orders 
were sent out that no soldier on pain of death should offer to assist 
any quarrel between strange princes' ambassadors endeavouring pre- 
eminence of motion after the King's and ambassadors' coaches. But 
the French and Spanish ambassadors striving for the first place, a fray 
began, and there were 7 or more killed of the French, and three coach 
horses, and only i Spaniard ; divers hurt on both sides. There being 
some hundreds on each part, what the sequel of this may follow time 
must produce. 

Oct. 8. Since the French king hath forbidden the Spanish ambas- 
sador the French court, Oct. 18, to depart the kingdom, and forbid 
another Spanish ambassador to forbear coming into the realm. Hath 
given orders to his General Turenne to prepare his Armies in readiness, 
and send into Spain to demand instant satisfaction for the injury. 
And to know whether the Crown of Spain will for future dispute for 
precedence with France. 

Mmd. George Morley, Bishop of Worcester, a most pitiful and 
pious man, forgave one David Morgan, a saddler, who in his drink 
railed and spake most reproachful language of him at Worcester, for 
which he was committed, and upon his submission the Bishop not 
only forgave him, but gave him 5" in money to relieve him, and victuals, 
though the fellow better deserved to be publicly whipped through the 
City, and caused his release. 

p. 97. 

Oct. 4. Count of Brahe, extraordinary ambassador from Sweden, 
had his audience in the banquetting house at Whitehall before the 
King's Majesty. 

Drums beat up for Volunteers at London for Tangiers City in 
Africa, under the command of the Earl of Peterborough, and in 
one fortnight the number will be completed, 2500 foot and 500 

Proclamation for retailers of wines to take licences. 

Proclamation for Council of Marches to sit again, and to hear and 
determine causes according to their instructions from his Majesty. The 
authority and proceedings of the said president and council to be 
obeyed. All mayors, sheriffs and other officers of Justice are com- 
manded to serve all precepts and causes. And to yield all obedience 
and submission to orders and decrees of the Court, etc. 


Rich., Earl of Carbury, Lord president. 

Serjeant Job Charleton, chief Justice of Chester, first Judge. 2. 
Timothy Turner, Eq r . 3. Simon Degg, Eq r . 4. Jo. Griffith, Eq r . 
George, Earl of Norwich, Clerk of the Council.* 

Sir Richard Lloyd, K', Attorney General. W m Morgan, Eq r , 
Solicitor General. 

21. D r Berwick made Dean of Paul's. 

Proclamation in London by the Lord Mayor, That henceforward no 
market to be kept in Paul's churchyard. And all roots, herbs, fruit or 
other market commodities not to stand in any other place but in the 
streets called Aldermanbury and Broad Street, and only on market 

Colonel Parker, Colonel Streaker, Colonel Wilcks, Colonel Lithcot, 
Colonel Kenrick, Lieut.-Colonel Read, Major Gladman, Captain 
Chaffin committed close prisoners to the Gatehouse. And Major 
Heynes and Colonel Close prisoners at Hertford. 

Oct. 25, 13 Car. 2. Letters came from the Archbishops to all 
bishops intimating a command from his Majesty that they shall cause 
their clergy in every parish within their diocese to read the two Acts, 
one concerning the better securing his Majesty's person against all 
treasons, the other against tumults and disorders upon pretence of 
petitioning his Majesty in their several churches, whereby none may 
plead ignorance of the same. 

The plague hath made great slaughter for this 3 months in Con- 
stantinople and Adrianople. Constantinople a great part burnt last 
year and not yet re-edified. In Adrianople, Sept. 3, 1700 dead bodies 
carried out daily. 

One M r Robert Blayn, a Scottish minister, imprisoned in the Castle 
of Edinburgh for preaching up the Covenant with bold reflections on 
the parliaments of the 3 kingdoms. 

At Malaga by extraordinary rains great losses to the inhabitants, 
2000 at least drowned, all the first wines spoiled, damages valued at 
3 millions of gold. 

The cargo of th^ Plate fleet lately arrived in Spain is valued at 
25 millions. 

Cossuma Albertus, a prince of Transylvania, was basely murthered 
by his 2 servants and mangled in the parish of Strood near Rochester, 

* Blank in MS. 


and buried in the Cathedral Church ; one Isaac Jacob, a Jew, his 
coachman, and Casimirus Kansangi, his footman. 

22. Sir John Frederick sworn Lord Mayor of London, who enter- 
tained his Majesty, the Court, and sent by the King ambassadors. Sent 
therewith Lord Croft and Laurence Hyde, Esq., and Sir Charles Berkeley, 
Groom of the Stole, sent by the Duke of York into France to the King 
to congratulate the happy birth of the Dauphin. Nov. I st . Stilo novo 
who is christened Louis Toussaints (i) All Saints in relation to 
the day. 

p. 99. 

The Bishop of London set up 4 lectures in London, viz., i at 
Paul's on Wednesdays, 2 at Christchurch Thursdays, and 3 and 4 at 
, and S l Dunstan's in the East Fridays. So hath 
the Bishops of Salisbury and Worcester in their several dioceses. 

Duke of Ormonde made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

Duke of York over to Dunkirk to view the Garrison. 

The Spaniards and French reconciled, and the Spanish king sent 
his daughter of France a present of 12 china dishes valued 100,000 
livres, and a diamond ring to the young Dauphin at 50,000 crowns. 

The Spanish ambassador forbidden the Court, the reason not yet 

22. One John James, a fanatic preacher, condemned at King's Bench 
bar for preaching at a conventicle in Whitechapel, Oct. 19 th , and declaring 
his intention to destroy his Majesty and nobles. Justifying the late regi- 
cide and bemoaning the miscarriage of that monstrous plot of miscreants 
who were lately arraigned at Old Bailey, and 27 th hanged at Tyburn, in 
whose death all seditious libellers and preachers concerned. 

20. The Parliament began to resit. 

Prince of Spain died I st November and another son the Queen was 
brought to bed of another son in recompense. 

27. D r Thomas Warmestry was brought in this day to Worcester 
with about 100 Horse as Dean of Worcester, the clergy band stood 
ready to receive him in the City. The 40 king's scholars at the College 
Gate. He alighted at his house the Deanery, put on his robes. And 
the prebends and quire met him in the cloisters, sung Te Deum. Then 
came into the Quire. Then read his letters Patent for Deanery and 
enjoyment of all rights belonging to his place. Took the oaths of 
supremacy, allegiance, and against simony. The Sub-Dean, M r Giles 
Thornborough, installed him ; quire service finished every one went to 
his own place. And in the evening said service himself. 

Blank in MS. 



p. ioo. 

22. Duke of York returned from Dunkirk viewing the works and 
the new fortifications, where are 1000 men at work daily, the Lord 
Rutherford governor there, and some suspicion of treachery. 

21. The House of Commons (nemine contradicente) voted that 
^"1,200,000 should be speedily raised for a supply of the king's Majesty's 
present occasions and a committee to consider of the manner of raising it. 

22. A Bill for executing of the condemned persons brought in. 

24. Earl of S' Alban's returned from his extraordinary Ambassady 
into France. 

The Parliament of Ireland have transmitted the bill for advancing 
his Majesty's revenue there ^80,000 per annum as an additional. 

25. Robert Wilson the quaker's books of sedition and blasphemy 
burnt at S l Martin le Grand, and on 26 th at Westminster Palace Yard. 
The books were Primers, Cattechisims. 3 threatenings against bishops 
and Governments. 

A new proclamation for the better observance of Lent, etc. 

Another for prohibiting the embezzlement of his Majesty's store for 

The condemned traitors brought to the Parliament bar. 

All protections already granted to any other persons beside menial 
servants be forthwith withdrawn and called in. 

26. M r James Harrington, Major John Wyldman, and Praise God 
Barebon were committed to the Tower. Bishops of Galloway and 

4 Scottish bishops ordained at Lambeth. I st Archbishop of S* 
Andrews, and 2 Archbishop of Glasgow, and* 

The King desired that Sir H. Vane and Lambert be sent for to 
come to trial, and Sir Hardress Waller (a condemned person). 

Count of Brahe, Ambassador of Sweden, going by Gravesend with 
his ship did not strike sail at the King's ship passing by him ; for which 
his Majesty's ship gave him a warning piece; he sent his secretary and 
another to the captain that his Majesty gave way by word of mouth 
that he should not; the Captain was questioned (whose name was 
Holmes) at the Council table for believing words without authority. 
He was dismissed his place for the same and committed. 

p. 101. 

A proclamation that the parliament money shall be current money 
to pay the King in any payment until first day of March next, but 
not between party and party. 

* Blank in MS. 


A proclamation that no foreign commodities or wares made beyond 
sea to be transported hither according to Ancient Statutes. And that 
no coach be gilded over (except of the Royal line) and the arms of the 
owner placed. 

Brian Walton, Bishop of Chester, died ; a great linguist ; and D r 
Fern, Master of Trinity College in Cambridge, made Bishop. D r 
Hacket of S' Andrew's in Holborn made Bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, consecrated the last of December. 

Mem. my Lord Coventry gave ^"500 as a legacy towards the 
repairs of the church of Worcester, and the Bishop of Worcester gave 
3&ioo and got by way of benevolence ^500 more. 

December. The navy gone to bring over the Queen from Lisbon in 

Mem. notice being given his Majesty, That the House of Com- 
mons (nemine contradicente) had given him .^1,200,000 by vote for 
the present supply of paying the navy, and preparing another against 
the spring, " I pray you tell the House of Commons that I will be 
revenged on them of them for this their courtesy." 

Don Louis de Haro, the Spanish favourite, died 15 th November, 
being the great Minister of State. 

17. D r Monk, Bishop of Hereford, died before he came to take 
actual possession, and D r Herbert Croft, Dean of Hereford, chosen in 
his place of the said country. 

p. 102. 

15. His Majesty standing by the fireside in his privy chamber 
before dinner asked my Lord Newport whether all Navigation were not 
good and profitable to the commonwealth, who answered, " there may 
be some which may be obstructive.'" The King replied, " You may 
as well make me believe this fire cloth not burn." 

22. The young prince of Spain christened, having 15 names in* 
given him by the Infanta, and his principal name Charles. 

27. Jan. i. On New Year's his Majesty at Whitehall descended 
from his closet to the Chapel and there offered at the altar for protecting 
him and his people and in Scotland on his coronation day in Scotland. 

10 Dec. Letters. A great plot in Ireland among the Irish papists 
and Jesuits found in a Mass book casually dropped up in pursuing 
of some of them, wherein are dangerous* intending to a speedy insur- 
rection, with other reflections of scandal on his Majesty's person and 
government. By this occasion the whole nation is put in a posture of 
defence with men and provisions. 

Sic in MS. 


Dec. 30. The prince de la Gravy of Lincoln's Inn sent to his 
Majesty an Ambassador, his L. Chancellor, to visit him on Friday, 
being 3 rd of January, and so Duke and Duchess of York, etc. His 
speech he delivered in lawyer's French, being the language of the place. 
Which was graciously received and promised his presence. Since 
knighted and his father a baronet. 

The grand castle of Vilna delivered up to the Polander after a long 

There are divers Bishops in France made knights of the new order 
of the Holy Spirit, as well as lay persons, 4 Archbishops, and 3 bishops. 

p. 103. 

30. Proclaimed for a reward of 10 to be given to discoverers of* 
burglaries and robberies within a year after the fact done, and also 
pardon to the felons themselves, who discover their fellows, so as to 
apprehend them. 

The Knights of Malta seized on a ship wherein were 30 persons, 
who had murdered the King of Algiers, and with them a million of 

Proclamation for encouragement of planters to Jamaica. That 30 
acres be allowed to all persons, male or female, of 12 years old, who 
doth now or within 2 years next shall reside upon the said Island to 
them and their heirs. To have the benefit of all mines, except gold 
and silver, within such allotment, reserving a 2O tb part of the product 
to his Majesty. All children born there of subjects of England shall 
have the same privileges as in England. Liberty to transport them- 
selves thither. All planters and soldiers are commanded to yield 
obedience to Thomas, Lord Windsor, as Governor, or his successors. 

In Edinburgh the feast of Christmas was with all solemnity 
observed by all persons and degrees except one or 2 dissenting 

At Danzig 2 coiners were lately strangled and burnt. 

The pope and cardinals on or about io th of December at Rome 
made it an article of Faith that the Virgin Mary was conceived and 
bora without sin; and 19 th January City of Toulouse (as at Rome) 
made a great feast for the Pope's Bull therein, and so her Conception 
day is to be a great holiday. 

7. The parliament adjourned to this day did meet again. 

Frederick, Lord Cornwallis, died, who was treasurer of his Majesty's 
household. Sir Charles Berkeley in his place. 

* " Murderr and " struck out in MS. 


The body of a princely young lady, who by skill of the Egyptians 
hath been preserved in and with her coffin entire 2500 years at least 
from any putrefaction, was brought into England by one Captain 
Hurst from the Lybian sands, near the ruins of that famous city 
of Memphis. And is to be seen and shewed in London. 

p. 104. 

Jan. 15. Our navy being kept in the Downs this 2 months for 
want of a fair easterly wind is now gone to Portugal to bring away the 

15. A general fast solemnly kept both by his Majesty and Court 
and City of London for God's mercy to turn the scarcity of corn into 
plenty. And on the 22 nd to be kept throughout the nation. 

At Antwerpf the Archbishop there hath appointed 8 days' solemn 
fast for the same in Flanders. 

13. Marquess of Durazzo, extraordinary ambassador from the 
state of Genoa, held his audience at Court and went away Feb. i at with 

13. All arrears of impropriations and ecclesiastical livings which 
were excepted out of the general pardon His Majesty hath granted to 
Lord Chancellor and others towards the repair of Paul's. The com- 
missioners sit in Bishop of London in Savoy Tuesday and Saturday 2 
of clock. 

M r Morus, that most eloquent and learned minister of the Reformed 
Churches at Paris, by his Majesty's special command preached before 
his Majesty, the Duke of York and Duchess in the Royal Chapel of S' 
James. When amongst others of the nobles the L. Ambassador of 
France, L. Aubigny, and E. of Bristol. 

Proclaimed at Edinburgh prohibiting all meetings in Synods and 
presbyteries now the bishops be restored to their dignities without their 
orders and authority. 

18. Earl of Carbury, lord president of Wales, received into Ludlow 
Castle with great solemnity ; the next day to the Court to read their 
commission and instructions and commission of Oyer and Terminer. 

p. 105. 

27. This day the condemned prisoners from the Tower were 
drawn to Tyburn in sledges with ropes about their necks, and so back 
to the Tower, being so adjudged, as being formerly judges of Ch. I.'s 
death, 27 Jan. 48. 

* Blank in MS. 

t In MS. " Brussels " originally written, but struck out and " Antwerp " written over. 


Sir Charles Berkeley made Treasurer of King's Household, and Sir 
Hugh Polard Controller and one of the Council. 

Feb. 13. Lampreys so scarce at this season as ever was known, 
insomuch that I paid 13' 4 d for reasonable ones for to send up to 
London out of the River of Severn. 

D r Herbert Crofts, Dean of Hereford, consecrated Bishop of Here- 
ford, being heir of the ancient family of Croft de Croft Castle in the 
County of Hereford, and so D r Home, Bishop of Chester, who died and 
buried 25"" March in Westminster Abbey. 

Wines by proclamation this year to be sold (i) Canary, Alicante 
Muscadels, sacks, and malaga at ^29 the butt or pipe, and at i8 d the 
quart by retail. And no Rhenish wine but ia d the quart. And French 
wine ^"23 per tun, and 8 d per retail a quart. 

17. Memd. this 17 th in night and about 4 in the morning Tuesday 
28 began so great winds south west and by west with some lightnings 
and storms of rain that was not heard or seen in the memory of man, 
whereby all places whose houses stood where the winds had any force 
were miserably torn in pieces. And God knows what great losses by 

17. Queen of Bohemia, the King's aunt, died 13 th Feb. and buried 
17 th in H. 7 th Chapel at Westminster. King nor Duke present at 
funeral in the night, and the rather being in the night for fear of danger 
to their persons by wicked men. 

p. 106. 

1 8- Memd. this i8 th day of February about 4 in the morn did 
begin the great high violent tempestuous wind, mingled with lightning 
and after storms, That in all countries overthrown infinite of Barns and 
beast houses, and some weak houses, steeples, pinnacles, shafts of 
chimneys, trees, especially elms, and destroying all great trees in 
orchards and in grounds, especially in the counties of Worcester 
and Hereford. That the general loss is almost invaluable, and irre- 
parable the loss of fruit almost in an age. The like winds by no man's 
remembrance either seen, heard, or known, and God bless us all from 
the like, for there is scarce house, town, or village but have suffered 
some loss great or small, either in persons killed or hurt, or their cattle, 
beside loss and destruction of their housing and trees. 

21. Sir John Stowell of Somersetshire died, that royal champion 
of fidelity. 

Lord Hatton made Governor of Guernsey during his and his son's 
life, and sworn privy councillor. 


News came from Constantinople that the Janizaries have killed the 
Prince Vizier and divers other great officers of state in tumults. The 
Grand Vizier settled his son to succeed. And left 3 maxims to the 
Emperor of Turkey to make him happy. 

I. Not to hearken to advice of women. 2. To get what wealth he 
can into his Treasury. 3. To be much on horseback to keep his army 
in action. 

p. 107. 

Mar. 1 6. Colonel Barksted, once Lieutenant of the Tower, Colonel 
Okey, and Miles Corbett called the Jew ; 3 of the late King's Judges 
and regicides were seized on at Delf in Holland and delivered up to Sir 
George Downing, the King's Agent there, to be transported, and were 
put in the Tower in safe custody for a future trial. And thanks sent to 
the States for their ready assistance to secure the 3 regicides. 

Marquis of Elichi, son to Don Lewis de Han), late favourite to the 
King of Spain, intended to blow up with gunpowder his Majesty at his 
house Buen Retire), and hath confessed it; since beheaded. 

25. D r Fearn, Bishop of Chester, buried in Westminster Abbey. 

25. D r Brian Duppa, Bishop of Winchester, the King's tutor, 
being very aged, died at Richmond House. His Majesty visiting him 
the day before and by his bedside kneeled down and craved his blessing. 

37. On Maundy Thursday his Majesty, according to the example 
of the King of Kings, as well as his predecessors (the kings of England), 
washed and kissed the feet of 32 poor men in the Banquetting house at 
Whitehall, this being the 32 year of his age. 

2i. On 21 st instant [his Majesty*] Mary the daughter of James 
Barns of Stony Stratford having been long blind by the king's evil was 
touched by his Majesty, and immediately by the mercy of God her 
eyes were opened, so as she beheld his Majesty washing his hands in 
the basin and still enjoys the blessing of her sight. 

April. Notice given for all persons to forbear to come to the king 
for healing of the king's evil this summer season, there being since his 
Majesty's coming about 15,000 stroked by him. 

p. 108. 

April. A plot to shoot the King and Queen mother of France dis- 
covered and the persons in prison. One Morin and his accomplices. 
Earl of Portland and Sir William Compton sworn privy coun- 


* Sic in MS. f Blank in MS. 


16. Colonel Barksted and Okey and Miles Corbett were brought 
to the King's Bench bar and asked what they had to say for themselves 
why judgment should not pass on them to die, since they stood as out- 
lawed persons on a Bill of Attainder for the murdering (amongst 
others) the late King Charles; who answered and denied that they were 
the persons. Witnesses produced and proving the same, judgment of 
death passed upon them as traitors. And upon the i9 tb at Tyburn 

Small danger of the Spaniards invading Portugal this summer. 

Proclamation in Ireland That no grain be transported at all until it 
be at io d a peck. And those that do transport give caution to bring it 
into some harbour of England. 

Corn now in England in Worcestershire, best wheat 10", Muncorn 
9", rye 8 s 6 d , Oats 3' 4 d , Barley 6" 4 d , White pease 5" 6 d , gray pease 
4 s 8 d . A very late seeds time by reason of the continued rains these 
a last months, which being together warm makes an early spring of 

At the trial of the 3 Regicides the Court told them they had 
but 2 things to plead, either the King's pardon or else to plead abso- 
lutely they were not the persons mentioned in the Act, to which they 
pleaded they were not the persons, which was quickly proved. And 
judgment passed and executed. Colonel Okey's corps was buried in 
Tower because he exhorted the people to peace and live quietly. 
Colonel Barksted's head placed on the Traitor's gate of the Tower, 
and Miles Corbett's head on London Bridge. Their a quarters hung 
on the Citv Gates. 

p. 109. 

23. The King's Coronation Day solemnly kept by the Dean and 
Chapter in the Cathedral, who preached on i Chron. 

Clergy band attended. 6 Trumpets. After prayers and sermon 
which was not ended until half an hour past one. The Dean feasted ; 
gave a largesse to the soldiers and trumpets. At night bonfires in 
College, trumpets sounding, 2 drums beating, and some guns. Before 
evening prayer the Dean, D r Britten, petty canons, and quire went 
from the Church door, trumpets first sounding. Then Te Deum was 
sung round about the sanctuary in church yard, and so round to College 
gate into the church. 

Bells rung all day. 

Major General Lambert brought back to the Tower. 


21. Ordered that all members of House of Commons attend the 
House on 5 th of May next on pain of 10. 

24. Bishop of Winchester buried at Westminster Abbey. D r 
Morley, Bishop of Worcester, to be his successor. 

28. Prince Rupert, George, Duke of Buckingham, John, Lord 
Middleton, Lord great Commissioner of Scotland, were sworn privy 

30. Duchess of York brought to bed of a daughter at S' James. 

May 5. Two sturgeons taken at Southampton river, male and 
female, as it were of purpose to meet the King and Queen's Majesties 
on her landing. 

7. 6 Bishops at Edinburgh consecrated. Bishops of Dunkeld, 
Murray, Ross, Brechin, Isles, and Caithness. D r Gordon preached the 

Act of restoring Bishops in Scotland passed nemine contradicentc. 

13. Sir George Downing, envoy extraordinary for his Majesty in 
Holland, demanded satisfaction of the States and reparation for 4 ships 
taken by some of their commanders on the coast of Guinea, which not 
speedily done, His Majesty will cause as many of the ships of those 

p. no. 

provinces prisoners do belong to be distributed amongst them, according 
to their respective losses and damages. 

14. Liberty by proclamation with the consent of the Merchant 
Adventurers to transport and carry all woollen manufactures to any 
part or place beyond seas, except the mart towns of Dort and Hamburg 
from 2o th of May until 25 December next. This temporary dispensa- 
tion not intended to lessen their charter to their government at home 
and abroad. 

14. This day Donna Katerina, Queen of England, landed at 
Portsmouth at 4 post noon. News coming next morn to Whitehall, 
there was bonfires throughout the city of London. 

19. Memd. his Majesty ended this session of parliament Monday, 
19 th of May, whereby the world may see that this first is a most happy 
and blessed session, having past 69 Acts of Parliament, being more 
than ever prince did before; whereof 31 were public acts and 38 private 
bills. Adjourned to i8 lh February next. 

Memd. this session began the 8 th day of May 1660, which was the 
same day his mother was married at Paris 1625. And ends with the 
conjunction of the King and Catherine queen 1661. 

19. The King married to the princess Katerin of Portugal at 



Portsmouth by Gilbert Sheldon, Bishop of London and Dean of his 

Majesty's Chapel ; only by repeating the words of matrimony itself and 
the Bishop's blessing and declaration without further prayers. 

It is said that the Queen seeing the English familiarity of gentlemen 
and ladies talking and taking one another by the hand contrary to the 
custom of Portugal and Spain, who cannot endure to see men compli- 
menting with the women, said, " Look, look how they take one another 
by the hand," by way of admiration. 

p. in. 

June 2. Lord Mayor of London with his brethren came to Hamp- 
ton Court and humbly tendered their duty to the Queen's Majesty, 
which was better expressed by the present of a bag of gold, and in a 
speech composed and spoken in Spanish by Sir William Wild, Recorder 
of London. They were kindly received by her Majesty, and kissed her 
royal hand. 

From Edinburgh, May 2g th . It was agreed in Parliament (nemine 
contradicente) that the Government of the Church by Archbishops and 
bishops should be restored to all their rights as in 1633, with all the 
benefits and profits appertaining to them since 12 th parliament of James 
the 6 th . So the Bill passed. 

6 ministers from the north of Scotland were committed for refusing 
the oaths of allegiance and supremacy; insisting upon the Presbyterian 
rebellious principle, That the King is supreme in Civilibus but not in 
spiritualibus or ecclesiasticis. 

A pamphlet printed at Edinburgh 1648, entitled De Excommuni- 
cato Trucidando, which conceived it lawful to excommunicate all that 
Refused the Covenant, and to kill and destroy all men so excommuni- 
cated, not excepting the King's person. 

6. Sir Henry Vane tried at King's Bench and found guilty of 
treason for plotting and contriving the final destruction and death of 
the King maliciously and traitorously, and that he with others did take 
upon him the government of the kingdom of England. There were 
many witnesses to prove the charge fully. 

9. Major General John Lambert found guilty at King's Bench bar 
of high treason, as his fellow Sir H. Vane was on Friday. 

10. The Queen fell feverish and was let blood twice on Sunday. 
She was married only by repeating the solemn words of matrimony one 
to the other, as I, Charles, take thee, Katharine, etc., and the declaration 
after as man and wife pronounced without any other prayers. For the 
Queen said she was prohibited by the Pope not to be married after 


the English service, and so her abbot her confessor did acknowledge 
to the King. 

p. 112. 

Memd. she is like to make the best wife to a husband and a good 
pattern for others. As it is said that the King told her he was to go a 
Hunting at 3 in the morn, and therefore would lie in another lodging 
and not disturb her rest. " No (says she), you shall not; for I will sit 
up, and go you to bed, and I will awake you at the time and call you." 

She is very civil and courteous to all ; and zealous in her devotions. 
She riseth early and goes to her work ; a good precedent for our grandees. 

It is said that the Queen dowager of Portugal wrote to the King in 
a complimental manner that he had stolen her heart from her, and if he 
be such a prince as he is reported, her daughter will be revenged on 
him by stealing away his heart to her. 

It is said that the Queen dowager never went out of three rooms 
of her Court since her husband's death, yet rules the whole nation, 
the king being young and weak. And that the Queen never was out of 
Lisbon all her life until she took ship for England. 

The King and Queen being together in a room now the Council 
Chamber at Hampton Court, said to the Queen, " I must go to the 
Council, and be pleased for you to stay here until my speedy return." 
The Queen was proved after not to look well ; and was desired by some 
of her ladies to remove into a more open room ; " No," says she, " the 
King commanded me to stay here, and so I will unu, his return "; a 
good example of obedience. 

The Queen asked some of her ladies what they did in the afternoon; 
they told her Majesty they went abroad and gave visits. " We" (says 
she) "in Portugal use to go to our works"; and so she doth daily. 

The King had a prediction given him at Cologne, 1655, by Arch- 
bishop of Amiens, sent to him by one O'Neale, that in the year 1660 
he should be restored, and so he was. And upon his restoration the 
said O'Neale sent to him that he should not marry until June 1662, 
and she should be born under the southern elevation, and as he con- 
ceived in Lisbon and should be the most happy prince in the world in a 
wife. The 2 first is already come to pass, and the last in all prob- 
ability, being a wife of such humility and meekness. 

p. 113. 

June 14. Sir H. Vane beheaded on Tower Hill for conspiring and 
plotting the death of Charles the first. Lambert reprieved. 


6 Scotch ministers banished for refusing the oath of Allegiance out 
of Scotland. 

Sturgeons taken near Sir John Wintowe's at* in Glouces- 


7. In Scotland the Parliament ordained that all ministers who 
were admitted to benefices since 1648 shall take presentations from the 
rightful patrons before March next, otherwise the benefices to be 
declared vacant. And if patron present not before September, then 
the Bishop. 

Free Trade between Sweden and Muscovy. 

The Turks takes Clausenburg strong fort in Transylvania by sur- 
render and articles on io th of May last. 

At Edinburgh zg th May. King's birthday, beside some pleasant 
shows and devices, one of the top of an arch stood the devil as an 
angel with this superscription: "Stand for the Cause." In the middle 
of the arch hung a table with this litany : 

From Covenanters with uplifted hands, 
From Remonstrators with associated bands, 
From such Committees as governed this nation, 
From kirk Commissioners and their protestation, 

Good Lord deliver us. 

After, a tablet had this inscription : 

Great monarch on this day was born, 

And to his kingdom happily restored. 
His Queen's arrived, the mitre now is worn, 

Let us rejoice, this day is from the Lord. 
Fly hence all traitors that did mar our peace, 

Fly Schismatics, who our Church did rent, 
Fly Covenanting, Remonstrating race; 

Let us rejoice that God this day hath sent. 
p. 114. 

14. Several conflicts have been between one Guiband, the pre- 
tending King of Moors, and the English of Tangiers to keep the 
English from encroachments too far in the country. The Earl of 
Peterborough came over to give an account thereof and state of the 
place. Received by the King with kindness. Peace with Guiband, 
and August a I st he went back to Tangiers. 

July 27. The King going in his barque to meet Queen-mother 
coming out of France met with a terrible storm near Goodwin sands ; 

* Blank in MS. " Lydney " must be the place. 


his barque struck ground and was in a very great danger, but through 
God's providence, and his own skill and Prince Rupert and some 
others, who laboured themselves, fetch off the boat and stood into 
Quimborough Castle. The Duke of York, Admiral, riding between 
Dover and Calais, lost his mast in pieces, and the Vice-Admiral, Lord 
Montagu, driven into the seas again. But all at last safe. 

Queen mother arrived at Greenwich and there landed safe. 

23. The same day at Edinburgh as the Bishops were first publicly 
affronted in Scotland with the whole rabble there, a proclamation made 
for the re-establishing episcopacy and rescinding the Covenant. 

Aug. This month throughout the nation the Commissioners for 
purging corporations by virtue of an Act of Parliament have sat; some 
places few, as in Worcester 6, who refused subscription; in many towns, 
where the Presbyterian ministers had very much tainted them, most 
were removed or put out themselves. 

P> "5- 

23. The King and Queen came from Hampton Court to Whitehall 
to stay all winter with the whole Court. Being very welcome to the 
tradesmen of all that part of the City, which extremely did miss the 
whole Court. 

The Common Council of London did give Sir John Brown for 
his faithful services ^500 per aim. The King made him then Major 

His Majesty wrote a letter to Lord Mayor and Justices of Over and 
Terminer for the welcome of the Queen to Westminster to release all 
quakers or such as go in the name of separationists now in gaol in 
London and Middlesex for being at unlawful! assemblies, who yet 
profess all obedience and allegiance unto us, and have not been indicted 
for refusing the Oath of Allegiance nor shall appear to them to have 
been ring leaders or preachers at their assemblies to be enlarged. 
Given at Hampton Court this 22 nd day of August 1662. By his 
Majesty's command. 

Edward Nicholas. 

Many ministers about London refused to subscribe and read the 
book of Common Prayer according to the new Act for Uniformity. 

Some fanatics about London Bridge disturbed the Ministers in 
reading the Book of Common Prayer in tore the same in the church of 
in Southwark side. 

Divers coiners of gold and silver discovered in London. 

Spaniards received a great loss in a several places with two of their 

* Blank in MS. 


Governors by the. Portugal, and are from thence retreated and lost those 
places which they had took and fortified. 

p. 116. 

Sept. ai. On Sunday about a post noon died D r John Gauden, 
Bishop of Worcester, that most exellent, leaned, eloquent, pious and 
indefatigable preacher, who came to Worcester August 5 th to his 
church, and died September ai st , so he was in all but 7 weeks and 
5 days in his see. He fell sick Sept. n of a kernels as big as walnuts 
grown on either side his bladder, which stopped the passage of the 
urine and made him fall into a fever, and died the 21 st and was buried 
in the Cathedral on the 29"", S l Michael's day, by the Dean of the 

26. On the 26 th the Prince of Denmark came to Oxford to see the 
University, but stayed only one night as he passed. 

Oct. Sir Edward Nicholas, secretary to his Majesty, being aged 
and tired with long services abroad during the King's banishment out 
of his kingdom, surrendered his place. Sir Henry Bennett made 
Secretary, being an able gentleman, and once Leiger ambassador in 

The King, to gratify his old servant, gave him ^10,000, made him 
a privy councillor, and offered him an English barony, which he 
refused ; the King being very tender to bestow any such honours. 

Sir Charles Berkeley made keeper of the privy purse, who is gentle- 
man of the bedchamber to Duke of York and Deputy Governor under 
him of Portsmouth. 

Nov. A great plot discovered to assissinate the King and all the 
Royal family, Duke of Albemarle, and Sir Richard Brown. 

/> "7- 

Nov. 8. Christian, Prince of Denmark, was installed Knight of 
the Garter at Whitehall, the King putting on the George and ribbon 
about the Prince's neck, and the Duke of York, assisted by Prince 
Rupert, put the garter on the left leg. 

10. Sheriffs chosen and pricked by his Majesty. 

15. Was the birthday of Mary, Queen-mother and dowager of 
England, and Katharine, present Queen to Charles the Second. Two 
most eminent princesses of their time. 

Mem. there was this month a devout lady at court at Whitehall 
being with child was in her closet at her private devotions at one 

* Thomas Warmstry. 


morning with a wax candle burning before her, and being troubled with 
fits of the mother and some convulsive fits did command her servant to 
come up, when she rang her bell. But her infirmity seizing on her 
suddenly could not do it, and so fell on her breast on the wax candle, 
which so burnt her that it killed both her and her child. 

26. The Russian ambassador received in great pomp into London, 
all the trained bands Horse and foot in arms, the Companies in their 
liveries, and Mayor and aldermen in their gallantry. He brought a 
present (as it is said) worth j J 100,000, 3 ships lading with cordage, 
and 8 cast of Hawks. 

Dec. 7. D 1 John Earle, Dean of Westminster, consecrated at 
Westminster Bishop of Worcester. 

22. Executed 4 of the traitors in the late plot, viz., Tong, Phillips, 
Gibbs and Stubbs at Tyburn, being hanged, drawn and quartered. 
The King gave liberty for their carcases to be buried, only heads 
hanged up. 

p. 118. 

Dec. 27. M r * , a merchant in Lothbury in 

London, had his house casually in fire about 2 of the clock in the 
morning, and it being a brick building burnt so all inward that he 
and his wife, great with child, and all his family, being 3 in number, 
were all burnt to death, and all his goods except some copper. Another 
merchant, who lay in his house and to be married that week and parted 
that night from his mistress at 12 of the clock, was also burnt. 

A declaration set forth by his Majesty to vindicate himself from 
four aspersions, viz. : i. To endeavour an abolition of the Act of 
Oblivion. 2. To govern by military power. 3. Breach of his promise 
for toleration of liberty of conscience. 4. For punishing them and 
tolerating other sects, as papists. 

Jan. One M r Edward Calamy, a famous presbyterian preacher, 
who might have been Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield and refused, 
was committed by Sir John Robinson, Mayor of London, to Newgate 
upon the Act of Uniformity for preaching without license of the Bishop 
of London in his late church of S* Mary, Aldermanbury. 

Earl of Norwich, Captain of his Majesty's guards, died at Brain- 
ford, an old servant and sufferer for the crown. 

* Gibbs, brother to Gibbs that was executed, was taken, 

committed to the Tower. 

31. Archibald Johnson Lord Wariston brought out of France and 
committed to the Tower for his treasons. 

Blank in MS. 


p. II 9 . 

Feb. D r Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln, died, a learned and painful 
scholar and casuist, the D r Lancy, Bishop of Peterborough, to be his 

9. The Parliament of Paris being informed that the Sorbonnists 
were about to maintain these propositions, viz. : 

i. That the pope is infallible. 

a. That he might judge every one and not be judged by any. 

3. That he had power to revoke all privileges, and among the rest, 
those granted to the kingdom of France. 

Sent an arrest to the Dean and faculty of Sorbonne to acquaint 
them with the resolves of Parliament that they should not only for the 
present desist from such kinds of arguments, but should enter it into 
another register lest any should presume for the future to maintain the 
like. The Dean upon the sudden gave no other answer than, That 
they would deliberate seriously on it and return their determination to 
the Parliament. 

18. The Parliament met again at Westminster according to 
adjournment, the King and Queen present. 

7. A servant of the Russian Ambassador being in a mercer's shop 
cheapning silk and stuffs, at last stole a piece under his gown and 
went his way ; the tradesman suddenly missing the same and per- 
ceiving it under his coat somewhat shewed thick went after him 
to his lodging. So housing him, the mercer went to the ambassador 
to demand money for the silk his servant bought of him, he answered 
he knew nothing of it nor given any such command. But he would 
call all his servants in and then he should see which it was, so all 
being called this servant came in with the rest, and the mercer said he 
was the man. The ambassador demanded of his servant whether he 

p. 1 20. 

took such a piece of silk, stood little amazed, and could not well deny. 
So he was bid to fetch it, which done, the ambassador invited the 
mercer to dinner to come some five days after, and then he should have 
full reparation, which he did. And at the second course there was 
presented his servant's head in a charger. And then the ambassador 
told that this was the law in their country and bade him take it for 
satisfaction with his goods again. Great and strange justice. 

It is said that a mercer in Chiapside, to whom the Duke of Buck- 
ingham owed j J 2ooo for silks, came to the Duke's steward for his 
money very often, but at last he was so importunate that the steward 


told the Duke that the man would not go without it. " No," saith 
he, " bring him to me," who coming into his presence the Duke 
desired forbearance, who answered he was an undone man if he had 
not his money, his creditors calling upon him. " Sirrah, begone," 
but the man still pleading, the Duke drew his rapier and ran at him, 
and he striking the weapon down so that he only ran it in his thigh. 
Upon which going his way he presently petitioned the King, who 
reading it sent for the Duke and bade him read it, who did, and the 
King demanded whether it was true, who making a slender excuse the 
King then did command him presently to pay him the said debt of 
^?2ooo and ^100 damage for his loss and damage. An excellent 
piece of justice. 

The Hollanders assailing the city of Cochin in East Indies, although 
they after 6 assaults entered the city, yet the Portuguese drawing up in 
a body did so defend themselves that they killed many and forced the 
rest to their ships to their great loss. 

One M r Richard Lane, the King's servant, commanded by his 
Majesty and confined to the Isle of Jersey for writing drolling letters to 
some friends touching my Lady Ca . m, a favourite to his Majesty 
which was deeply resented. 

p. 121. 

Feb. 33. Baker and Gibbs, the 2 traitors against his Majesty, 
executed at Tyburn. 

On 4 th of October last Lord Windsor, Governor of Jamaica, with 
1000 foot soldiers in some 12 ships fell upon the town of S' Jago in 
the Isle of Cuba, 20 leagues from Jamaica in West Indies, which did 
much infest Jamaica. Took the same by force, and after seized on 
castle and forts and blockhouses. Took therein 34 brass pieces and 
iron ordnance, whereof 4 brass demi culverins are brought to the 
Tower. 1000 barrels of powder, whereof 700 was spent in blowing up 
the castle and destroying the works, which cost ^100,000, the King 
of Spain lately building, who had 2000 soldiers in it when the assault 
was made. 

The Isle of Cuba is reputed near to be 1000 miles in length. And 
now there are no Sanctuary for disturbers within 80 leagues of Jamaica 
to hinder their plantations. 

Lord Windsor himself is come over and gave this narrative to his 
Majesty, who was with the whole Court very well pleased and satisfied 
with the great service. 

March. Hierom Weston, Earl of Portland, died. A privy councillor. 



One Morin, a Frenchman, burnt at Paris for holding himself to be 
Jesus Christ, and his book called Morin's thoughts. 

April 3. Carey, Viscount Falkland, an ingenuous gentleman, died 
at London, being a member of the House of Commons in Parliament. 

p. iaa. 

April 4. Df Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury, and D r Sheldon, 
Bishop of London, sworn privy councillors, being the first Bishops 
since the beginning of the late troubles and long Parliament that were 
received into the Privy Council. 

April 7. Count de Comminges, Ambassador from the King of 
France, had audience at Whitehall. 

Rest of page Hank, 
pp. 123 126 I' lank. 
p. 137 erasures, 
pp. 128 131 blank. 


Townshend was in Worcester during the whole time of the 
siege in 1646. So far as is known his Journal contains the 
fullest account there is of it. But this consists of a series 
of entries, without any arrangement, scattered throughout the 
volume. An attempt has here been made to collect these entries 
into a consecutive narrative, and thus to present as clear an 
account as possible of this very important incident in Wor- 
cestershire History, an incident which, strange to say, is to a 
great extent forgotten. 

In the winter 1645-6 Charles' position was almost desperate, 
and as time went on became worse. On March 14, 1646, 
Hopton surrendered, and resistance in the west was practically 
at an end. Glamorgan's scheme to bring over troops from 
Ireland had miscarried, and the Queen's negotiations with the 
Scots had been betrayed. The King's last hope remained in the 
force which Lord Astley had been able to collect from the Mid- 
land garrisons to march to his relief at Oxford. At Donnington, 
about two miles north of Stow-on-the-Wold, and three miles 
from the Worcestershire boundary, Astley's men were sur- 
rounded by the united forces of Brereton, Morgan and Birch, 
and after a gallant resistance obliged to surrender. This was 
on the 2 ist March 1646. After this date there was no 
regular Royalist force in the field ; all that the King had left 
were a few garrisoned towns and castles, one of which was 
Worcester. It was only a question how long these garrisons 
would consider they were bound by the obligations of honour 
and loyalty to continue to hold out. 

The Governor of Worcester was Col. Henry Washington. 
He had a garrison of about 1 500 soldiers of all sorts, and in 


addition a certain number of county gentlemen, with all the 
trained bands of the City, so that it may be safely said that the 
total strength of Washington's garrison was something under 
2000. They had not long to wait for the enemy ; the battle 
of Donnington was fought on the 2ist March. It is about 
30 miles from Worcester. 

Brereton sent off" his prisoners to Gloucester, and set out for 
Worcester. On the 26th March he arrived at Red Hill, on 
the east side the city at the junction of the Alcester and Per- 
shore Roads. The Parliament force was some 2500 strong. 
Townshend thus describes it : 

p. 686. 

" Mem. Sir W. Brereton, Col 1 Morgan and Col 1 Birch, with about 
2500 foot and horse, faced the city of Worcester upon the a6 th of 
March 1646, and sent a trumpeter with a summons to deliver the city 
the summons as is hereafter written, and the Governor's answer and 
their reply." 

p. 687. 

The Summons of Sir William Brereton for delivery of the 

City of Worcester. 

Our tender care and neighbourly affection to your welfare, and 
care to prevent that ruin that hath fallen upon other places which have 
obstinately refused good Conditions and have had far greater hopes of 
relief than your selves (there being now not any appearance of any 
Army in the west, or elsewhere within this kingdom, but what have 
submitted to the Parliament, or are already their prisoners) hath moved 
us to send you this summons, to let you know that you may prevent 
your houses from spoil, your estates from ruin, your persons from 
restraint, the effusion of blood, and such other miseries as inevitably 
will fall upon yourselves, your wives and children (if the Lord have so 
great mercy for you and your City), by timely submitting to the two 
Houses of Parliament. In whose name we now require this from you, 
and that you deliver the City and forts into our hands for the use of the 
King and Parliament, which it you shall do, we shall willingly secure 
unto you any of your reasonable desires; But in case otherwise, and 
that misery follows, The cause of it may not be imputed unto those 


/>. 688. 

who desire your preservation, not your destruction. And (expecting 
your speedy Answer) rest Your Servants, 

March 35*", 1646. Willm. Brereton. 

To the Mayor, Governor, Tho. Morgan. 

Aldermen and Citizens John Birch, 

of Worcester. 

The Answer of the Governor, etc. 

If the Arguments you give us for the delivery of this City and 
Forts were true, In all likelihood we should (before this time) have 
received his Majesty's further pleasure, And until we do, we shall take 
no notice of any summons; But according to our duty and the trust 
reposed in us we shall (God willing) keep this town. 

Your Servants, 

Worcester, this 26 th of March 1646. Hen. Washington. 

For Sir William Brereton, Willm. Evett, Mayor. 

Col. Morgan, and Martin Sandys. 

Col. Birch. John Knotsford. 

Tho. Hackett. 
Rich. Hemming. 

p. 689. 

The Reply. 

We know no cause you should question the truth of our 
Intelligence, which we assure you is in every part thereof most true, 
and therefore to the end you may more fully inform yourselves therein, 
We will draw our Forces to such a convenient distance, as that you 
may gain more certain Intelligence; and then we cannot doubt but 
that you will better understand yourselves, which if it be done within a 
few days you may expect the performance of what was tendered ; if 
otherwise, what ever misery befals your City must be imputed to your- 
selves, and not to your Servants, 

March 26'" 1646. Willm. Brereton. 

To the Governor, Mayor, Tho. Morgan. 

Aldermen and Citizens John Birch. 

of Worcester. William Lygon. 

Chudley Coote. 


/. 690. 

The Governor's Letter. 

It is much my wonder that I am fallen into so unlucky a mis- 
take with you to have lost so far the Honour and knowledge of a 
soldier as that it might be hoped I could yield to an Enemy so far 
inferior to me in Number, besides which my Conscience to God and 
Allegiance to my King oblige me, I owe so much to my Reputation 
which I gained, and must hereafter maintain abroad, when these wars 
shall cease, as not to be persuaded to the least unworthy action. I am 
confident you will with all industry pursue your designs, and have the 
same opinion, that I will no way neglect mine; yet still with that 
civility which shall become Your Servant, 

March 26, 1646. Hen. Washington. 

For Sir William Brereton, 
Col. Morgan, and 
Col. Birch. 

With this correspondence the matter ended for a time. In 
pursuance of the promise in his letter Brereton retired next day, 
27th March, to Droitwich. There had been a little skirmishing 
between the garrison and his men. Townshend thus describes it : 

p. 686. 

"They drew off at night to Droitwich. 

" In pickering 2 of ours and 3 of theirs taken and exchanged civilly 
and one of theirs shot with a heavy culverin. 

" Mar. 27, 1646. 2 scouts taken.* 

"28. They inarched away from Droitwich, Sir William Brereton, 
to the siege of Lichfield with some forces, and Col 1 Morgan and the 
rest into their own garrisons." 

The Parliament force having drawn off, Washington appears 
to have taken some steps to put Worcester in a state of defence. 
Townshend states : 

3O th March 1646. The new Church and Hospital of S' Oswald's, 
near the city, utterly demolished, though the soldiers could forbear the 
defacing of a strong stone building near it of Mr. Summers of White 
Ladies, wherein may be lodged 500 men in security and as it is thought 
by being remembered." 

* In MS. "and an officer," but struck out. One report says that Birch had his horse 
shot under him. 


While this display of force by Brereton had taken place at 
Worcester, events were moving rapidly with the King. On the 
23rd March the news of the Donnington defeat reached Oxford. 
Charles at once sent a message to Parliament, asking to be 
allowed to return to London and for a general act of oblivion. 
On the 26th March the Commons replied, refusing the proposal 
unless they had some security. To this reply the Lords and 
the Scotch Commissioners agreed. On April ist it was sent to 
the King at Oxford. Meanwhile Charles had begun secret nego- 
tiations with the Scotch, which dragged on for some time. 

On the gth April Exeter surrendered and matters looked 
hopeless. Fairfax was now free to advance on Oxford. 
This the King realized. On the 26th April Charles took 
leave of his Council ; on the 2yth April he left Oxford 
on his journey to the Scots camp, and on the 5th May he 
arrived at Southwell, and from this time ceased to be a free 

Washington knew that Worcester was only respited for a 
time. He at once began his preparations for a siege. 
His first step was to ascertain the number of persons in the 
city, and the provision each family had made in case of a siege. 
The city was then divided for all local government purposes 
into seven wards : 


St. Martin's. 

All Saints'. 

St. Andrew's. 

St. Nicholas'. 

St. Peter's. 

St. Michael's in the out county. 

This division was a very ancient one. It is found as far 
back as the end of the thirteenth century, and was now used to 


obtain the information as to the householders, their families, 
and the stock of provisions. 
The return is as follows : 

P- 755- 

Apr. 15, 1646. 

An abstract of the number of Householders, the number in family, 
and what quantity of monthly provision every one hath ready against a 

siege to be against the city of Worcester. 


Highward. Provided 189 . . 49 24 54 05 01 35 
Householders persons in family 
Unprovided and poor . 024 
In family . . . 080 

All Saints' Ward. Provided 290. 92 84 52 16 07 34 
Householders persons in said families 1459 
Unprovided and poor . 056 
In families . . 232 

S* Andrew's Ward. Provided 161. 103 30 27 01 01 04 
Householders persons in family 259 
Unprovided and poor . 113 
Persons in families . 259 

P- 754- 

S l Martin's. Provided 188 . . 61 69 46 15 oo 20 
Householders persons in family 1030 
Unprovided . . . 092 
Persons in family . .271 

S l Peter's. Provided 114 . 19 35 46 24 03 17 

Householders persons in family 599 
Unprovided . . . 073 
Persons in family . . 285 

Provided 047 . . n 13 08 01 oo 10 
Persons in family 248 

Unprovided and poor ) , 
Without particular names/ 


P- 753- 

So that there is in 

I 2 3436 

Householders Provided 989 . 335 252 233 62 12 120 

In their families . . 1189 

Unprovided and poor . 0358 

In their families . . 1487 

Householders of all sorts 1347 persons. 
Number in family, 
beside the Highward imperfect 

Beside S' Michael's parish without 
the Liberty of the City unmentioned. 

Mem. there is no mention of the number of soldiers within the 
Garrison, Horse or Foot, nor provisions for them. 

Soldiers, officers, Reformadoes, troopers, upon list delivered May 
29, 1646. 1507 persons to be provided for. 

Washington was none too soon in making his preparations. 
On the 1 9th April there was some fighting outside Worcester ; 
one of the men killed was buried at Kidderminster. In the 
Register of Burials is the entry : 

"John Jones, a Parliament soldier, slain in the skirmish at 

While the preparations for the siege were being made, some of 
the gentlemen who were in the city, who saw the hopelessness of 
things, left the place and went home. Townshend states : 

" Many gentlemen went out before the siege to stay at home." 

On ist May Fairfax began his investment of Oxford. 

On the 6th May Banbury surrendered. Fairfax having now 
a moveable force at his disposal, sent a part to see what could 
be done with Worcester. This force, under the command of 

* Burton's " Kidderminster," p. 217. 



Col. Whalley, was ordered " to straiten the garrison of Wor- 
cester until such time as the army was at liberty to march 
against it." 

Morgan with his force now returned to the county. On the 
1 4th May he summoned Hartlebury Castle. What follows is 
thus described by Townshend : 
p. 686. 

The 14"' May 1646 Col 1 Morgan summoned Hartlebury castle, 
wherein Cap* William Sandys was governor, and therein was Lord 
Windsor, Col 1 Samuel Sandys, late Governor of Worcester, M r Ander- 
son his brother, Lady Sandys his mother, and some other Gentlemen, 
and 120 foot soldiers and 40 Horse. A place which put the Country 
to an excessive Charge the fortifying by the Covetousness of the 
Governor and Officers there and was made very strong, being situated 
on a Rock and a Huge Moat, provision and ammunition for 12 months. 
For the Governor had so sharked the County thereabouts, that for beef, 
malt, Hay and bacon he lived in free cost. Yet he most poorly and 
cowardly, without a shot, delivered it up within 2 days, being the i6 th 
May. And some say he had given for to deliver the same ^"3000. 
The Conditions of surrender were poor and mean. 

Somewhere about this time rumours of the King's surrender 
to the Scots appear to have reached the Worcester garrison. They 
were greatly disturbed, and at length resolved to send a letter to 
Ashburnham, the King's confidential adviser, to ascertain the 
facts. The letter was sent on the i3th May by a special mes- 
senger, " An. Ed." Townshend states the following : 

p. 692. 

His Majesty went out of Oxford 27th April 1646 in disguise as 
M r Ashburnham's servant and M r Hudson the minister only to the 
Scots Army before Newark and discovered himself the 5 th of May. 
This action of his Majesty, and the Enemy lying so near us, it was 
hence thought fit to acquaint his Majesty and to know his pleasure ; 
whereupon this letter was sent by the Governor and Commissioners to 
M r Ashburnham by a messenger, An. Ed. 

Sir. The various reports that are spread here concerning his 
Majesty's journey into the North, and his Condition there have bred a 
great distraction among the Common sort in this place. We therefore 

ANNALS. 107 

pray you to let us know the. truth by a speedy return of this bearer. 
And if we may likewise receive his Majesty's particular directions, 
which shall be observed to the uttermost of our powers. 
Worcester, 13 th May 1646. 

No answer, so far as appears, was sent to this request ; at 
least none appears in the Townshend papers. As matters were 
becoming threatening Washington prepared for the worst. 

On the 1 6th May Fairfax sent from his head-quarters at 
Headington, near Oxford, a formal summons to Washington to 
surrender Worcester. It was sent to Whalley at Hartlebury, 
who having there joined Morgan, united their forces and 
marched on to Worcester. They reached it on the 2Oth May. 
Townshend's account of this is : 
p. 693. 

Col. Morgan having Hartlebury Castle delivered up without shot 
(having Ammunition and provision fora year) the i6 th of May 1646, Col. 
Whalley came to him with some Regiments and the 2o th both came 
before Worcester with 25 Colours of foot, about one of the Clock in 
the afternoon ; And at 4 sent a Trumpeter with the letters and sum- 
mons following : 

Sir. At the command of his Excellency we have sent you the 
enclosed, and your answer within 2 hours is expected by 

May 20, 1646. Your servants, 

For Col. Washington, Gov r Ed. Whalley. 

of Worcester. Tho. Morgan. 

The Answer. 

I have here inclosed an answer to your General's summons, 
And within the time proposed to 

Your servant, 
Henry Washington. 

The Summons. 

Sir. I do hereby summon you to deliver up the City of Worcester 
for the use of the Parliament, upon which, you and those with you may 
receive Honourable terms. If you refuse you must not expect the same 
conditions hereafter. 

Heddington, 16 Your servant > 

May, 1646. T - Fairfax " 


p. 6 94 . 

Ihe Answer. 

Sir. It is acknowledged in your books and by report out of your 
own quarters, That the King is in some of your Armies. That granted, 
It may be easy for you to procure his Majesty's Commands for the 
dispose of this Garrison. Till then, I shall make good the trust 
reposed in me. As for conditions, If I shall be necessitated, I shall 
make the best I can. The worst I know, and fear not. If I had, the 
profession of a soldier had not been begun or so long continued by 

Your excellency's Humble servant, 
xx th May 1646. Hen. Washington. 

The Parliament army having marched from Hartlebury 
down the road from Kidderminster to Worcester, arrived before 
Worcester on 2oth May, and took up a position to the north- 
east, their right resting on Barbourne and their left extending 
along the hills to the east of the city, almost to Red Hill, this 
high ground completely commanding the city. There is very 
little account of the work done by the Parliament in erecting 
batteries or siege works. Some were certainly made. 

Washington took immediate steps to put his troops in hand, 
and made the following order dealing with the pay : 

p. 685. 

Upon the Enemy's approach before the City of Worcester, May 
the 2o th , It was thought fit by the Governor, Commissioners, and 
Mayor for the present Relief of the soldier and for their Encourage- 
ment, that the City should be taxed with all Gentlemen in the Garrison 
for the support of 1500 men at 3" per week, the 26 th May, for a month. 
But finding in Calculating the Tax it was so heavy a pressure, it was 
reduced, May ag th , to 2" vj d per week a soldier, foot and Horse. As for 
the Officers, it was left to the Governor's discretion out of the sur- 
plusage of billets to support them. And that the soldier is to default 
it out of his month's pay* the 38 and so forward, if the City be relieved, 
for satisfaction. 

That every officer shall deliver a true muster of all his soldiers and 
their names. Nor no one to pay any Billet but to him or them, whose 
names are written and signed by the Assessors. 

* "June " is written in the margin of the MS. 


Whalley's arrival on the 2oth May before Worcester was 
the beginning of the siege. Whalley himself was on Wheeler's 
Hill, near Elbury Wood. His men made themselves huts on 
the ground they occupied. 

Whalley, on the 24th May, sent a further summons to the 
city, not only in the name of the Military Commander, but also 
of certain members of the County Parliamentary Committee. 

. 694. 

Another Summons was sent to the Mayor, Aldermen and Com- 
mon Council of the City of Worcester by Col. Whalley and the 
Committee as followeth : 


We cannot but wonder that you should be such enemies to 
yourselves, City and Country as to be woful authors of theirs and your 
own miseries. Oxford hath been upon Parley there 2 or 3 days ; that 
being reduced, you are the only City, nay Garrison Town that troubles 
the peace of this kingdom, And therefore to be looked upon and dealt 
withal as the Grand Enemies of this State. The Golden Sceptre is yet 
held out unto you, mercy and honourable terms tendered. If you 

p. 695. 

neglect your opportunity, though Enemies for present, yet as English- 
men and Country-men we tell you, you will not have the like offered. 
Our soldiers would fain be trading with you ; you will find them but ill 
Customers. A month's pay to the whole Army both of Horse and 
Foot will scarce keep them out of your shops and Houses. We have 
not that Army now before you, as within these few days we are like to 
have by many thousands. And therefore leave it to your consideration 
whether the present surrendering the City unto his Excellency Sir Tho. 
Fairfax for the Parliament be not likely to save you many thousands of 
Pounds. Were there possibility of relief for you, we should not think 
it civil to write unto you as we do, but you knowing there is none, we 
cannot but deem it more than folly in you to refuse good Terms now 
you may have them. We are if you please 

May 24 th , Your friends and Servants, 

1646. Tho. Rouse. Edw. Whalley. 

To the Mayor, Aldermen Jo. Egioke. William Dingley. 

and Common Council Edw. Smith. Hen. Hunt. 

of the City of Worcester. Tho. Milward. William Moore. 


p. 696. 

The Answer of the Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council 

of the City of Worcester. 

We are much troubled in our thoughts concerning our late 
summons and this your request for the surrendering the City for the 
Parliament only. What the meaning should be. Why the King is 
not made a party according to the usual form and style of King and 
Parliament ; we for our parts may not forget, nor forgoe our Allegiance 
and special duty, that we do owe unto his Majesty. For besides that 
general Allegiance, whereunto all his good subjects are obliged, we are 
become bound in a particular Oath of Fealty in point of Tenure, 
whereby we hold this city of his Majesty. And if we should willingly 
and without his leave deliver up the same (which is not in our power to 
do) we should commit a double perjury, the one of Allegiance, the 
other of Fealty. And therefore if you are (as you profess to be) our 
Friends, In case we can obtain leave of our Governor, which we will 
endeavour to do (no way interrupting the proceedings of either party 
for the Governor will not hear of a cessation), we desire Liberty of 
you to send to know his Majesty's pleasure herein, And if you please 
to grant a pass for such Gentlemen as we shall think fit for that 

p. 697. 

purpose, we shall then be able to give you a positive Resolution 

to your Demands. 

May 26 th , Your friends and servants, 

1646. Rich. Hemming. William Evett, Mayor. 

TotheHon bl Col.Whalley Edw. Soley. John Cowcher. 

and the rest of the Committee Tho. Hackett. 

of Parliament for the County Roger Gouch. 
of Worcester. 

The Reply to the Answer of the Mayor, Aldermen, etc. 

Had you been as much troubled at the King's Voluntary 
deserting and his unnatural fighting against the Parliament, as you 
pretend to be for his Excellency Sir Tho. Fairfax his not uniting them 
in his Summons, Nor we in our letter, you would not have had such a 
trouble upon you as you now have. We leave it to his Excellency to 
satisfy you in that any the rest of your scruples. And shall serve you 
thus far as to send to him to know his pleasure, whether he will give 


you leave to send to his Majesty according to your desire. For that 
Parathensis in your letter (the Governor will not hear of a cessation) it 
might very well have been left out, for assure yourselves that will never 
be granted either him or you, so long as your City Colours are dis- 
played, nor till you be reduced to the obedience of the Parliament. 

p. 698. 

And since, as your countrymen, we have begun to advise you, we 
will add this to our former Premonitions; if his Excellency be so 
favourable as to give you leave to send to his Majesty for his Resolu- 
tion, post away, for before the return of your messenger your debts will 
be very much augmented, and the score lengthened with the soldier; 
you will rind true what we writ before, very suddenly you will have some 
thousands, both Horse and foot, more to pay at the last Close, than 
now you may have. We rest 

Your friends and servants, 

May 27"', 1646. Tho. Rouse. Edw. Whalley. 

For the Mayor, Dan. Dobbins. Will. Lygon. 

Aldermen and Hen. Hunt. Edw. Smith. 

Common Council Tho. Milward. W m Collins, 

of the City of Worcester. Will. Moore. 

The Mayor himself returned an answer by word to the drummer, 
that he should forbear bringing any such summons, that he will draw 
out and fight with them, if they will, and leave men enough to man the 
City beside. 

Washington meanwhile went very carefully over his 
resources, as the following Table as to strength of the gar- 
rison shews : 

p. 683. 

A Particular of the number of soldiers charged upon every Ward to 
be paid a* 6 d a week for a month. 



S' Martin's 

All Saints' 

S l Andrew's 

S' Nicholas' 

S' Peter's 

S' Michael's in the Out County 



p. 684. 
Col. Washington's Regiment. 
May 29 th , 1646. 

Governor's Company. 
Inferior Officers . .11"! 
Soldiers . -95-1 

Sir. W. Russell's Regiment. 

Sir Wm. Russell's Company. 
Officers . . .071 
Soldiers . . 63 / 7 

Lieut. Col. Hurston . 
Soldiers . 

54 / 


L. Col. Goffe . 
Soldiers . 

. 06 j 
. 42 / 


Major Grey 
Soldiers . 

06 j 
44 J 



Soldiers . 

. 061 
. 43 J 


Capt. Norwood . 





Soldiers . 

45 / 


Soldiers . 

. 38/ 


Capt. Bellamy . 



Calthrop . 



Soldiers . 

38 J 


Soldiers . 

. 24 J 


Capt. Robinson . 



Poultney . 

. 061 

Soldiers . 

36 / 


Soldiers . 

. 3 6/ 


Capt. Armourer . 

5 1 



. 051 

Soldiers . 


Soldiers . 



Col. Knotsford . 


Soldiers . 

36 / 


Capt. Dormer . 

05 1 

Soldiers . . 

^o J 







" ) 
Soldiers . . 440) 



. 280) 





Major Moore 



Soldiers . 

. 6iJ 

Capt. Byron 

. 061 

Soldiers . 



I Officers . 


Capt. Wm. Moore 

' \ 

_ o _ 

Soldiers . 

f 272 
240] ' 

Soldiers . 

. 7 6f 


Lieut. Raynsford 
Soldiers . 

. 081 
58 / 




3 Regiments in [Officers*] . 





. 127 





. 960 


* This word is struck out in MS. 

ANNALS. 113 

f. 68 7 . 

Reformado Gentlemen . . . . . .120 

Cannoniers and Mattrosses 058 

For the Horse. 

Governor's Troop 51 

Hen. Ingram, Eq r , High Sheriff . . . .71 
Sir Jo. Knotsford ....... 32 

Capt. Armorer 17 

L. Col. Roberts 19 


Officers of the Staff .... .18 

Sum tot. of all sorts of soldiery . . 1507 men. 
Beside the Gentlemen and all ") 
the City Bands. J 

This gives a good idea of the strength of the garrison and 
how it was distributed. Except incidentally there does not appear 
in the Townshend papers any account of what defence works 
Washington had made, nor about his artillery or any details as to 
the investment of the city. 

The Parliament force was now settled down in front of 
Worcester, and the siege had fairly begun. Morgan appears to 
have been of opinion that the siege could be carried out with less 
men than he had under him, so on the 2ist May he marched 
his men off to Gloucester, leaving as the besieging force 
Whalley's Brigade alone. For some time they conducted the 
siege. The place was not at the time fully invested ; the 
besieging force merely occupied Elbury Hill, where they not 
only erected huts but also some batteries. 

Townshend thus describes the first days of the siege : 
/>. 701. 
Daily passages since May 21 st , 1646, at the Leager before Worcester. 

May 21. Col 1 Morgan marched away with all his men to Glou- 

114 ANNALS. 

Col 1 Whalley encamped on Wheeler's Hill near Elbury Woods, and 
made Hutts. 

A sally out by 4 of our Horse, which alarmed the enemy, who drew 
down some 60 Horse and too foot. Slight skirmish, and coming 
within the reach of our cannon killed 10 and about ia hurt of their foot, 
i Horse taken, none of ours hurt or taken. 

May the 22 and 23. Nothing but some foot in the ditches pottering 
at another. A parley for the delivery of Oxford, but broke off. 

34. About 7 at night a strong sally, with 50 horse, fell on their 
foot that lined the hedges and were stationed about Roger's Hill, beat 
their guard there back, and killed and hurt at least 40. 2 of ours killed 
and 3 hurt, 3 taken. 

25. A summons sent to the Mayor, Aldermen and Common 
Council of the City.* 

36. The answer returned. 

May 26. The enemy began to draw a line round about the House 
at Roger's Hill with Sconces, redoubts, etc., and to cross the lane towards 
Wheeler's Hill and so round again for their security to lodge in and to 
draw nearer the city. 

An assessment^ [enforced] throughout the garrison at 3" a week for 
the maintenance of every soldier for the continuance of one month for 

p. 702. 

1600 soldiers and officers in proportion. Whereof I am assessed to 
maintain 4 men, which assessment the citizens conceive to be a very 
great and heavy tax. The soldiers muttering and ready to run away for 
want of bread and provisions. 

The garrison seem to have been discouraged by the news 
they received of the surrender of Ludlow Castle on the 27th. 
Birch had marched away from Droitwich on March 28th to his 
garrison at Hereford. On the 24th April he invested Ludlow, 
which he was ordered by Parliament to reduce. It offered a strong 
resistance. Birch had to send to Gloucester for a battering train. 
An attempt was made to relieve it by a force which included a 
large part of the garrison of Madresfield. They were, however, 
beaten off. Woodhouse, the Governor, then tried with his horse 
to break out, but failing, agreed to surrender at the end of May 

* This summons and the reply are given at pp. 109, no and in. 
t See ante p. 112. \ See ante p. 102. 

ANNALS. 115 

if not relieved. On this Birch himself went away, but Wood- 
house refused to surrender to anyone but him in person. Birch 
then returned on May 2Oth, and Ludlow surrendered. Its im- 
portance in the siege of Worcester was setting free the investing 
force of Ludlow to take part in the operations before Worcester. 
Townshend thus notices the surrender of Ludlow : 

p. 702. 

May 27. This day the strong castle of Ludlow and town was basely 
delivered up by Sir Michael Woodhouse, governor, against the minds 
of most of the better sort of officers and Townsmen. 

A reply sent by Col 1 Whalley and the Committee to the Mayor and 
Aldermen's answer.* 

The next incident was favourable to the besieged. 

May 28. All the enemy's Hutts were casually set on fire, the wind 
being strong west by north, and one Cap' drunk, burnt about 9 at night. 

29. A parley renewed at Oxford. 

Col 1 Whalley returned an answer to the City's desire in their first 
answer* of summons, 26 May, about 9 at night. The Mayor returned 
a verbal answer about 2 of the clock.f 

p. 699. Saturday. 

May 30. Col. Whalley, about ten of the clock at night, sent a 
drummer with a letter as a full answer to the Mayor, etc., first Answer 
to his first Summons : 


We have, according to our promise, presented his Excellency 
Sir T. Fairfax with your desires of sending to his Majesty, And 
received this answer : That he will not condescend to your requests, 
Having denied the same to the Governor and your Brethren at Oxford. 
The Truth is, You being now the only Troublers of this Kingdom 
deserve to be dealt withal in an exemplary way, even to be made a prey 
to the soldiers. Your persuasions that you may have good Terms at 
any time are but self-deceiving thoughts, And such as will prove 
destructive to yourselves and the City. You proclaim yourselves 
soldiers, Therefore without speedy submission to the Parliament you 
must not expect other than soldiers' conditions, which are usually to 

* See ante p. :io. 

t It is stated in the MS. " Memd. All the summons and answers to this day are written 
in the foregoing leaves together." 


march away with their wearing apparel. We do not Jest when we 
tell you we have Thousands more of forces at your Charge coming to 
visit you. If you still remain perverse we shall think you are destinated 
to destruction, And shall only pity those who through Ignorance are 
enslaved under your Tyranny. 

p. 700. 

The parley at Oxford was renewed yesterday, And be fully assured 
your singularity in holding out will both incense the Parliament and 
soldiers against you to your utter ruin, if not timely prevented by your 
submission to their Clemency. 

Your friends and servants, 

Tho. Rouse. Edw. Whalley. 

May 3o th , 1646. Edw. Smith. W. Lygon. 

To Mayor, Aldermen and Com- Hen. Hunt. W. Collins, 

mon Council of the City of Tho. Milward. 


About 2 of the Clock at night The Mayor did send away the 
drummer with this verbal answer, That he wished him not to come 
again, That since his General nor Sir Thomas Fairfax would not 
yield that he should send to the King, he will keep the City until the 
King comes himself and commands him. 

This last letter defective in several particulars, For in their letter of 
Reply, May 27 th , they promised Sir Thomas Fairfax should satisfy them 
in all their scruples, which he hath not done at all, nor sent to them par- 
ticularly therein ; only denied their desires to send to know his Majesty's 
pleasure, as they affirm. So that this last of theirs is rather a summons 
of terror than satisfaction in anything whereby a parley may be pro- 
duced. The demands of the City are reasonable, and if men loved 
peace rather than continuance of division and the hazarding of much 
more blood in a Christian care of brotherly unity, there ought to be a 
consideration for a more speedy assurance of peace, which by this 
means will speedily be had. 

Matters then proceeded. News had obviously come in that the 
army from Ludlow were marching on Worcester, so a party was 
sent out on the Ludlow road towards Astley to reconnoitre, and 
apparently fell in with the advance guard of the Parliament force. 

p. 702. 

May 31. A party of ours went towards Astley and took 6 horses 
and 2 men. 

ANNALS. 117 

The besiegers crossed the Severn, probably at Hallow ford, 
and occupied Hallow. 

This day the enemy put into M r Fleet's House at Hallow 140 foot 
and a troops of Horse. 

The Ludlow men arrived the next day. 

p. 702. 

June I st . Fresh supplies of Horse and foot coming to the enemy 
from Ludlow quartered at Abberley, 5 of the foot taken. 

2. The enemy drew 10 colours of foot down to Roger's Hill 
into their new works. 

One great culverin of iron at S' Martin's Sconce break to pieces, in the 
breach hurt our best canonier,* and a Montross, and another very sore. 

Some pickering with horse and potting with foot. One boy 
drummer of ours thigh burst to pieces with a drake planted on Roger's 

p. 703. 

Hill, which drake shot into the line below the scone at our Horse 
which stood there, near M r Wylde's house. 

This day a review of the assessment weekly to relieve the soldiers 
at 2 g 6 d per man for 1500 men. Every man to have a billet of their 
number, and also the particular names of the soldiers who he is to pay 
to, and to pay no other person. 

Our Horse went to Hallow, only killed i man. It is said if they 
had taken too foot and gone privately by Broad Heath and come in on 
the back of the house they had taken all the enemy, Horse and foot, 
or burnt the house with them in it. 

3. The enemy drew down to Barbon g whole columns of foot and 
8 of red, and set workmen to draw a line in Windmill field from the 
end of the village slope towards the river. 

The Mayor, Aldermen, etc., returned an answer to Col 1 Whaley's 
letters, 30* May,f as followeth : 

" Gentlemen, 

" You have not yet satisfied those scruples (as you please to 
term them) concerning our allegiance and fidelity, for although we have 
that true and high estimation of Parliament, that neither the King nor 
people can well subsist without, yet we may not forget nor forgo our 
allegiance and promised especial duty unto His Majesty, and that resolu- 
tion of ours doth not proceed from any perverseness (as you conceive) but 
from the discharge of a pious and upright conscience. What you desire 

* In the margin is the word " Dead " opposite this entry. f See ante p. 115. 


p. 704. 

we have not power to grant, and what we have desired (whereby we 
might have been able to treat with our Governor) that is not conde- 
scended unto. And therefore again we make further offer that we may 
have liberty to send unto the Lords of His Majesty's Council at Oxford 
to know what directions they have received from him, and upon that 
return if you please to write unto our Governor, as well as to ourselves, 
we shall be ready to give you a full and absolute resolution. 

Your friends and servants, 

William Evett, Mayor. 

June 3 rd , 1646. John Coucher. 

To the Hon ble Col 1 Whalley and the Roger Gouch. 

Committee of Parliament for the Tho. Hackett. 

County and City of Worcester." 

There came out an order, 7 th June, from the Governor and Com- 
missioners for the better assuring the soldiers their weekly pay from the 
cozening of the officers, and to keep them from mutining, as followeth : 

It is ordered that every Captain shall give in a list of the names of his 
soldiers to the Governor, and shall receive from him Billetts for their 
soldiers' pay from particular persons to whom they shall be assigned 
and to be named in the said billetts, and that no soldier or officer shall 
receive any pay c rom any person whatsoever without a billet first 
signed by the Governor, or such as he shall appoint to make the said 
Billetts, which Billet shall be a sufficient discharge to the party that 
payeth his money upon receipt thereof, and that it shall be in the 

p. 705. 

choice of him that is assessed whether he will pay in money or pro- 
visions or both. 

M r Jo. Bacon, M 1 ' Withy and M r Lunde assigned to make the 
ticketts, which was that H[enry] T[ownshend] was to find 6 men; 
i A. B. C. D. E. F.; soldiers to Cap' P[oulteney]. 

4. This morning there came an answer to the Citty's letter sent 
yesterday, June 3 rd , as followeth : 

" Gentlemen, 

"We were commanded hither by his Excellency Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, if we could not persuade, to force your obedience to the 
Parliament and not to satisfy your doubts or scruples of conscience, 
which is more proper for casuists than us. Your having liberty to send 
to the King's Council at Oxford will not be granted, nor anything else 

ANNALS. 119 

but what shall tend to this speedy surrendering this city, which will alay 
the country's rage against you. In easing them of the great charge 
they now lie under, and likely to undergo a far greater by the increase 
of the army, unless prevented by your speedy submission, and save 

p. 706. 

yourselves many thousands of pounds, nay your City (for ought we 
know) from utter ruin and destruction we say no more, but heartily 
wish that all punctilios of Honour, both with you and us, may be laid 
aside, and God's honour and the public good only aimed at, and then 
we are sure the mortal differences would cease. And we 

your loving friends and Servants, 

June 4 th , 1646. Tho. Rouse. Edward Whaley. 

To the Hon ble Col 1 Washington W. Dingley. Jo. Edgiock. 

and to The Mayor, Aldermen W. Ligon. Hen. Hunt, 

and Common Council of the Edw. Smith. 

City of Worcester." 

The enemy going on with their works at Barbon in Windmill field, 
Having 14 Colours of foot for guards and some 200 horse, at night 
marched up to their quarters at Wheeler's Hill. Some few horse of theirs 

/> 77- 
vapouring without musket shot in Pitchcroft. 

Many foot have run out of the City to the enemy for want of pay, 
and some servants have stole their Masters' Horses, clothes and money 
and gone away to them or to their own country. But now pay and 
provisions for the soldiers being settled, it is hoped no necessitous 
soldiers will do the like. 

Some of our horse about 3 in the morning gave them an alarm on 
either side the river. Killed i and hurt some 3. 

News came that they made a strong sally out of Oxford, fell upon 
Sir Thomas Fairfax's own quarters, killed many hundred, took some 
Cannon and store of ammunition, and have either taken or killed the 

5 th . This morning a drum went with a Reply to Col 1 Whaley's 
answer, June 4 th , as follows : 


"If you endeavoured peace (as you pretend) you would not 
obstruct the ways that lead unto it. But it is manifest you are the 
only disturbers of it. And by your denying a pass either to the King 
or to Oxford, it appears you dare not let us know in what condition 
they are. Therefore we are resolved to keep this ( town (Do what you 

* In the MS. this paragraph is crossed through and "untrue" written in the margin. 


can) until we hear from His Majesty or be relieved by him, and till 

p. 708. 
the country grow as weary of you as you would have us believe they 

are of us. 

Your friends and Servants, 

Roger Gouch. Henry Washington. 
June 5 th , 1646. Edward Solley. William Evett, Mayor. 

To the Hon ble Serjeant Major Gen 1 Whalley 

and the rest of the Committee of Parliament 

for the County and City of Worcester." 

About 6 of the clock in the evening the drummer brought an answer 
to the same as followeth : 

" Gentlemen, 

" We expected a reply to our answer from those that sent 
unto us namely, the Mayor, Aldermen and citizens of Worcester. 
But we perceive all the citizens are fallen from you as men and 
Christians tending the good and preservation of the County and Citty. 
But Roger Gouch, whose age makes him do anything, and the Mayor 
and his brother Solley brethren in inquity, men in their cups as fierce 
as lions. Let them take their fill. We doubt not ere long to make 
them both tame and sober, and give the City occasion to bless God for 
the happy reducing of it to the obedience of the Parliament. 

Your servants 

Thomas Rouse. Edward Whalley. 

Jo. Egioke. 

5 June 1646. William Collyns. W m Moore. 

For Col 1 Washington, Governor of the City of Worcester, The 
Mayor, Aldermen, Common Council! and Citizens of the same. 

p. 709. 

In the afternoon between 2 horse of ours and some of the enemy 
there was pickerings on Pitchcroft, and our foot playing with their foot 
at a distance and upon the horse. 

There were 3 horses of theirs killed, i man and i hurt and another 
Horse shot. One of our horse a slight hurt in the Brisket, i man shot 
in the back. 

The enemys line at Barbon and Roger's Hill going on apace, 
Drawing down 500 foot and aoo Horse for a guard to the workmen. 
The country all hereabouts extremely taxed to find workmen or money 
to pay them. Their soldiers are set to work. 

ANNALS. 121 

The orders at Council of War to charge all those Householders who 
are gone out of town and left their families with more soldiers, and if any 
do give to the enemy that their effects be seized on, their wives and 
children turned out of the Garrison. That all shovels, spades and 
mattocks in the City be laid up and brought into particular places to be 
more ready upon all occasions.* 

That all the coal, wood and lime in S' John's be brought into town. 

That select Committees sit daily to consult of the better security of 
the garrison. 

That unnecessary people be put forth. 

That way be made for Horse to ride the rounds, and no trooper or 
soldier to go forth without a ticket. 

p. 710. 

June 6. An officer of the enemy killed in pikering, and some few 
hurt, none of ours, and some slain by ordinance and hurt from S' 
Martin's sconce. 

Five of our Horses taken near Diglis Mead fetching grass, by the 

June 7. M r Shelton's son was killed by shot of the enemy a pot- 

25 Horse of Madresfield garrison taken at grass by the enemy. 

News came that Col 1 Dalbern with about 2000 Horse and foot lay 
at Tewkesbury and Bredon to come hither, but since we heard he was 
gone off. 

8. Being assessed at the maintenance of 6 soldiers at 35. 6d. per 
week a soldier, I paid Cap' Byron his limit. Butts, ensign, and 
Gentleman of Arms, a weeks' pay, together 30$. 

This day no action, only a boy shot in the shin. 

The Ludlow force having arrived, steps were taken to com- 
plete the investment of the west side of the city by occupying 
St. John's. 

9. The enemy drew into a field near Henwick's Hill foot and horse, 
about 1500. Some of them came into S' John's. Some few horse and 
foot sallyed out and beat them away, 3 of them hurt. About 5 at night 
took there an ensign. At 7 upon a skirmish an officer of horse of ours 
(Cap* Wheeler) shot in the head and killed, and brought in. 2 of our 
Troopers, some hurt. At night the enemy drew off to their old 

* In the margin of the MS. is a note; "Good orders few performed some and these 
not all." 


122 ANNALS. 

2 of the great brass guns taken at Naseby, with the King, brought 
to Worcester, are come into the enemy's leaguer at Roger's Hill. 
D r Laurence went away to Salisbury. 

p. 711. 

A trumpet came to desire the body of the officer to be buried with 
them. About 3 of clock the day the Governor with many Gentlemen 
and 100 horse went out with the corpse to the foot of Roger's Hill. 
There the officers of the enemy met them, and for two hours were in 
familiar discourse, drinking of wine which either side brought. Only 
Col 1 Whalley would not come from his post, and being by some desired 
since the Governor here did them that honour, said " it was below him," 
and he would not stir. Our Governor, before he went out, said he 
would not come into interview without Col 1 Whalley did meet him, 
and would send Cap* Pitcher only with the corpse. But his good 
nature and generous disposition could not forbear and to stand upon 
such punctilios of honour. 

No more passages this day, but familiar speeches several gentlemen 
had with such as they knew, only amongst the rest D r Warrnstry 
singled out the Chaplain of their regiment, M r Baxter,* to discourse 
with him, which as the said D r gave it me in writing was to this effect 
as followeth : 

June 17. The first question was, which M r Baxter undertook to 
defend, That there was no difference to be made between a church and 
any other common place. D r Warmstry distinguished that there were a 
extremes which were both errors: I. To hold such an efficacious holi- 
ness in churches as if prayers or any other duty were more acceptable 
to God ipso facto in a Church received increase of holiness by the 

p. 712. 

(2) To deny a relative Holiness in Temples consecrated to God from 
other places and exempted from all profane uses. This he proved 
by 2 arguments, (i) By the actions of our Saviour in casting out the 
Buyers and sellers out of the Temple and none carry any vessels through 
the Temple. Is it not written "my House shall be called the House of 
prayer of all nations " vide Matthew xxi. 12, Mark xi. 15, Luke xix. 45, 
John ii. 15. To this M r B. confessed. The Temple of Jews was to 
be kept from profane uses by reason of the typical use as a figure of 
Christ, which is not to be admitted in other churches. D r Warmstry 
replied, Besides the typical there is a moral use thereof wherein the moral 
parts of Divine worship were performed as well as the ceremonial, as in 

* The celebrated Richard Baxter, 

ANNALS. 123 

Acts iii. i, where Peter and John went up to pray at the 9 th hour of 
prayer, when the typical use was abolished by Christ's Cross, 2. Christ 
said not my house shall be called a house of sacrifice but a house of 
prayer by reason of the moral use. So the strength of our Saviour's 
argument lies in this, that place that is dedicated to that holy use to be 
a house of prayer unto God is to be separated from all profane uses. 
But so is this Temple and so our Christian Churches ergo. 

3. Our Saviour's speech "My House shall be called an house of 
prayer to all nations " being applied to the material Temple was to be 
received by all nations as the House of prayer. The typical use of the 
Temple being abolished, yet the Temple itself destroyed before that . . * 
wrought in the Church. Therefore it must be understood of the House 
of God in the general sense for every House dedicated to the service of 
God. M r Baxter said our Saviour restrains it to the Temple alone. 
D r Warmstry replied that he should remember his logic, That it was the 
natural course of argumentation to proceed from Universal to particulars, 
and therefore our Saviour concludes well from the general use of all 
Houses of God to the Holiness of that particular House, and that 
because the House of God was to be esteemed by all nations wherever 
it was or shall be as an house of prayer. 

Much more might have been said and observed upon that passage 
of our Saviour, i. This action fell from him not above 3 or 4 days 
before his passion when the Typical holiness of the Temple was to 
cease. 2. That our Saviour never used his hands in way of violence, but 
in this in all his life, shewing so much holy fury and zeal, vide John ii. 
15, 1 6, 17. Therefore it is not probable all this was done to vindicate 
a power of Holiness which was not only to cease and become unnecessary, 
but sinful and superstitious within a few days after as was the typical 
holiness of the Temple, but rather to assert the moral holiness of God's 
house, which was to continue throughout the Christian Church. 

The 2 nd argument was out of the Epistle i Cor. xi. 22, reproving the 
miscarriage of the Corinthians, sayeth, " Have you not Houses to eat and 
drink in or despise ye the Church of God," where the Apostle clearly 
sheweth that those things which are lawful to be done in a man's 
private House are not fit to be done in the place of the assembly, and 
that thing which may be done in other places are not to be done there. 
Because of the holiness which is in the House of God in regard to the 
especial relation that it hath unto him being dedicated and separated to 
his service, and so appreciated that it ought not to be put to any other 
use but upon great and urgent necessity. " Why then," said one, " if 
Churches be so holy do you pull them down ? " To which D r 

* Blank in MS. 

124 ANNALS. 

Warm stry replied, There are two sorts of Temples : i. Made by man 
for the worship of God; 2. By God himself as are the bodies of his 
people. The Temples made by man may be destroyed to preserve the 
Temples made by God. Upon the same ground which our Saviour 
justified the profanation of the Sabbath. God is better pleased at the 
preservation of the life of man than of a church. If a church be 
destroyed it may be rebuilt, but man cannot be restored. 

The result was a confession of M r Baxter's that they differed from 
me but in Terms. To which I replied that " I would never quarrel with 
Terms so they agreed in sense." 

The investment was now complete, and the bombardment 
began from the east side from Roger's Hill, and on the west 
from St. John's. 


11. This day in the morn was the first that the enemy shot his 
great ordinance. They gave 4 shots, and in the afternoon 8 more. 
No hurt to man nor house, only passed through. The first or second 
shot hit one end of the Bishop's wood building and so into his pantry 
and there fell. The bullet weighed 17 pounds and a half. There were 
other bullets of 19, 24, and one I saw weighed of 31 Ibs. and a half, 
and one of those bullets went two foot into the mud wall at S' Martin's 
Sconce. A boy of the City shot at the Butts gathering of peascods, dead. 

In the afternoon we shot our ordinance from S* Martin's Block- 
house, but did no hurt at their ordinance to dismount them. Some of 
our Horse about Henwick's Hill and a few foot pickered with the 
enemy, and some of their horse and foot shot. 

12. The enemy drew with 8 colours of foot and some 200 horse 
to S' John's, lined the village with musketeers about 3 of the clock, 
and the rest of the foot and horse behind the town for to close up the 
city on the west side the river. They shot 10 great pieces into the 
town, break some chimneys and through houses, but no hurt. Our 
guns about 30 great shots into S' John's and killed divers, and killed a 
horse at Roger's Hill, and near M r Fleet's house killed 4 men and 
horses from the mount at one shot. 

The besieged tried to retake St. John's and stop the bombard- 
ment from the west. The attempt failed. 

p. 714. 

At ii o'clock at night there was a strong sally made of 500 foot 
and 200 Horse upon the enemy's quarters in S* John's. The foot 

ANNALS. 125 

commanded by Sir William Bridges in chief, Cap' Chapman the muske- 
teers, and Cap' Norwood and Major Fisher the pikes. The foot, not- 
withstanding the enemy had strongly harricaded all avenues into the town, 
got some in the highways, others through backsides and houses, enforced 
the passage and drove them out, and some fled into the church. It is 
conceived that the enemy lost 100 men in this and by the cannon the 
day before, only 10 prisoners taken. Many of the soldiers were half 
drunk coming into fresh quarters. We lost Cap 1 Chapman, a very 
able commander, and some 5 gentlemen and 15 hurt. Lieut' Col 1 
Gouch and Ancient Thomas taken, the latter exchanged the next day. 
We took 3 colours and one drum. Two of the colours hung up 
at the sconce on the Bridge, and one white on the top of the leaden 
steeple. There were in this sally many gentlemen which over ven- 
turously and rashly trailed pikes, being men of great estate, and 
escaped happily, for they were in a body 500 Horse and foot within 
100 yards, yet did not or durst not move. 

The enemy shot from Roger's Hill with their ordnance into and 
over S l John's, and 4 shot into the town but no hurt to any person, 
though one bullet fell on a bed wherein people lay. 

The design was to dislodge the enemy and to burn that part called 
Cripplegate, near S' John's, which hindered the sight of the Town and 
streets, which was done for the instant. 

P- 7I5- 

13. All this day quiet on both sides. At night a demi culverin 
from the Bishop's Palace and planted at the river side shot, about 
10 of the clock, into the east end of the steeple, the enemy fortifying 
and barricading their quarters and post at S' John's and behind the 
Church. The enemy, about 12, shot 4 pieces into the town and killed 
a poor man and his wife in bed in the Trinity. 

Ill rayling language usually the several guards usually at and in the 
night give one another, the enemy calling ours "Papist dogs," "Wash- 
ington's Bastards," " Russell's Apes," " Where is the King of you 
rogues?" "Where is your Tottered King?" (pardon the expression) ; 
ours replying and calling them " Traitors," " Villains," " Rogues to 
your King and Country," " The sons of a Puritan Bitch," " Bid you 
go preach in a crab tree," " Come and fetch their Colours which they 
lost," " Where are the Scotts, you rogues, whom you hired to fight 
against your King." 

14. This day quiet. About ia at night the enemy shot off six 
cannon and did hit some houses, no hurt to any person. Their Cannon 
is marked out against S' Martin's, and shatters the houses there. Sir 

126 ANNALS. 

Rowland Berkeley's house in the Corn Market had 4 great shot in it, 
and hath done a"io in hurt already. One bullet made a hole in the 
wall as wide as one could creep through, but made up instantly, being a 
place to shoot out. 

The enemy finished their Bridge of Boats and laid planks for 8 men 
to go in breast at the Upper end of Pitchcroft. Raised a half moon 
for a guard on Pitchcroft side, and on the other a House for a Court 
of guard to secure the passage. 

p. 716. 

15. This morn about 5 of the clock Cap' Hodgkins, also called 
" Wicked Will " for his desperateness and valour, sallyed out with 
16 horse in a medley humour of drink into the enemy's Court of guard 
at S' John's, shot one, and all came off safe, yet he so loaded with 
drink and top heavy that he fell twice by the way, and was carried over 
Severn in a boat half asleep. 

Our cannon at Key played at the Court of guard in the back side of 
the Swan in S' John's and did execution, at least 5 slayne. 

3 of our young soldiers taken, gathering pease at Gravell Butts. 
i sore cut in the head. 

After long debate whether a reply should be returned to Col 1 
Whalley's answer, 5 th June,* at last it passed the vote in chamber, and 
sent, which is as follows, as the further answer of the Mayor, Alder- 
men, etc. : 

" Gentlemen, 

" Whereas by the reply bearing date the 5 th of this instant 
June, and attested by the hand of our Governor, Mayor, Sir Martin 
Sandys, Roger Gouch, and Edward Soley, you say you do perceive 
thereby that the citizens are fallen off from the Governor and Mayor. 
We do suppose that you do rather wish than believe it, and to effect 
your desire you have thrown some scandal upon the Mayor and alder- 
men to make them odious unto us, and so to make us at difference. 
But for more certain assurance that the reply is the act of the Common 
Council, as well as of the Mayor and of those that you did subscribe, 

p. 717. 

The Mayor hath this day caused a chamber meeting of the Common 
Council, when the said reply was repeated, and by all that were present 
confirmed and approved. And in testimony thereof we have set here- 
unto the seal of office. Dated at Worcester this 13 th day of June 1646. 

For Col 1 Whalley, etc." 

* See ante p. mo. 

ANNALS. 127 

About 5 of the clock in the evening the enemies' cannon began to 
shoot with three pieces and shot 18 times into the town, did shoot into 
some houses, broke down some chimneys, but hurt no one. All night 
quiet. The Guard was moved at the Citty's concurrence and vindica- 
tion of their Mayor. 

Some townsmen had leave to go with their children out of towne. 
Col 1 Whalley commanded their money to be taken and they returned 

AH the South side at Sidbury Gate open and not blocked up, cattle 
kept at grasse and hay made and brought in from the meadow daily 
by Bardge. 

Paid the three weeks' pay to Lieut' Butts for his Cap 1 , himself, etc., 
15 shillings. 

p. 718. 

16. Both sides quiet, but about 6 in the evening the enemy set up 
all their colours at the several posts, 7 at Roger's Hill, 14 at Barbon in 
Windmill field, and the rest at the post behind S' John's. Drew up 
all their men to their Trenches facing the city. At 7 began at Barbon 
to give a volley of muskets. Then went off 2 drakes there, and 3 
cannon from Roger's Hill, which shot into the Town. Then a volley 
of shot. These answered at Barbon, and the half Moon made at the 
river there to guard the Bridge of Boats and passage, Seconded by 
another at S' John's. This done 3 times over and the Cannon twice. 
They took down most of their colours and ceased about 9, made a Bon- 
fire of their huts which were left on Wheeler's Hill, and another at S* 
John's. And these military joyful expressions was [not] for the delivering 
up of Oxford as we feared, but it was rather to delude us therein and so to 
bring us to a treaty. Who must think us very shallow upon their bare 
surmise to believe them without better evidence. And they do make a 
mock game therein, do make the Country men mock and jeer at them 
for their folly, and was only a frolick, they doing the like before Oxford 
as is reported. 

The Cannon shot did no hurt to any, only some tops of houses 
and chimneys. 

Colonel Starr, a prime officer of horse of the enemy, shot and 
killed in a mutiny amongst them and divers officers now at Pershore.* 

p. 719. 

17. Quiet all day until T2 at night, then the enemy shot off 13 
cannon, playing chiefly against S' Martin's Church, the Cross Inn, and 

* Jn the MS. this passage is struck out and " untruth" written against it in the margin. 

128 ANNALS. 

houses near, did hurt no person but shattered houses, especially the 
Cross Inn, and one shot into the window of S l Martin's Church and 
so broke some seats. 

A Trumpeter of the enemy brought in a buck for the Governor, 
whereupon some citizens jested that the Trumpeter was hoodwinked, 
yet the Red Cloth was not. 

Many citizens' wives came and spake to the Governor to protect 
them and know what they should do for their safety, their houses being 
beaten down about the streets. He bid them go out of town. They 
told him that was small comfort, and desired he would do as other 
Governors did. " Who asked how was that ? " They said " Treat upon 
honourable terms for the preservation of the City." 

Some of the Chamber of the City in their meeting did propose that 
the Governor might be entreated to treat, others to speak with him and 
understand what comforts he had received from His Majesty or Oxford 
for to give them encouragement to hold out the City. 

1 8. Cap* Blinkow came from Madresfield to the Governor certifying 
him they were summoned that morn to deliver up the House and to 
know his pleasure. Who told him that Cap 4 Ashton, the Governor 
thereof, at a Council of War assured him he could hold it out against 
all the forces for 3 months at least if mortar-pieces spoiled him not, 
otherwise it had been slighted. And therefore expects he should with- 
out any treaty hold it out a month, and then he should know further, 

/>. 720. 

and if in the mean [time] this Citty should be treated for they should 
be included in the propositions and conditions. 

Our soldiers in the night, through the carelessness and connivance of 
their officers, steal into the country about Kempsey and Pirton, and take 
all sorts of cattle from off the grounds, fat or lean, and as soon as they 
have them knock them down and kill some, sell others, though they be 
not fit man's meat nor they necessitated. And when the country men 
come to demand them this answer returned, " It is better they had them 
than the enemy," and so a poor honest man ruined in one night what 
he hath laboured for all his days. Other soldiers take the insolency to 
pull down men's back houses upon pretence of fuel, and to sell it for 
liquor that most part of the suburbs of S' Peter's in Sidbury is defaced. 
And begin likewise in the City to tear in pieces the coaches of gentle- 
men which are in Backsides, and also the outhousing in the College. 
So wicked are the Irish soldiery chiefly and given to spoil and ruin, and 
the chief officers so remiss and careless in doing justice and punishing 
some severely for a terror to others, that shortly it is feared some great 

ANNALS. 129 

inconvenience within the close, yet wherein the soldier himself is con- 
cerned, you shall behold most exact justice per sequentium with that 
industry, appearance of officers to sit in judgement and a small at 
most then only pretending or concerned delinquency against the person 
or reputation of a soldier or a difference between him and a citizen or 
countryman punished with all extremity of power. 

That all good Christians may insert in their Litany. 

From the plundering of soldiers, their Insolency, Cruelty, Atheism, 
Blasphemy and Rule over us, 

Libera nos Domine. 

That it may please thee to Resettle the good old Protestant 
Religion and peace from civil wars in these 3 Kingdoms of England, 
Scotland and Ireland. 

" Christe audi nos." 

p. 721. 

The sides of stone Bridge at Severn being so low that the soldiers 
could not stand secure, was raised and made up with Brick and loop 
holes to shoot out at. Beside the Severn passage to return and go and 
come to their guards at the Scone at the Bridge end which is the best 
piece of work of all the batteries made about the Citty when it is fully 

Both this day the enemy and ourselves quiet from shooting any 
Cannon and likewise in the night. 

19. This morn about 4 of the Clock Darby the Governor's footman 
and beloved servant, went forth with his master's carbine upon pretence 
of giving the enemy an alarm at the Hospital of S* Oswald's. There 
came an Horseman only out, shot at him, but he gave not fire at him, 
took him and brought him to the Governor. There is much descanting 
of his going and the nature of his going. 

Why the fellow should go having so good a service and moreover 
being assured he neither could nor would have the like he had, being 
heretofore one of them, he must depart rather to be hanged than trusted 
by them. If it were upon a design with consent he was the worst man 
that choice could be made as being the Governor's servant which would 
make them mere jealous over him, and being false once to them before 
may likewise do the like. And so shall never be able to receive or give 
any Intelligence worth anything. If without consent, He was not 
master of his craft that will have anything acted so apparently to breed 
a jealousy amongst many, as to employ such a one as his Instrument. 
It is true, he knows where all the strength and weakness of the Garri- 



son lay. And may do much mischief and hazard if he play the rogue. 

p. 722. 
This certainly will suddenly appear.* 

From the next entry it appears that the Parliament had by 
their bridge over the river at the top of Pitchcroft completed 
the investment on the north side. 

The enemy raising a work at the west side of the River to defend 
their passage over the river at the bridge of boats. 

Though the enemy hath Iain so long and so near the city, yet few 
are so sensible of their present danger, nay hazard of ruin, That the 
citizens will not send their servants, or poorer sort come to work to 
perfect or amend weak places in the works, nor work at all without 
money. Though they know not whether the next day they shall be 
worth anything, or so much as live? So stupid and supine a dullness 
is amongst them, and covetous desire not to part with anything to 
preserve all the rest, And may be assured when the enemy is master of 
the place, he will make them turn their bags outward. 

Many several orders for the putting forth of the unnecessary people 
never put in execution, wherein the several majors are to blame, and 
the Governor himself, who should punish them for their negligence and 
see his orders obeyed, not so slighted. 

There are at least 1500 poor of all sorts in the city that have not 
bread but from hand to mouth, and 1500 soldiers. Which make up 
3000 men. The citizens have no magazine of victuals; a shame and 
great fault in the Governor and Commissioners not to have it enforced 
and made. The soldiers' magazine neither well provided; that was the 
fault of the Governor and soldier.f The Soldier had orders to go forth 
and compel parishes to bring their tax of provisions, and were allowed 
2s. per pound for their pains, but would not either hazard their carcases ; 
neither did the Governor check them for their negligence; knowing 
that the safety of their town lay upon it. But a few promising words 
salved all up. Yet when the soldier might make a gain to himself to 


drive all cattle near into the Garrison upon a pretence to distress the 

* This paragraph is struck out in the MS., and in the margin this note, " So taken 
that they threaten to hang him and will not exchange him." 
f In the MS., in the margin, " Cap' Armour, Cap' Pitcher." 

ANNALS. 131 

enemy, Then the Troops could readily sally out and bring in cattle. 
But the Garrison in general not one beast provided up in the magazine 
the more; all things held to private uses, or the owners compelled 
to redeem their cattle, which were not worth the killing. The soldiers' 
lust and excess to be only maintained and looked after, but the way to 
maintain Religion, a king's crown and laws be laid aside and the City 

This day 3 dragoons of the Enemy taken about Kempsey. The 
Cannon quiet, no shooting. 

This day a she messenger went to his Majesty with letters from 
the Commissioners to know his pleasure and send his directions as con- 
cerning this city for by that they will govern themselves without other 
considerations of law and fortune as becometh loyal subjects. 4 were 
sent before, yet none ever returned. 

The enemy marched with some Horse and Foot for the further 
beleaguering of Madresfield from S' John's and 2 Cannon. 

20. The bakers were called for not baking bread as they were wont, 
who told the Mayor and Commissioners they could not have corn 
ground, and then wanted mills, and under 12 mills to be set on work, 
the City could not well be furnished with bread. The mills cannot 
grind above one stone in an hour with two horses, and a horse labours 
hard when he works 4 hours together. That they are content to allow 
the Miller 8 a per stone for his grinding, so there were orders made for 
providing mills, horses, labourers by impressment, and every horse 
allowed iiij d for his owner's work. The people began to mutter. Who 
by this means will be well satisfied. There are 16 bakers in the City. 

p. 724. 

This clay a notorious rogue (one Taylor of Bransford) should have 
been hanged for running away from his colours, turning to the enemy, 
in whose service he was taken, plundering, robbing, and suspicion of 
murdering yet he must be reprieved. Such justice there is. Whose 
confession was full of impudency and scandall upon others in their 
lives, small compunction in himself nor no repentance for serving 
against his king, but rather justification of the fact in which he would 

The Governor sent a drummer about his man Darby to Col. Whalley 
on Friday, But was not returned. So he stayed another, which the 
enemy sent him, until that his own came back. 

The enemy from Roger's Hill shot 9 Cannons between 5 and 7 at 
night. And did hit M 1 Mayor Evett's house on the top, as they 

132 ANNAtS. 

threatened often to do, but did no hurt there, nor any where else to any 
person. They shot off some 12 muskets together in their quarters. 

There was a great bellied woman killed by a Trooper bringing pro- 
visions on the market day to the city near Kempsey. 

21. This Sunday morning a sermon was preached by M r Gr. on 
Psalm 3, v. i, 2, Being David's flying from Absolom his son upon 
his rebellion. Such a piece as never had his paralell for an invective. 

About one of the Clock the Enemy shot off 5 pieces of Cannon. 
No hurt to any. 4 more about 5 at night, i more at II, which fell in 
* poor house at the East end of the Cathedral, and broke a bedstead to 
pieces, the man, his wife and 2 children which lay on the said bed 
removed from thence the night before ; and i more at 6 in the morning. 

This day news came that Capt. Ashton (notwithstanding his charge 
to the contrary) had treated and delivered up Madresfield house to Col. 
Whalley, most basely and contrary to his faith, The Enemy only 
coming before it, having no cannon with them and as it is said 


sold the same to Col. Lygon, who was owner of the house, and one of 
the enemy's Colonels. His conditions were to march away with his 
arms and ^200 in money. His troopers were to have 30" a man and 
footsolcliers io s a man. And to leave all his Ammunition and pro- 
visions behind him. 

He was a Lancashire gentleman and one whom the Governor and 
Gentry had much confidence, But a soldier of fortune, who having 
raised himself plentifully, loved not to hazard the loss of it, but rather 
his loyalty which will be a bar to him in his honour. 

There were never 4 such Governors as Sir Michael Woodhouse of 
Ludlow, Col. Lusen* of Dudley, Capt. William Sandys of Hartlebury, 
and Capt. Edward Ashton of Madresfield, which delivered up traiterously, 
cowardly, and basely 4 such strong holds, so poorly, so treacherously ; 
places that the weakest would withstand against an Army (as them- 
selves confessed) for a quarter of a year. And some 3 of them an age 
if victuals would have lasted and ammunition, yet Judas like the golden 
hook was swallowed by them, and by his means the loyal city of 
Worcester was begirt by the united forces of Shropshire, Hereford, 
Gloucester, and Col. Whalley from Banbury, And is with Oxford and 
the Close of Lichfield the only cities which hold out for their king and 
country, otherwise they had not power or strength to beleaguer it; 
yet hitherunto all they do is to set up several posts or quarters at half a 
mile distance from the city, shooting their great guns at hours into 
the town. 

* Leverson. 

ANNALS. 133 

p. 736. 

A cobbler of the City killed without the works. 

News came that the King is on his march with the Scots and Irish 
and English towards London from Newcastle. That he hath sent 
Lord Loudon to the parliament before, That he will stand to the Treaty 
at Uxbridge, 1643. That otherwise he will lay his bones and all that 
are with him before their walls. It is said he commands all counties 
to come in to his assistance and people. Those that are obstinate he 
seizeth on their persons, burns their houses, and estates plundered. And 
that he hath an army of 80,000 men.* 

God grant the parliament's eyes to be open, and their hearts inclined 
to the peace of the Church and State, which are already almost ruined, 
and not so to strive for to be absolute states, that neither they nor us 
shall have any estate left at all ; opening a passage for the needy Scot 
and barbarous Irish and foreigners to seize on this land of Canaan and 
to be masters of our inheritance, as Saxons and Danes were many 
ages since. But let Truth and Justice prevail. The more certain Truth 
of these will shortly be known.* 

The Governor received a letter from Col. Whalley that his man 
Darby was taken in arms, he received an ordinance of parliament to 
hang up all Irish so taken, therefore all as he could wish him to do was 
to pray for him. 

The Governor replied, That he had more of his prisoners. As he 
began they should follow, and as he liked it so he may proceed. 

22. Resolved by the Governor to continue one week's pay more 
to the soldier before the magazine be broke up. For by that time he 
will understand when the corn is measured up and bacon and cheese 
weighed, what proportion to allow daily the soldier. 

He switched Smith the baker for not baking bread, as having meal 
and would not bake it. And swore to throw him over the walls if he 
baked not presently. 

p. 727. 

Care taken for money to pay workmen, especially the taskers at 
S' Clement's sconce. 

This day a blind began to be made between the Foregate and S' 
Clement's. First great poles and rafters which are long rammed in the 
ground, then cross pieces, and hurdles at least 15 feet high. Then next 
the wall there raise it with horse dung and the open part with earth. The 

* These two paragraphs struck out in the MS. and "all untruth " written in the 


blind being about 30 yards in length on the brow of the hill to prevent 
the enemy's clearing the wall from their works at S' John's. No one 
being else able to stand on the walls. 

This and many like necessaries should have been done at times of 
leisure, and not to shift off to the last hour of necessity, when it had 
been too late if a strong enemy had come with cannon to batter it in 
several parts at once. Neither is the wall lined as yet from the Foregate 
to the said Blind with earth, nor none of the wall as it should be. For 
it should be lined to the top of the wall with earth at least 15 foot 
thick, if not 20. And then foot Benches, that if the wall were battered 
the work is not much weakened. And a cannon will shoot 8 f. in 
earth if near to batter. Now the wall being only lined some 6 foot on 
the bottom, and all the top unlined, being a weak old wall will be 
beaten down every shot. And there wants two stonks to dam up the 
water from the Foregate to S' Clement's, which some <^2O would 
perfect. And would keep off the enemy very much. And if these had 

p. 728. 

been when the blinds are made a fair platform for ordnance and 
musketeers to play, it would have been a great strengthening to all that 
part of the city which is conceived to be the weakest. 

About 5 of the clock at night the enemy made a show of some 150 
Horse at M 1 '* Andrews' house at the Hill* and stayed there; our 
Horse looked on them. They lined the hedges of the lane with muske- 
teers. On that side near Kempsey lie 400 dragoons of them, which are 
Col. Bean's men. 

The great sconce gave them 4 great shot. In the sconce on the 
South corner there slipt down with the rain that fell 2 nights before a 
great deal of earth from the platform, which is commanded to be 
repaired suddenly. 

Col. Whalley sent word to the Governor, That Oxford was to be 
delivered up and they to march out this day. 

In the night the enemy shot off with their ordnance 5 times. And 
about one of the clock from the bridge one shot off, one amongst 

It was reported that Col. Samuel Sandys, late Governor of this City, 
was with Col. Whalley this day. He was a gentleman very well 
beloved in his country, insomuch that most of the gentry trooped 

In Nash's copy, vol. ii, Appendix, p. c, this is given : " M r Andrew's house at 
Barnshall." There is nothing in the MS. to identify the locality of Mr. Andrew's 
house. Possibly it may have been supplied from personal knowledge. 

ANNALS. 135 

under him, and did assist him in the difference at Oxford between him 
and Sir William Russell ; insomuch that he came to be within one year 
successor to him in being Governor of the City. But then, whether it 
be a thing fatal to all Governors not to remember what they were, or 
the want of discretion and moderation being still like a young man, 
That he fell off from his good friends and Commissioners with him ; 

p. 729. 

he forgot his supporters, loved so much the soldier and his ranting 
ways, that an envious emulation possessed him against them, thwarting 
all their actions And rather attending his pleasures, than the true duty of 
his place, did in a kind of involuntary way after one year resign his 
Governor's place, And my Lord Astley, his successor, who was taken at 
the battle of Stow and now in prison at Warwick. So Col. Washington is 
Governor and Colonel General in his absence. Then he went to Hartle- 
bury Castle, where (it is said) he had no small hand in the delivery up of 
that strong place. And for his reward all sequestrations to be taken 
off his estate, though he were a member of the House of Commons. 

This day the continuance of the weekly assessment for one week 
more agreed on, before the magazine be opened. 

23. The enemy being now known to be 5 troops of Horse and 6 
of dragoons consisting of 600 men, lie still at M rs Andrews' house, 
intending to block up the city on the south side, which if they do, then 
this is the first day that it is surrounded and wholly blocked up. 

About i of the clock our Horse drew out and some foot and 
pickered, one musketeer slain having a false report that the carriage 
of our ordnance was broke, whereas it was only tumbrils to block 

P- 730- 

up the way. A jeer. The enemy had a of theirs slain, beside such as 
were hurt and their horses shot. About 3 of the Clock we drew off 
and retreated into the Garrison. The Governor himself leading (very 
unadvisably) the forlorn hope, which consisted of 20 Horse and some 

One Clark's bam and house near the sconce fired for fear of the 
enemy planting their Battery there, It being a petty house. 

The Governor's chief duty is to assure the Garrison, And by his 
presence give directions how all officers at their several posts shall 
perform and make good their stations, And (unless it be upon a high 
and extraordinary occasion) not at all to adventure his single person 
upon sallies, leaving that to other choice and expert officers in trust, 

136 ANNALS. 

lest by any misfortune and miscarriage his person be lost, and with him 
the whole Garrison hazarded. 

About 7 at night another summons came to the Governor from 
the enemy to deliver up the city for the use of the parliament, as fol- 
loweth : 


Are you not yet sensible of the near and fast approaching 
miseries you have brought upon yourselves ? You are upon the pit's 
brink, and will nothing content you but plunging yourselves and the 
City to the bottom of a hopeless and helpless condition? Will neither 
the starved looks of the poor, nor their lamentable cries for bread, any 
whit move you ? Have you so cast off your allegiance unto his 
Majesty, your obedience to his Oxford Council (who are all come into 
the parliament), and your loyalty to the state, as to set all to Defiance ? 
If so, as you are the last in rebellion. It pities us we have such an 
enemy so singularly eminent for perverseness to make an example to 
posterity. You hold out the city upon a punctilio of Honour ; what 

P- 731- 

you count honour your friends deem madness, And we the very height 
of rebellion. We cease any further to advise you, we summon the 
city for the use of the parliament, and expect your speedy answer, 
giving you assurance that Oxford is surrendered, and thousands are on 
their march towards you, which will much enlarge your score and 
shorten your conditions. 

Edw. Whalley. 

Will m Dingley. Tho. Rouse. 
George Starr. Tho. Cooks. W m Moore. 
Nich. Lechmere. H. Hunt. Edm. Yonge. 
23 rd June, 1646. 

To Col. Washington, Governor of Worcester, 
And to the Mayor, Aldermen and Inhabitants. 

This summons in this language penned was received with an 
extreme disgust of all, both soldiers, Governor and citizens, And might 
have had a better reception if it had been clothed with more truths in 
a silken phrase. 

24 June. This day an answer was returned, whereunto the Com- 
missioners put to their hands to the Summons, as followeth : 

" Gentlemen, 

" To pass by your uncivil language, which reflects upon your- 
selves, and not upon us. Our answer to your summons is That when 

ANNALS. 137 

we understand upon what terms Oxford is rendered, and whether we be 
comprehended in that Treaty by any order of his Majesty, or the Lords 
of his Council, we shall soon give such a resolution as shall vindicate 
our allegiance to our King, our obedience to the Lords of his crown 
Council, And our loyalty to our country. And to this purpose we desire 
a pass for some gentlemen to Oxford. 

Will m Evett, Mayor. 

Commissioners Jo. Winford. and 5 Aldermen. 

Jos. Walsh. Hen. Washington. 

Anth. Langston. R. Clare. 
June 24, 1646. Rowl. Berkeley. 

/> 733- 

The Governor himself wrote a particular letter to Col. Whalley 
giving notice to him, though to satisfy the whole city he gave way 
for an answer, yet for his part he was resolved to hold out the city, and 
not to be frightened out of with big words, that he had received a civil 
summons first from Sir Thomas Fairfax, and when an occasion is he will 
treat with him. 

The enemy is working at M rs Andrews' house.* And raising a work 
at the foot of the Close next the houses on the north side near the 
High way. 

This day an Iron saker at the Blockhouse did break about 4 of the 
Clock, one piece of him of 160 p d weight fell upon a window at the 
Rose and Crown near S* Helen's Church. Some in Broad S*. Hit 
hurt 4, only one soldier being a dyer, very sore hurt. Many gentlemen 
and others on the work, and all escaped, God be blessed, safe. 

21. The Enemy shot 19 cannon very hard about the Town hall; 
the Globe Tavern being twice shot in, and through the upper loft, and 
beat the whole windows into the street, when the Governor and many 
more were in the lower rooms drinking; yet no person, God be praised, 
hurt. And 2 more great shot in the night. 

Wise men many times commit great errors, sometimes by overdoing, 
and by Doings as well as [erasures] slow or misdoings or little doings, 
which encrease mischief by scorns. Why should the Commissioners 
put their hands to this summons of Col. Whalley, they never being 
sent or wrote to alone without the rest of the Gentry. Is it because 
the Governor desired it ? Though he did, yet in martial passages of so 
high a concernment, though they may do well to advise, But without a 
particular mention to join in answer with the Governor and Mayor, 

* Nash again adds " at Barnshall." 

138 ANNALS. 

showed more of officiousness than of judgment, and gives the enemy 
an occasion to engage them hereafter.* 

P- 733- 

There are many Gentlemen named as Commissioners to serve his 
Majesty and their county. To protect them from the Insolency of the 
soldier, as well as to maintain the soldiers. But there are few of them, 
not above 5 Gentlemen, that follow and do the work, which is Sir Ralph 
Clare, Sir Ed. Littleton, Sir Rowl. Berkeley, Sir Jo. Winford, and 
M r Anth. Langston, and M r Fennel! in the last Commission. And 
these not only in the first commission, But also in this last hath con- 
tinued very sedulous to preserve their county from Tyranny and 
oppression of the soldier. Though all in vain. The powers of punish- 
ing lying in the Governor as Commander-in-Chief, And the Commis- 
sioners being only as Councillors and Subordinates, few barbarousness, 
plunderings, nay High Insolencies against the Commissioners them- 
selves punished, And the fault is somewhat in the Commissioners, who 
knowing the engagement of their estates and persons for the King's 
cause and country would intermeddle or show themselves before they 
had co-ordinate power with the Governor, at least in punishing as 
well as providing. Being now gentlemen as ministers and quarter- 
masters to set out billets and allotments for contribution. To prepare 
and present to the Governor, He having a dissenting and negative 
vote, so that when they touch the regulating of the soldier, or his 
punishment, then often the Commander-in-Chief will give them 
golden promises, but seldom or rare performance. Never men 
have continued and gone through with such invincible patience, and 
certainly had not one thing (which is as all, great loyalty to their King 
and love to the preservation of their country) been engrafted and 
commorant with them And their whole design never gentlemen have 

P- 734- 

received such affronts and disgraces trom the soldiers throughout, such 
discouragements from those which should have protected and vindi- 
cated them, that it is a Miracle they would or could endure or continue 
the service, when all their service hath either been slightly valued or piti- 
fully rewarded. Yet it must be granted by all wise men that if they had 
not continued in the Commission in the execution of those half powers 
granted to them, the King had ne\rer been in a condition to have done 

* In the margin is the note, " Sir R[alph] C[lare] put my hand without knowledge or 
consent who were never no Commissioner to the answer." 

ANNALS. 139 

that which he hath done, and might have played his own game to set 
his crown once more on his head by the faith and fidelity of this 
country, if there had not been a fate in him to follow private Councils 
more than his own judgment and some moderate councillors. And the 
loss of this County, their defection from his Majesty had quickly been 
seen and found through the oppressive insolency and plundering of the 
soldiers here; when the country found that all those which generally 
live under the obedience of the parliament, the soldiers are regulated, 
punished by their Committees. The Country people live in quietness 
and safety, paying their contribution and taxes, which is to them 
beyond all other considerations. And if this county had been lost 
from his Majesty, It is very well known all these parts had fallen with 
it, and with it all his strength. His Majesty had been quickly drawn 
into a narrow circle and power. And there was one thing which 
protected this county very much, which was, that it seemed to the 
enemy like a multiplying glass, bigger in force and power by much 
than ever it was. Also the soldier was well allowed and paid for a few 
men. Their officers thriving only, the soldier starving, and the 
county exhausted and undone. 

P> 73.5- 

25 Jun. A survey made of the Magazine of provisions by M 1 ' Jo. 
Lunn and M r Tho. Twitty, wherein there is of 

Value at 3" per str. str. 

{Muncorn .... 0905 
Wheat .... 0048 
Rye 0534 

At 2' per str. 

White pease . . . 0122") 

043 . 10 . oo Gray pease . . . 0303 / str 


1912 stricke. 

024 .10.00 Biscuit, at io 9 per cwt. . 4836 weight. 

>ry beef .... 0244 
. Other beef .... 0002 barrels and I qrter. 

5080 beside 2 barrels and 
a quarter. 


036 .00.00 Bacon, at 4 d per pound . 2163 Ibs. 

060 . 15 . 09 Cheese, at 3* per pound . 4863 Ibs. 

005 . 08 . 08 Butter, at 4 d per pound . 0326 Ibs. 

002 . 1 6 . 08 Salt, fine, at 3' iiij* 
008 . 15 . oo clodd, 5 s . 

Oat meal, great ... 3 barrels, 

small ... 8 bar. 

Beef, suet, one earth pot. 
Mem. 112 Ib. weight for an 100 

465 . 09 . 05 Beside provisions at the sconce. 

P> 736. 

The enemy used a trick ot policy to draw our cows lying under our 
works to them, But by chance were prevented. They tied a cow to a 
stake and set straw about her on fire to make her roar, which will draw 
all the rest of the cattle to her, and so the enemy to seize upon them, 
But the cattle ran as fast as they could to the city. 

In the afternoon some small pickering between our Horse and them 
of the Hill in the meadows between them. 

25. This day quiet from shooting. At night 4 cannon into the 
town. About 5 in the evening a drum brought a Reply to our Desires 
for sending to Oxford, etc., as followeth : 


Our uncivil language, as you term it, if you well consider it is 
nothing but a Demonstration of real truths. We are contented to 
give loosers leave to be angry, And to overlook what your passion, not 
reason, dictates to you. Your sending to Oxford hath been already 
denied, and you will not find that either in it or aught else we will vary 
from our first resolution. Your hoping for Oxford terms will deceive 
you. You have brought yourselves in that condition that it is not now 
what you will have, but what we will give you. Our forces have 
nothing to do but to wait upon you. Such an Attendance will prove 
costly at last to the impoverishing, if not the utter undoing, your city 
without a speedy submission. For Oxford, we believe it hath served you, 
as you would have served Madresfield had it held out till you had made 
your peace, and left it to shift for their own conditions. Gentlemen, 

ANNALS. 14! 

P- 737- 
we would not have you trouble yourselves or us further with dilatory 

impertinences. We are 

Your friends to serve you, 

N. Lechmere. Edw. Whalley. 

H. Hunt. W m Dingley. 

W ra Collins. Tho. Yonge. 

25 June 1646. W m Moore. Edm. Yonge. 

For Col. Washington, Governor ot Worcester, 

the Mayor, Aldermen and the rest of the 

Inhabitants there. 

The garrison did not believe the statement. But it was true. 
Oxford surrendered on 20 June. On the 22nd Princes Rupert 
and Maurice rode away ; on the 23rd the greater part of the 
nobles and gentlemen ; on the 24th the garrison marched out. 
The Duke of York fell into the hands of the Parliament, the 
Prince of Wales took refuge in Jersey. Or the outlying posts 
Wallingford still held out, the others surrendered. Charles was 
practically a prisoner at Newcastle. 

The importance of this to the Worcester garrison was that 
Fairfax and the great bulk of his army were now free to assist 
in the reduction of Worcester. 

Upon reading of this letter there was several courses, some, That 
Oxford, though they assured it, was not delivered, otherwise they would 
have given way for a messenger to understand the Truth ; Beside the 
daily news of their continued skirmishing and gallant condition ; That 
the King had sent to them to hold out, and would relieve them speedily, 
he being on his march, of which there was no such tiding. Others 
believed the contrary, As conceiving they were the basest of men to put 
under their hand such a gullery, and such a notorious lie would infinite 
distaste all men, and giving no Credence to anything they should speak 
or do hereafter. About 9 at night the Truth was known by M r 
Anthony Kempson, Prince Maurice' secretary, who came from Oxford 
with Sir Thomas Fairfax' pass. And did assure us that Oxford was to 
be delivered up upon Articles on this day, which (as it took away all 
doubt) so it struck us into Amazement, and vexation to see, how we 


have been gulled with Golden shows. Never poor Gentlemen and 
City held out more loyal, and never any so ill rewarded, as being neither 
remembered by king or the council at Oxford in the Treaty. 

P- 738. 

26. This day in the morning the Governor called an assembly in 
the Bishop's palace of all the gentry and soldiers. Wherein the ques- 
tion was moved, whether he should accept or entertain a treaty with 
Col. Whalley since Oxford is surrendered, no probable relief from his 
Majesty to be had, not knowing, and as never heard, in what condition 
his Majesty stands since his departure from Oxford, Ap. 27. That 
whether all Sir Thomas Fairfax' army coming hither, the city is of that 
strength and also so well victualled that it is able to endure the force 
of 10,000 foot and 5000 horse. And whether there will not be an excla- 
mation against the Governor and Commissioners and the whole city 
for standing out against a whole kingdom and ruin the whole County 
and especially this city for ever. It was by the most discreet that a 
letter should be sent to Col. Whalley, intimating a consent to Treaty 
upon the consideration of their being assured of the delivery of Oxford. 
But M r Kempson did first undertake to try whether Col. Whalley (as 
he believed) would mention a Treaty which would be an Act more 
honourable to the City, than if the mention came from him. So the 
letter was respited from being sent until he returned in the afternoon. 
In the interim, many Rodomontades, Reformados, and some all wise and 
discreet gentlemen amongst us did conceive it not necessary at all to 
have a Treaty. Insomuch that when about 4 of the Clock M r Kemp- 
son had so far prevailed with Col. Whalley (as being mighty ambitious 

/> 739- 

to have the Honour of the taking this City even upon any Terms) that 
he wrote to the Governor yet so cautiously as not wholly owning the 
notion of a Treaty, but that M r Kempson informed him of an intima- 
tion in us to a Treaty. Which words of Col. Whalley's letter being 
read before a general Assembly in the palace about 6 of the Clock^ 
great exception was taken, as that M r Kempson had not dealt faithfully 
with them, saying to Col. Whalley That they desired a Treaty, his 
promise being that he would make Col. Whalley write and own the 
particular desire. To which he said, that though he himself took 
exception at that expression, yet he could not persuade him to alter it, 
being unwilling wholly to challenge it as his whole desire, though it 

ANNALS. 143 

was really that he told the Assembly they would find to have granted 
them the Conditions of Oxford at least, if not better, and they would 
require it. The letter of Col. Whalley is as follows : 


I perceive by M r Kempson, Prince Maurice' secretary, there is 
some inclination in you to parley. If you please to treat and send out 
Hostages answerable to the quality of those gentlemen I shall send 
unto you, I shall admit it. Those that I shall make choice of is Col. 
Lygon, Col. Dingley, Col. Betworth, Col. Starr, Lieut. Col. Tucking- 
ton, Lieut. Col. Castle, Major Fynes, Major Smith, and 4 gentlemen 
of the County. I expect your answer this night or to-morrow, And 
that you will prefix the Time. 

I rest Your servant, 

Edw. Whalley. 
P- 740. 

What shall be agreed on, if you desire it, his excellency I will 
undertake shall confirm. 

Edw. Whalley, 
For Col. Washington, Governor of Worcester. 

At the Leaguer before Worcester. 
June 26, 1646. 

27. The Governor calling the Commissioners and Council of War 
the next morn, returned this answer by their advice and consent. 


Upon an overture for a Treaty from you and Intelligence of 
the Delivery up of Oxford, and the sight of his Majesty's letters there 
printed for the surrender of this Garrison (amongst others) upon 
honourable terms, I conceive myself now made capable to entertain a 
Treaty. Therefore in order thereunto, I have named the Gentlemen 
underwritten to meet with those that are and shall be nominated by you 
for that purpose, And instead of hostages I am contented to take your 
engagement of Honour under your Hand for the safe conduct of those 
gentlemen and their necessary attendants. To-morrow being Sunday, 
unfit for business, I leave the time and place to your appointment. 

Your Servant, 

Wore. June 2j th , 1646. Hen. Washington. 

For Maj. Gen. Whalley. 

The Governor then proposed what Gentlemen should be the 
Treaters j so the military men nominated theirs, The Gentry theirs, and 

144 ANNALS. 

the Citizens by a chamber theirs, two of whom were altered, and the 
Bishop and Clergy theirs. 

p. 741. 

For the soldiers : 

S r Robert Leigh. 
S r Jordan Crosland. 
S r Willm. Bridges. 
Major Tho. Savage. 

For the Gentlemen : 

Lord Willm. Brereton. 
Sir Ralph Clare. 
Sir Rowl. Berkeley. 
M r Ralph Goodwin. 

For the Citizens : 

S r Daniel Tyas. 

M r Francis Street, Town Clerk. 

Alderman Hackett. 

Alderman Hemming, but Lieut. Col. Edw. Soley went in his 

place, the other being esteemed a man too disaffected to 

his Majesty, and so Hackett censured. 

For the Clergy : 

D 1 Dove, Dean of Chichester. 
D r Tho. Warmestry. 

The Citizens choosing Aldermen Hackett and Hemming in their 
Chamber, were by the City Soldiery men excepted against as suspected 
persons. Hackett being excepted against one year by the King's letter, 
And Alderman Hemming as by being made an Alderman by the Earl 
of Essex, And desired 2 officers soldiers may supply their places, which 
was not consented to again by the Chamber. M r Goodwin, M r Bosden, 
and M r Street, lawyers, were assigned to draw up the articles, and D r 
Warmestry for the Clergy. M r Goodwin for the soldiers, M r Bosden the 

p. 742. 

Gentry, and M r Street for the City. The Governor, after the letter 
being read, put to the Gentlemen who they would nominate to be 
Treaters. The City before had called a chamber and nominated 
four, which was Sir Daniel Tyas, Alderman Hackett, Alderman 
Hemming, and M r Francis Street, the Town Clerk. Some gentle- 

ANNALS. 145 

men, and especially the recusants and cashiered officers and Reforma- 
does and soldiers of fortune, who thought there was no subsistence 
for them if the City were ever delivered up, said they would have no 
treaty at all. And among the rest M r Fitz William Coningsby, a 
gentleman of a great estate, but a man too much addicted to be 
smoothed up by the soldier. And being now full 6 of the clock in the 
afternoon with him, did talk highly against it, And gave these reasons : 

i. There was a Command from the King and the Lords of the 
Council to hold out the town until they heard from them. 

a. That since, no commands are come from the King nor his 

3. That though the king's letter be printed at Oxford by the 
Lords' consent and command for the delivery up of this garrison, as 
well as Oxford, yet who knows it to be the King's letter, but a 
forgery, since M r Kempson only bought it off the bookstall And brought 
it hither, not to be the King's letter to the Governor, but is to be 
received as a printed paper, may be made and set forth by the Lords 
for their own security, and reason to deliver up Oxford. The soldier 
being insolent and high for monies. 

4. That they were able to keep the town, and they were not neces- 
sitated as yet for provisions, the magazine not broke up. This 

/> 743- 

threatening, the sense of the Governor who conceived it fitting to treat 
and also the Commissioners who know the state both of the City in 
strength and provisions, than these men, made him very angry, and in a 
great rage asked whether they would live and die with him upon the 
walls and fight it out to the last man. All those of that faction cried 
That they would. And said, let all those that are not of the same 
mind be thrown over the walls. The wiser and more noble said 
nothing at all, but let the Frenzy take his course, and it came so high 
That the doors were commanded to be shut, for every man to declare 
himself. The Bishop and some gentlemen in this heat applied them- 
selves to the Governor, and told him this was not the way to conclude 
anything, He should call a Council of War with the Commissioners 
and advise therein, debate, and every man soberly to give his reasons 
whether it be necessary to have a Treaty or no, and not to suffer every 
soldier or discontented person to talk, vote and rule there. It will 
bring all to confusion. Then the Governor would have it go to the 
Vote, that both sides should separate themselves and see who are for a 
treaty and who against it ; the moderate men and commissioners told 


146 ANNALS. 

him that was Dangerous, for then it would discover affections, And by 
this the soldier by insolency and mutiny might hazard the persons of 

P- 744- 

such gentlemen who desired only an honourable Treaty. The factious 
persons moved for a vote ; the Governor, seeing the fury of these per- 
sons, in choler, said he would go his ways, and God damn him, give the 
Enemy a cannon of defiance. And went out of the room, down into 
the Court. Some gentlemen (following him to persuade him to mode- 
ration) and at the last the Bishop did so far prevail, as he returned 
to the meeting, And there propounded that 6 gentlemen, 6 soldiers, and 
6 citizens, with the Bishop and D r Warmestry, should be chosen to 
consider whether a Treaty or no Treaty. Which was unanimously 
consented to, and so upon debate and result it was (nemine conlradi- 
cente] voted a Treaty. 

In this assembly the Governor committed several errors. 

1. In calling a meeting of all without distinction, wherein he might 
be assured there would be many firebrands. 

2. In respect of the time of calling, about 6 in the afternoon, a time 
when soldiers and malcontents be well heated with wine and other liquors. 

3. In descending from his own power and discretion as making 
every man a partner with him in power, He having only the power to 
Treat or no. 

4. In not calling a Council of war privately or a select Council with 
the Commissioners to debate thereof. And so to order the Treaty; He 
being sufficiently vindicated from any prejudice that might accidentally 
happen upon the result of the Treaty, as having done nothing but with 
the advice of the Council of War and commissioners under their. hands. 
Which was the plea and case of Prince Rupert for the delivery up of 
Bristowe and discharge. 

P- 745- 

5. In his own carriage, being so full ot passion and fury that advan- 
tage was taken thereof by the factious to make work their design, and 
in not punishing, or at least controlling them for this high mutiny, for it 
can be termed no better. 

In the king's letter sent to the Lords at Worcester* hath these 
words ensuing in it : 

"And his Majesty desires the Houses of Parliament to disburthen 
the kingdom of all forces and garrisons in their power, except such as 

* There is a mistake here " Worcester " should be " Westminster." This letter, as 
given in full in Rushworth vi. 275, was sent to both Houses of Parliament at West- 
minster. Only a short extract is given here from the letter. 

ANNALS. 147 

before these unhappy times have been maintained for the necessity and 
safety of this kingdom. So he is willing forthwith to disband all his 
forces and garrisons within the same, as the enclosed order herewith 
sent will evidence. 

Newcastle, 10 th of June. To the Speaker of the House of Peers* 
pro Tempore." 

The Order. 

" Charles R. 

Having resolved to comply with the desires of our Parliament 
in everything which may be for the good of our subjects, and leave no 
means unassayed for removing all differences amongst us, Therefore we 
have thought fit the more to evidence the reality of our Intentions of 
settling a happy and firm peace To require you, upon Honourable 
Terms, to quit those Towns, Castles and Forts entrusted to you by us, 
and to disband all the forces under your several commands. To our 
trusty and well beloved Sir Tho. Glenham, Sir Tho. Tyldesly, Col. H. 
Washington, Governors of our cities and garrisons of Oxford, Lichfield 
and Worcester, and all other commanders of any towns, Castles and 
Forts in our kingdom of England."* 
Newcastle. 10 June. 

p. 746. 

Now say the No-Treaters, The letter of the King's is but conditional 
in showing his readiness to disband, as the Parliament should fulfil his 
desires in doing the like, And the Order for disbanding as a Testimony 
of his real intentions. Not that any Governor should be obliged, unless 
the parliament should likewise disband their forces and garrisons, which 
they do not. And therefore until a particular order come from his 
Majesty or his Council, the Governor is obliged in conscience and 
honour, without necessity not to treat for surrendering the Garrison; 
nor to take notice of the order or letter (but only as a printed paper) 
until it be particularly brought unto him or sent by the Lords or some 
others who receive commands for that purpose from his Majesty.) 

The Treaters on the other side say, The King hath put himself 
into the hands of his Scots subjects, The Committee of both kingdoms 
residing with him will have him disband all his forces and garrisons, 
And sends a general positive answer to all his Governors to do it upon 
Honourable terms ; This Order comes only to the Lords and Governor 
of Oxford as the principal, They make use on it for their own Indemnity 
and cause the same to be printed, And by the print, notice came of it 

* See Rushworth vi. 276. As given there Wallingford is included. 

148 ANNALS. 

hither, And finds himself under the Command. The Governor sees 
that Oxford is delivered by virtue of that order. And since there is no 
city left that stands out but this in the kingdom, And he not able to 
oppose the whole strength of the kingdom, And if he could for a time, 
there is no manner of hope of relief from his Majesty afterward, That 

P- 747- 

when he must be reduced to high necessities he must take such condi- 
tions as they please to give, not what you desire, And the drawing down 
of the whole Army here, being 10,000 foot and 5000 Horse having 
nothing else to do, will ruin most part of the county, And therefore 
since honourable terms is promised, it is rather rashness and folly than 
discretion not to Treat. 

Neither by treating: presently follows a Delivery. It may be spun 
out so long that if the King can or will be put into a condition to relieve 
us or give order for delivery, It will be apparently known and the truth 
discovered. The Gentlemen who are appointed Treaters are of that 
wisdom and fidelity that they will do nothing but what shall conduce to 
preserve their loyalty and uphold the dying Honour of a Crown. And 
expect to have the conditions of Oxford at least, if not far better. And 
many advantages, if wisely carried, may be made of Treating. 

In the afternoon Col. Whalley sent an answer to the Governor as 
followeth : 

Sir, Since our proposed Treaty is condescended to by you And the 
time and place left to me, I desire your Commissioners would give these 
gentlemen underwritten a meeting at Hindlip house* on Monday morn 
by ten of the Clock, And I do hereby engage myself for the safe coming 
and return of them, I except against Lieut. Col. Soley as a citizen, being 
also a Soldier. I rest, 

Your servant, 
June 27, 1646. Edw. Whalley. 

/>. 748. 

Col. Bridges. 

Col. Dingley. 

Col. Starr. 

Col. Lygon. For the soldiers and citizens. 

Col. Betworth. 

Lieut. -Col. Turkenton. 

Major Fynes. 

Major Hungerford. 

* In the margin, " Mr. Habington's House." 

ANNALS. 149 

Sir Thos. Rouse. 

M r Lechmere. For the gentry. 

M< Hunt. 

M r Moore. 

M r Moore-j 

M' Baxter) For the ministry. 

Col. Whalley sent likewise an order of cessation to the Governor. 

Sir, I have likewise given order here in our Leaguer for a cessation 
of arms until the treaty be concluded or broken off. 

June 27, 1646. Edw. Whalley. 

The Governor, as soon as he received these, he likewise gave order 
for a cessation of arms, and sent to Col. Dingley to meet him out of the 
City by the Foregate to talk together, being fellow soldiers in the Low 
Countries. About 5 of the Clock the Governor went out and stayed 
until almost 10 with some other gentlemen, who did so ply their saluta- 
tions with cups that many heads could not complain of want of measure 
and plenty. 

p. 749. 

But by this strange, unpractised and unparalled action of the 
Governor's going out, and the Cessation commanded, many of the 
Citizens and young soldiers took an occasion by his example to go 
forth and speak and so many that were of their acquaintance and 
formerly Comrades or kindred in the City, without any stop of the 
guards. The lock of the postern door being taken off (as supposed the 
key to be broken in it) That it was conceived that no less than 100 
went out. 

The sober and judicious sort both of soldiers and others conceived 
this act of the Governor's to be an extreme rashness and [n words 
obliterated, the following written over} ill precedent to others though he 
took special order and care that no soldier should by his example do 
the like. But Major Moore was justly to be condemned of [two words 
obliterated] neglect [obliteration} and carelessness [obliteration] who 
should have been looking to the guards and duty of his place, and not 
entertaining cups. And suffer the enemy to come within pistol shot 
of our works to take a view of them. What can be thought, But 
the disaffected in the City have given Intelligence to the enemy by this 
means ? And many that were willing to go with them, and could not 
take this opportunity, and by that Cessation may betray the weakness 
or the readiness of a party for them in the City to help the enemy in 


and where. Extreme murmuring by all the wiser sort, and gentlemen 
walked in much sense and discontent, insomuch that they esteemed 
themselves as [two words obliterated] insecure and [obliteration] 
their persons and estates sacrificed to the will and pleasure of soldiers 
of Fortune, The citizens being ready to mutiny in fearing a treachery 

p. 750. 

would succeed by the enemy. Not distrusting the particular person of 
the Governor, whom all do value a man of extreme integrity and faith. 
But others and underlings to him who may work their design by his 
plain and harmless meaning and thoughts. And the Citizens and 
others not understanding the powers of a Governor and the privilege 
Commanders in a time of cessation take to be merry one with another 
made some men jealous. 

By the Cessation, The enemy hath a great advantage for now they 
take a view of our works, their manner of Fortification, their strength, 
weakness, defects. Whereas it should be for no other than not 
shooting at one another. And not to come within musket shot at 
least of any of our outworks, which if he did to shoot them, and so the 
Governor commanded. It discourage the soldier, makes him to neglect 
his duty, slow to do duty, and unwilling to fight. 

This Cessation was consented to by the Governor without consent 
of Commissioners or Council of war, which had been fitting, that it 
might have been restrained and conditional. 

Wisdom and policy are fitter for a Governor than all valour and 
courage. It is better to have a wise and sober Governor, 3 parts 
coward, than a Rash, resolute fighting man without moderation and 

28. This morning the enemy upon Windmill Hill on the south were 
viewing our works, a good entrance, and about i of the Clock 100 at 
the Foregate, talking with many of ours. And ours went up to Roger's 
Hill, and some of our wise City Captains likewise went out to drink 
with them to Barbourne; these passages so resented the Gentry and 
discreeter sort of Citizens that upon complaint to the Governor there 
were drums beaten and notice given them to go their ways, which some 

/> 751- 

of them carelessly would not, and a were shot and i hurt of them, by 
reason whereof Col. Whalley kept 40 of our men which were in his 
works prisoners. But being informed of the truth released many of 
them presently. 

In the afternoon the Articles of the Treaty to be delivered in were 


read at the Chamber. And very well approved of all, though for the 
Clergy so high that there was no expectance of consent to them with- 
out much moderation by the Enemy, which was afterwards done. 

The Governor sent a letter to Col. Whalley in reply to his answer, 
June 27,* as follows : 


I conceive it was a misprision of the writer to omit in the safe 
conduct the security of the gentlemen's servants and Horses, Therefore 
I desire you to supply that particular together with liberty for a Secre- 
tary to attend the Treaty. For Lieut. Col. Soley I conceive you cannot 
in honour except against him in the capacity of a citizen, And the 
rather for that all the persons nominated Treaters by you for the 
Soldiers and City are Soldiers, so I expect the same liberty of election 
that I willingly allow you. For I have left it wholly to the City to 
make choice of their own Treators, I cannot consent to alter what they 
have done. Your servant, 

June 28. Henry Washington. 

The Governor having received information from one Capt. Michael 
Blunt (a man officious to tell stories and tales in the Governor's ears 
the discourses and private censures of gentlemen) that some gentlemen 
should say that if the Governor the last night at the meeting with 
Col. Dingley had drawn out his regiment with him and the gates shut 
it had been well. Others that none so forward for the Treaty as him- 

p. 752. 

self. He fell into so great a passion (being so much addicted to choler 
and ill Commander of it) met with one Capt. Massey, who was one of 
the number, and beat him with the flat end of his sword extremely, 
throwing him down under his feet and stamped upon him, and swore if 
he stirred he would thrust his sword through him ; afterwards he spoke 
against the Earl of Shrewsbury and other recusants whom he heard 
were censurers of him, that he was as good as any Lord of them all. 
And meeting with one M r Pesall, a civil gentleman, challenged him to 
fight with him, and he would lay aside the name of Governor. But the 
gentleman, having more discretion, the Governor struck him with the 
flat side a strong blow on the side of the head ; some gentlemen, wiser 
than others, taking the Governor away, And in discourse railed against 
the Papists, That must dwell in the Churchyard, in this and that house, 
That will set all by the ears and will do nothing themselves, That if 
they will maintain his 1500 soldiers with so money 2' vj d a week and 

* See ante, pp. 148, 149. 

152 ANNALS. 

find ammunition, They should find he scorned to treat, he would die on 
the walls, That must he loose in 2 or 3 days the Reputation he got in 
14 years' service; and seeing S r W. Russell go afar off, swore there is 
another of them, He will give him his payment too. But being by 
gentlemen persuaded and diverted, they brought him to his Lodging. 
And all this done hastily without any examination of the Truth in any 
particular, whereas a Governor should not be his own revenger, but 
have called a Council of war, examined and sifted out the truth by 
process, And received satisfaction and reparation there. But all men 
are not of one temper, and though in himself a very sweet-natured man, 
yet being once moved none more furious and resolute in his own 
revenge, and can less govern his own passion. Blunt, who was the 
Author and Incendiary, several Gentlemen fell upon him by turns they 
beating him soundly, but threaten him with worse usages. M r Welsh 
shook and kicked Sir W. Russell. 

The first part of Townshend's account of the siege ends 
here, but in an earlier part of his Diary he gives a narrative 
of what took place during the next month until the surrender. 
He calls it : 

p. 561. 

Passages of the proceedings in the Treaty with other intervenient 
occurrences from 29 th June 1646 at Worcester: 

29 th . This morning the Treaters all met at the Chamber over the 
Hall, expecting Col. Whaley's enlargement of their safe conduct, which 
came not until 12 of the Clock, and is as follows 

Sir, I am contented to condescend so far to you as to admit of 
Lieut. -Col. Soley for a Commissioner for the City, And not knowing 
the names of all your Commissioners and Attendants, I do engage my- 
self That any Twelve of the Commissioners, two ministers, a secretary 
with their Horses and necessary Attendants you shall send shall come 
to Hallow, JVT 8 Fleet's house, and return without molestation. I shall 
have a Convoy to meet at S' John's by two of the Clock. 

I rest, your servant, 

June 29% 1646. Edw. Whalley. 

For Col. Washington, Governor 
of Worcester. 

Our Treators desired the Governor's order and power to treat for 

ANNALS. 153 

their security, so there was an Order presently drawn up and signed by 
him as follows : 

Whereas at a meeting and consultation had with the prime officers 
of the Soldiers in this Garrison, as also the Clergy, noblemen, Gentry 
and Citizens, The present condition of His Majesty's affairs in Relation 
to this City and garrison was taken into serious Consideration, And 

P> 56a. 

after a long and serious debate it was held fit and necessary, and so 
declared and adjudged by the major voice That a Treaty should be 
entertained concerning the surrender of this City and Garrison Upon 
Honourable Terms, according to his Majesty's letter printed at Oxford, 
And for that purpose the persons underwritten by a General Consent 
were nominated for Treaters, and entrusted with the care and conduct 
of the business, I do therefore by the power to me given, and in obedi- 
ence and pursuance of his Majesty's said letters, By these require and 
authorize them accordingly to treat upon such articles for the surrender 
of this city and Garrison as in their wisdom and judgments shall 
conduce most for the honour of his Majesty and his service, and the 
good and peace of his subjects 'concerned in and by the same. In 
witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 29 th day of June, 
1646. Henry Washington. 

Some murmuring there was that Lieut.-Col. Soley should be 
nominated, though chosen by the soldiery of the City, and one of their 
Aldermen to sit down, But at last it was agreed that Alderman Hemming 
should stay. The names of all the Treaters were set down before. 
The Gentlemen Treaters having a convoy attending them from within 
the scone of the Bridge, between one or two of the Clock rode forth 
2 and a with their servants and Trumpet seconding, Their Convoy being 
a select number of Gentlemen and officers, who after a short salute 
rode together intermingled to Hallow house where the Treaters of the 
Enemy met them. 


The first discourse of ours, The demand of what powers they had to 
Treat with us ? 

They answered, that whatsoever they concluded, Col. Whalley would 
confirm, and if that were not sufficient, Sir T. Fairfax should ratify 
under his hand. 

Then it was desired by them to Treat (as it was at Uxbridge) by 
beginning with God, and his Church, then militia, etc. They desired 

154 ANNALS. 

to draw all our Articles into one Gross for more expedition, and they 
would consider of them, what they consented to, need no Debate, what 
Disputable to be indifferently Argued, and the most convincing reasons 
to carry. 

What is not in their power to grant, "To Transmit it to Sir Thomas 

This was consented to by all, and Wednesday the 29 th was 
appointed for us to return and send our Articles. 

All civilities used on either side, And about 6 at night returned into 
the Garrison. 

The parliamentary Treaters proposed a Cessation for all but the use 
of the spade ; Ours said, It must be for all, or none, for it was never 
known that an enemy should have liberty to make new Approaches 
during a Cessation, But if they pleased to make use of the spade as far 
as to repair all such works as are fallen, and within their own lines, they 
may ; But to have liberty to make their Approaches nearer, is as much 
as to give way for the taking of the Town, suffering their Batteries to 

P- 564- 

be raised so near, whereas where they are now raised they may break 
down some tops of chimneys, and go through the tops of Houses, but 
have done (without the killing of 3) no hurt to any. And appealed to 
Col. Dingley, an old soldier, whether upon a Cessation, an Enemy was 
to have liberty to make new Approaches by the spade, which he con- 
fessed he knew never to be done or granted. Beside our Gentlemen said, 
That approbation belonged to the Governor, and they would inform him 
what was desired by the cessation, And he should return them an answer. 

30. The Governor this morning returned them an answer to their 
desires, as follows : 

Sir, As for the Cessation it is indifferent to me whether it continue 
or be dissolved. But if continued, Certainly its fit it should be a Total 
Cessation which I conceive agreeable to the Rules of war. The little 
experience I gained abroad affords me the knowledge, That in case of 
Cessation you can claim no more liberty for the spade, Than only to 
fortify and perfect your present quarters. It absolutely bars you from 
Approaches. So I leave it wholly to you, whether it be continued or 
broken off. 

Your servant, 

June 30*, 1646. H. Washington. 

For Major General Whalley. 

This morn our Commissioners for the Treaty met and consulted 
how to draw up all their articles into one Gross body. M r Goodwin, 

ANNALS. 15$ 

M r Bosden, and M r Street were to dispose of them in order. In the 
afternoon they met and after some hours' pains did digest them into 

P- 5 6 5- 

the form drawn up, and so to be engrossed, ready to be presented, 
and tendered to their Commissioners. 

The Governor was desired to write for a safe conduct for our 
Treaters to meet with theirs the next day, But forasmuch as Col. 
Whalley had sent him a letter and Denial of Cessation of Anns, as 
follows, He and all the Gentlemen thought it more honourable and 
necessary to respite the letter until the next morn. Otherwise it should 
shew some sense of fear in us, and our forwardness to hasten the 
advance of the Treaty by his denying a Cessation. His letter is : 

Sir, [obliterations] The kingdom is at great layings out for you and 
the City, and much increases by the Addition of Forces ; I intend to be a 
good husband for you, as not to lose time which may [be] improved by 
the Reducing Worcester, Therefore give your notice, the Cessation is 
at an end. 

Your servant, 

June 30 th , 1646. Ed. Whalley. 

For Col. Washington, Governor of Worcester. 

Upon the Receipt of this answer, the Governor was so nettled, that 
presently he set a Cannon himself, gave fire, and as was conceived did 
execution on the Enemy. Most of the Cannon mounted shot off. That 
on the Foregate killed some about New Church, Divers killed of the enemy 
in Pitchcroft by their Cannon from the Bridge. The Cannon from Castle 
Hill shot the Steeple at S f John's, and thought to have humbled their 
County. And one of the Culverins in the Severn shot near or into 
the porthole of the Great Cannon mounted by the Hedge at Roger's 
Hill. That the Enemy never had so brisk a bout since the siege for 
desiring a Total Cessation. Beati pacifici. The Enemy shot off 
9 Cannon. 

p. 566. 

July i". The Governor sent a Trumpet with the letter spoken of, 
which was as follows : 

Sir, In order to what was agreed upon at the last Meeting for a 
Treaty, The Gentlemen on this part have digested their propositions to 
be exhibited in gross, And have them now ready to deliver in. Which 
they conceive most proper and requisite to be done by themselves in 
person, To the End the propositions mav be accompanied with some 

156 ANNALS. 

necessary reasons and explanations ; And then be left to the Considera- 
tion of your Commissioners to receive an answer, To this purpose it is 
desired they may meet at the same place this present day at 2 of the Clock* 
afternoon, And that I may know your Resolution therein by this drum. 

Your servant, 

July I st . H. Washington. 

For Major-Gen. Whalley. 

There was discovered 50 Barrells of powder in some houses, vaults 
and cellars in the city, which was powder which M r Coningsby and others 
did cheat the County of when they had the managing of the making 
thereof, And what workmen purloined. It was no wonder so little in 
M r Coningsby's time came into the magazine. We had need thereof 
And it was most seasonably found for in the magazine there was not 
above * barrel Is of powder. 

The Drawbridge at Severn was laid in Oil Colours to keep out the 
wet. And over the Transom was written on the outside Civitas Fidelis, 
and on the inside Deo et Rege in capital letters. 

P- 567. 

M r Kempson, Pr. Maurice' Secretary, was accused by Col. Cumber- 
ford upon suspicion of High Treason, And exhibited articles to the 
Council of War against him. 

That he had been in the Enemy's quarters at least 6 days before he 
came hither. 

That he consented with the Enemy to betray the Town by making 
the Governor, Mayor, Commissioners, and Gentry believe Oxford was 
surrendered. To Colour his purpose brought from Oxford 2 printed 
papers : i. Of the Articles of the Treaty of Oxford. 2. An Order from 
the King for the delivering up of Oxford and all his other Garrisons. 

But his proofs failing him, and in truth no Truth at all in the 
suggestion, Col. Cumberford was sorry he wronged the Gentlemen, he 
was mistaken. And M r Kempson at a Council of War this day 
was acquitted, And the Gentlemen reconciled. 

About 12 of the Clock came in White, Col. Whalley's Drum Major, 
with a letter in answer to the Governor as follows : 

Sir, My Commissioners shall be ready to meet yours at the time 
and place appointed. And there shall be some Gentlemen at S* John's 
to associate and wait upon them. 

Your servant, 

June i". Ed. Whalley. 

For Col. Washington, Governor of Worcester. 

* Blank in MS. 

ANNALS. 157 

No sooner had the Governor read his letter, but the Enemy shot off 
their great guns, and never gave over until they had discharged 
1 8 Cannon shot at the City, But God be praised, No hurt but only 
battering the tiles and tops of houses in the streets. 

p. 568. 

At their Bridge of Boats and Sconces on the River the Enemy hath 
mounted 2 Sakers. 

The Gentlemen that were Commissioners for the Treaty went out to 
Hallow about 2 of the Clock to begin their Treaty and returned at 7. 

At this meeting they delivered in their propositions, which being 
received the other Commissioners desired them to withdraw into the 
Garden. Nay, says one of these, it is for us to withdraw. No, 
says our Commissioners, we will walk until you have perused them in 
the Garden. About an half an hour They came to ours, And Col. 
Bridges said that these were propositions for men if the King had all 
his Towns and Castles and Annies, not for such as are the only City 
left, without expectation of any manner of relief or succour. Others, 
that if they granted these we were in a better condition and capacity 

than any that ever served the Parliament ^^li^^thns] ^ } be y nd 
the propositions of Oxford or any place before, And could we that were 
the last expect better, and being most obstinate, so good ? 

Sir Ralph Clare replied, That our propositions were not, if well 
examined, much varying from them of Oxford, That which is added to 
these is in Relation to the persons and this particular place, As they at 
Oxford did for the preservation of themselves. It is no small Advan- 
tage to them to give us the best of Conditions, for then their work is 
done, the blessing of peace presently ensues, or their Army is in all 
freedom to march where any patriot Army, foreign or Scottish, shall 

p. 569. 

That by having of Worcester you have the key which opens all the 
passages on the River of Severn, Debars his Majesty of all Succour 
from the Welsh, And in substance the Crown itself. All this part of 
the Kingdom reduced (except some few Castles) to your Obedience. 
Consider also the ends why we fight for, or you against us. Have we 
any private Designs or Interests ? Is it anything else but a Testimony 
of our Allegiance and Loyalty which we conceive in conscience we are 
bound to our Sovereign. We look not after other men's estates or rewards, 

158 ANNALS. 

we have wholly ruined ourselves. Therefore you have more reason to 
grant us all as we demand, considering the great advantages you receive. 
And assuredly before this City will be delivered upon dishonourable 
conditions you will see both us and it in ashes. Then said Colonel 
Betsworth, It were better it were in Ashes than received on such 
Terms. And Col. Bridges said, That they would all lay their bones 
under the Walls than consent to such propositions. Heats began to 
rise on both sides, which, M r Goodwin said, was not to do the 
work, and desired they would lay aside their passions And fall into 

They said here was first a page without a title, Then here was no 
provision of Articles for the delivering up of the Town. 

/> 57- 

To the first it was answered There was a blank place left for it to be 
done by consent. 

To the 2 nd , it was their part to propose, not ours. 

So there was a preamble consented to, and the first Article was laid 
down to deliver up the Town and Garrison, etc. 

Their Treators desired liberty for some few days and they would 
return their answer to them in writing. And there was an Instrument 
in writing drawn of their present sense as follows, by the desire of our 
Treators to them to avoid misprision : 


We have read over your Articles and Considered them so far 
forth as this Inch of time would permit. But we find them so high 
and unreasonable That we think it fit to communicate to those that 
entrusted us before we make any further procedure. Only I am com- 
manded by these Gentlemen to let you know their present sense. That 
for their own parts they are resolved rather to lay their bones under 
your walls and ports Than accept of your Towne upon any one of the 
propositions with its Circumstances and dependencies. 

In the night our men at the Bridge hearing the enemy work in the 
Backsides there and setting up stockades, shot at them, And so did the 
Gunners from the Bishop's Palace and Castle Hill ; what hurt we as 
yet know not. The Enemy shot off no Cannon at all. And our 
muskets played at them likewise. 

A little work behind the Cross stockades between the Castle Hill 
and M r Hall's garden wall thrown up to stop the Enemy's passage if 
he should force the line. 

ANNALS. 159 

/> 571- 

July 2. This day Col. Whalley having drank about 12 his morning 
draught, remembered us with 12 shot of their Cannon, whereof one did 
hit a little stone Turret in the Bishop's House whilst I was with the 
Bishop at dinner below, and made a hole some feet in the wall and 
rebounded and lay in a Gutter, the Bullet of 18 pound weight taken up 
and fits our guns to send them back without being beholding to them 
or as good as they came without wrong. 

Major General Cromwell expected this day at their Leaguer, And 
then Colonel Whalley's command is expired. If the Treaty goes on 
it is expected from him far more honourable Conditions. 

There were letters sent to our Governor from the Lords at Oxford 
to deliver up the City upon Oxford conditions, as Sir Thomas Fairfax's 
Secretary wrote to Sir W. Bridges, But it is believed the enemy 
hath intercepted them, and will not suffer them to be imparted to us. 
Rather endeavouring to enforce worse conditions, which without neces- 
sity will never be taken. 

In the afternoon the Mayor called a Chamber of the City, which 
consists of 24 and 48 of the best Citizens. Then the Governor shewed 
unto them, The present sense of the Parliamentary Treators by their 
writing, That he desired them to take their Conditions into Considera- 
tion, For his part he was assured to have as good conditions as he could 
desire for the soldier. The Governor [said] They knew the height of their 

/> 572. 

censure was 2 years' Composition, But as for them, if they would not 
so provide for their own security whereby Honourable propositions may 
be stood on for them, the fault and guilt their own. Therefore 
that the soldiery may heartily fight for them, That the Magazine may 
not be broken up, as yet for a time, which is one of the means to draw 
the Enemy to grant reasonable Conditions, understanding we are not 
[in] want, they will pass an Order of Chamber for a week or a fort- 
night's pay, and so forward (until presseing necessity enforceth) to 
satisfy the soldiers to pay for his victuals. Otherwise if he be compelled 
now in the time of Treaty to break up his Magazine, it will much 
encourage the enemy to stand upon higher terms. And they will be 
exposed to be most under the Enemy's Lash and Scourge, whose chief 
thoughts are bent (without a great Ransom) after the plunder of this 
City, being the only place left to be reduced where the Soldiers can 
expect pillage. After long debate and much repining, By vote it passed 
That the Soldier should be paid xij (1 this week and 2 s on Monday next, 

l6o ANNALS. 

But for any further continuance they respited the setting out any order. 
Afterwards it was altered July 4 th that the soldiers should have a" this 
week when he had 2* vj d before and i 8 more on Wednesday. 

There are a generation of men which only look forward and not on 
either side. That will not believe any more than what they fancy may 
be so; Some believing if the Enemy break in they will not hurt nor 
plunder him, for they have a son, a kinsman and such a friend here ; 
when in such time it is a thousand to one he is either killed or 
plundered of all before he can, if he could, help him, And in that 

P- 573- 

General misery There is no distinction of friend or foe. All alike to the 
soldier. Others say if they come in by Treaty they will perform their 
Articles; so they will in all which conduces to their Advantage, other- 
wise there will be cavils and ways found to pick the purses of the 
Citizens, as many places* by woeful experience have found. And to 
prevent this, none more ready way than to salute the Governor at his 
first coming in with a large Donation. 

The City consented to present the Governor with an a^ioo, whereof 
^50 ready for his especial care and love towards the City, towards the 
maintenance of his Table, etc. And it is wisely and lovingly done of 
them. For there was never Governor more complied with them, And 
laid less pressure upon them. And less punished for their extreme 
remissness in their daily works for their own preservation. Beside it 
being done freely, it engageth him the more to preserve them. 

The Heads of the Propositions which were delivered in to the 
Treators for the Parliament were as follows, July i": 

1. The Garrison of Worcester, Forts, Mounts, Ordnance, Arms, 
Ammunition, Train of Artillery and Magazine of War, except what is 
allowed, without spoil to Sir Thomas Fairfax. 

2. The College Church and all other Churches within this Garrison 
and County, Libraries, books, etc., free from spoil or profanation. All 
Governors, members, etc., of the Church may have Christchurch in 
Oxford conditions, being of the same foundation. And scholars their 
places with Arrears due to all of them. 

3. The Col. Washington may march out with all Advantages of 
Honour, benefit and accommodation with all his officers and soldiers 
that are expressed in the 5 th Article of Oxford. 

P- 574- 

4. The Bishop (D r Jo. Prideaux) continued in his power, His 
Houses and revenues preserved and restored with arrears. To be pre- 

* Jn the margin of the MS. is written "Chester." 

ANNALS. l6l 

served from all restraints and injuries, his family and goods. All 
Records of the Bishopric and College remain without defacing. And 
officers to them continued. 

5. That all Noblemen, Gentlemen, Clergy, officers, soldiers and all 
others have 6 months' liberty to remove with all their goods, etc., to 
their own houses or friends without molestation ; special protections for 
themselves and friends to that end. And his Majesty's servants to have 
the benefit of Oxford Articles, in going to Hampton Court or to his 

6. That all noblemen, Gentlemen, etc., with their servants march 
away with their Arms, viz., swords, pistols and Carbines and Horses. 

7. The Mayor, Aldermen and Citizens, etc., shall enjoy their ancient 
Government. Their Charters, liberties, lands, goods, etc., as belong to 
them as a Corporation, not to be questioned for any Act done before 
the Delivery of this garrison relating to the unhappy differences between 
his Majesty and the parliament. And justice to be done by the 

8. That the use of Common prayer be continued in this City and 
County, until it be otherwise ordered by Act of Parliament. 

9. All noblemen, etc., who desire to return home and live, or in the 
parliament quarters, shall have the benefits of their estates and debts 
due before sequestration, and 5 parts since. To be restored to their 
estates, real and personal. All persons of professions restored to their 
practice, any Ordinance to the Contrary. All Sequestrations to be 
taken off without Composition or Ransom. 

10. All officers, soldiers, Gentlemen, etc., to have liberty to pass 
through any Garrison and to return upon their occasions, doing no act 
prejudicial to the Parliament. 

n. All noblemen, Gentry, etc., having any evidences, writings, 
goods, etc., in any Garrison or place shall fetch or send for them and 
dispose of them at their pleasure without molestation or prejudice to 
the parties in whose hands they now be. 

/> 575- 

12. That all Clergymen within the Garrison may continue or [be] 
restored to their livings and estates, spiritual and temporal, free from 
sequestrations, with Arrears due before sequestration. And 5 parts 
after, where it is not received. Execute their charges without affronts. 
Recover their rents, etc. Those that will, permitted to continue in the 
City quietly. 

13. All fellows of Colleges here present restored to their places. 



14. All Officers and soldiers now in this Garrison, or prisoners 
since the Siege, have one month's pay allowed them at their marching 
out. All prisoners taken on both sides at or since the battle of Stow 
be mutually set at liberty, especially Lord Astley, Lieut. Governor of 
this County, and to enjoy the benefit of all Articles. 

15. That no officer, soldier, etc., who is to march out or in this 
Garrison shall plunder or injure any Citizen or Inhabitant in their 
persons, goods or estates, or revile them by scoffs. 

16. That the Mayor, etc., shall not be questioned for any oath or 
protestation taken, or for executing any of his Majesty's commissions, 
or for taking up of Arms, or for any things said or done in or concern- 
ing this war, or relating to the unhappy differences between king and 
parliament. Nor no Oath, Covenant, etc., be imposed upon them. 

17. That all persons that desire to return home, or to their friends, or 
stay here, shall have Sir Thomas Fairfax' pass and protection for them- 
selves, family, horses, etc., so to do for the space of six months, And to 
have passes if they please to go beyond sea. That during the time of 
his absence and sequestration, one half of his lands and whole personal 
estate to be allowed to his wife and children. 

P- 57". 

1 8. No person to be reproached with disgraceful speeches, plundered 
or injured in their journeys or places of abode. If such, satisfaction be 
given by Commander-in-chief or Committee of Parliament according to 
justice and honour. None compelled to take up Arms against the 
King at any time. All sick and wounded liberty to stay until their 
recovery, with fit accommodation and subsistence. 

19. All persons which formerly served the parliament to enjoy the 
benefit of the Articles. 

20. None comprehended within this Treaty shall be arrested, sued or 
molested for any debt or Trespass or Action, execution, outlawry or any 
other suit for the space of six months. 

21. None to be questioned or sued for any Act done or presumed to 
be done by them by virtue or colour of any Commission under the great 
seal or other seals or signs manual, or any derivative authority from or 
under them, nor for anything said or done concerning the war Relating 
to the unhappy differences, nor for any act of Jurisdiction, Temporal or 
Spiritual, legal or illegal, acted or exercised by them. An ordinance of 
Parliament for to stop all such actions and suits until an Act of 
Oblivion be obtained. 

ANNALS. 163 

22. That no Oaths, Covenants be obtruded upon any person com- 
prized in these Articles, they not doing any Acts prejudicial to the 
Parliament's affairs. 

23. That a certificate be granted by Sir Thomas Fairfax or any 
other commander-in-chief that he was in the Garrison at the time of 
surrender that the benefit of the Articles belong to him. 

24. That all the Northern Gentry which desire to go home [oblitera- 
tion] have a convoy of 20 Horse to Darlington in Durham. 

P> 577- 

25. The City not to be charged with free quarters. To be taxed as 
usually with the County, free from all Arrears of Contribution or any 
other sums pretended to be in Arrear and due to the parliament, And 
hereafter to be taxed, as all other his Majesty's subjects be. 

26. No tax upon cloth, nor coal or fuel. Nor to be charged with 
excise and Contribution both, But if the Excise exceed Contribution, the 
Contribution taken off. To have free Trade, as formerly. 

27. Mayor to collect the Arrears of the City Contribution to pay 
the public debts, except such Arrears as hath been heretofore discounted. 

28. Citizens and Townsmen to keep their Anns, and not to be 
taken from them. 

29. Care be taken for several Guards, in Streets when the parlia- 
ment enter to prevent Insolencies. Officers responsible for the wrongs. 

30. Neither County nor City to pay any Arrears, due and imposed 
by the Committee of Parliament for Contribution. 

31. The several Garrisons of Worcester, Evesham, Strensham, 
Hartlebury, and Madresfield disgarrisoned, And the Bishop of Worcester, 
Sir William Russell and Col. Lygon to be restored to the possession 
of their Houses and estates. 

32. If Worcester be thought fit to continue a Garrison (the other 
Garrisons disgarrisoned), The Contribution to be brought to ^1,000 per 

33. M r Bacon to be satisfied the sum of ^"280, And other Gentle- 
men such sums as they have disbursed on for the use of the Fortifica- 
tions and Garrisons, not exceeding jfi,2OO. 

P- 578. 

34. All Inhabitants, which are absent and have goods here to send 
and fetch them away without molestation. 

35. That Lord Carrington, Lady Thornburgh, Col. Holies, Col. 
Foster, Lieut.-CoI. Brobsen, Major Hugh Butler, M r Franc. Dikens, 



M r * Medcalf, James Ingram, Esq r , lately departed this Garrison, 

Major Harnedge, Capt. Yonger and Ed. Barker, now prisoners at Here- 
ford, to be included in these Articles. 

36. Sir Thomas Fairfax to engage his Honour for an Ordinance of 
Parliament to confirm what he hath not the power to conclude, 
3 Gentlemen to solicit therein and to have passes and protection. 

37. That the word (persons) includes widows and single women 
and their servants. 

38. A pass from Sir Thomas Fairfax to one or two messengers to 
go to the King to give an Account of proceedings and his Approbation. 

39. That if any person break these Articles, such breach shall only 
concern his particular person. 

40. That if any question upon construction arise of these Articles, 
To be interpreted in the most beneficial way to the persons comprized in 

That they may receive the benefit of all the Oxford Articles, with 
such alterations as proper for this place with liberty to make additional 
Articles and Clauses, And not to be tied up with a negative. To argue 
and debate the reasons concerning such particulars ; wherein as they 
shall with all Ingenuity subscribe to stronger reasons than their own, so 
they expect the like from them, According to agreement made, zg^ June. 

P- 579- 

And if the Treaty conclude, Beside the passes and Certificates do 
demand, That the names of all persons now in this Garrison, and com- 
prized in the Articles may be registered by a public Notary or Town 
Clerk of the City, Whose Register and Certificate shall be a sufficient 
Record to evidence each man's capacity to receive the benefits of these 

Meanwhile the forces set free by the surrender of Oxford 
were coming up, and as a set off to them the following device 
was tried. 

There was a design to take Col. Betsworth in his quarters at 
Kempsey. The Governor drew out 60 firelocks, and 40 Horse, which 
by the foulness of the night turned to 13 Horse to give them an Alarm at 
M 1 ' 8 Andrews the while the foot went by Barge, But Col. Betsworth 
was not there. They took only 5 Horses and men. The Enemy was so 
strong of their guards, that notwithstanding the extremity of the rain, 
yet their Horse Guard were all mounted. Ours will seldom be found so 


* Blank in MS. 

ANNALS. 165 

A very foul rainy night, and so continued until 2 of the Clock next 
day in the afternoon. 

It is said that there are only 700 musketeers come to Parshore of 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, And all the rest of his Army yet at Oxford. That 
these and those united have some design upon a storm. 

July 3. This day quiet in all quarters and posts. 

Warrants from the Major to all Constables to give notice to all 
Inhabitants, whereas they should pay 2" on Monday for next week's pay 
by every one that paid before 3 s vi' 5 , for better relief of the soldiers they 
must pay one shilling of it on Saturday, and the other i s on Wednesday. 

p. 580. 

4. About 9 in the Morn 4 Troops from M" Andrews' came under 
the works at Diglis and drove away 7 kine. No sentinel standing out, 
nor Soldiers on the line to guard the beasts ; And for any of our guards 
might have enforced the line with foot. So careless we be on our guards. 

About 3 of the Clock came 30 Horse within Carbine shot of the 
Sconce, not any Soldiers of the guard, but by chance one being not far off 
came to the work and shot a gentleman of note among them, which 
made them draw off and compounded for the Body. The Enemy shot 
a boy carrying wood without their works. Some cherries sent in to 
some officers, and they returned sack for it. Common courtesies usually 
practised among soldiers. Yet some people murmur, not knowing the 
Course of War. 

All the rest of the day and night quiet from shooting on either side. 

I was raised to pay 8 men per week. 

5. One of the Enemy shot from the Foregate. 

In the afternoon the Enemy on the Hill side beyond the great Sconce 
began to vapour, and offer a pickering. The Governor sent out some 20 
foot and 5 Horse to remove them. The Enemy drew together more 
Horse, and began to line their Hedges, And made our men to retreat and 
some that engaged too far, so that the Governor and some Commanders 
and Gentlemen, being all not 14 Horse, went out to relieve them and 
draw them off; The enemy did the like, and made a body of 50 Horse. 
The Governor being once out would not, though he ought with discretion 
and with Honour, retreat ; But fell to pickering himself, shewing much 
Courage, yet accompanied with too much Rashness, considering the 
Command he is in. And by engaging himself, engaged all those 

p. 581. 

Gentlemen that were with him. Sometimes driving the Enemy to their 
Body, otherwhiles they enforcing him to retreat to his musketeers, 

l66 ANNALS. 

They playing on both sides ; This continued above an hour and not one 
man on either side fell, only a footman of ours sorely cut, and Cornet 
Welsh's Horse shot in the fetlock. Towards the End the Enemy came 
in a full body, to give a thorough charge, but the Governor having the 
Advantage of a Ditch between him and them, Captain Norwood having 
6 Musketeers with him in the ditch, discharged all at once upon them, 
That it so startled them, that he made them wheel about ; But if they 
had boldly gone on, The Governor and the rest of the Gentlemen had 
all been hazarded, And also many of our foot which were in another 
Hedge. It is conceived an officer of theirs was shot. Upon their 
Retreat up the Hill, The Governor and the Gentlemen followed, and 
there being one among the rest, which vapoured most, and would not 
abide. The Governor, being well mounted, drove at him and called him 
to stand, Telling him he was the Governor, But he falling into the Body, 
The Governor upon the wheeling off had his Horse shot in the lower 
part of the breech, and the bullet hung in the skin of the flank, But did 
not fall, and brought him off; Otherwise his person had been hazarded 
to be taken, and with him the Garrison endangered. He hath been 
often entreated not to go forth. That it was not for him having such a 
Command to hazard his single person. His loss is the hazard of the 

p. 583. 

Some of the Gentlemen of the enemy were extreme Civil, speaking 
to ours not to give any uncivil language and to exchange a pistol with- 
out railing. 

Our Canoneer made two shots at them and shot one. He shot 
4 times before, and shot amongst them in the side of the Hill at 
M ri Andrews' house. 

The 2 Sentries at the Magazine in the Cloisters broke down one 
whole window of carved stone against it, only to steal away the iron 
bars which were left in, in the night. For which they are Committed. 
$ will not repair and set up the window and all the Iron not worth 
a* in it. An ill precedent for the Enemy which may truly say, if they 
escape unpunished, " Your own men began, and without punishment, 
And are you angry with us ? " 

6. Major Hungerford from S' John's sent the Governor word that 
he should grant no passes for any woman to go out of the Garrison, 
for he had command not to let any pass his quarters. The Governor 
denies none, it is at their own peril how they pass the enemy. 

About one in the afternoon the Enemy at M ra Andrews' barn having 

ANNALS. 167 

placed 2 pieces of Cannon (Sakers) shot towards the town, one shot went 
over the College Church and fell in Broad Street. Another fell in 
Diglis ground, short of the Castle Hill, and 2 more another way. We 
returned them 2 Cannon without hurt. 

Captain Wicked Will alias Capt. Hodgkins and Lieut. Rheynolds, 
men of an undaunted Courage, whose very names terrible to the 
Enemy, agreed upon a Sally about 5 at night against a Company of 
Dragooners to the number of 30, and some 20 Troopers with them. 
They 2 charged them and both killed their man and brake through ; 
Then upon their Return back did the like, but were so encompassed 
that Capt. Will was seized on by the Collar, but being too strong for 
the other, overthrew him and so freed himself. 

But I should have said that the Hedge being lined with Dragooners' 
firelocks, they fell upon them first, and at the first took 4 of them. 
Lieut. Rheynolds drove them with their Arms before him close to our 
Musketeers which were beginning to come up, Capt. Will only facing 
the enemy. Then they came together and charged, and Capt. Will 
was twice thrust through the doublet and a Dragooner beat him with 
his Musket, He having lost his sword and was forced to fight with a 
musket barrel. But there came in M r Jo. Thornburgh, my nephew, 
who relieved him and helped him to his sword. And also Lieut. Rhey- 
nolds, whose horse was shot and he being on foot beat off 4 Troopers 
until he relieved him and brought 3 dragooners off. Lieut. Rheynolds 
was shot in the side of the face. It is said they killed and sore 
hurt a dozen and brought off (I am sure) 7 prisoners with their Arms, 
one Capt., Lieut., and a Sergeant ; such a sharp and daring piece of 
service not done before in this war with so few men. 

7. This morn a Boy shot in Pitchcroft, and about 2 of the clock 
there drew down some 30 of the Enemy to take some of ours cutting 
grass; our men very careless in their guards (being absent when they 
should have protected them), nor Cannoneers at their Guns. We shall 
suffer for this Remissness. One J. Jonston, a very sufficient man, 
was killed in S' Clement's work as he was giving fire at the enemy, 
being shot in the head. 

News was told us that if the River on the late Rain had risen but a 
foot higher their Bridge of Boats had been broken and come down the 
River, Their Army parted, and we might have destroyed them, But we 
were not so happy nor lucky. 

l68 ANNALS. 

P> 584. 

5. This day the Governor called a Council of War with the Assist- 
ance of the Commissioners. Wherein he declared That he had engaged 
himself to the soldiers to pay them that day a week's pay And therefore 
desired them to consider and settle a sudden course therein, And that 
unless it were now done he should have 100 of his best men run away, 
who told him plainly they were in extreme want and would not starve, 
but must be enforced to go their ways to the Enemy. Upon Debate 
some, and far the major part, were of opinion That by no means the 
Magazine of Stores should be broken up ; that either the City must 
continue one week's pay more or private magazines searched to 
relieve the present wants. That if the magazine should be broken 
open before there were an answer returned of the propositions of sur- 
render, The Enemy knowing thereof will assuredly hold us to worse 
conditions, as being assured we could not longer continue. And the 
City may be ascertained there may be thousands of pounds demanded 
of them to pay, which by disbursing one week's pay more might 
happily prevent by the Treaty, conceiving we are not in necessity. 
That there may be an offer to the City to engage their Magazine for so 
much money as will pay the soldiers a week's pay, and upon the 
Treaty and before the Surrender the magazine to be delivered to their 

But the Governor told them plainly he had engaged himself to pay 
them a week's pay this very day. That if he did it not (and they 
would not consent), He must be enforced to keep his Chamber. That 
the Citizens were ready to mutiny about their pay, And it was not to be 
compelled upon the weaker sort, who said they did duty as well as the 
soldiers, And they would not want, and the soldier live and starve 
them. The Mayor and Town Clerk said the City would lay out no 
money, And if the City did suffer they could not help it. 

P- 585. 

When conclusions are made before premises considered, very rare 
or never right. 

If Commissioners had opposed this then the soldier would have 
mutinied on them and cried " money, money," The Governor laying 
the blame on them. 

Cabinet Results seldom good. 

The Result at last was The soldier should have ia d in money, 
I2 d in Corn, and vi d in Bacon or cheese for this week until Monday 

ANNALS. 169 

That the Rates of provision should be as follow : 

s. d. d. 

Wheat, per str. . .40 Best Bacon, per Ib. .6 

Muncorn, per str. . .32 Bacon, ordinary . -4 

Rye . . . .28 Best cheese, per Ib. .5 

Peas . . . .28 Ordinary cheese ... 3 
Oat meal .... * 

That there be a search for all Corn and grain of all sorts in the 
Houses of all such as have deserted the Garrison since the siege. To 
measure up the same And what quantities, To put it into the maga- 
zine, And all officers to be assisting. If such proportions be continued 
weekly to the soldier and not to apportion him according to the quan- 
tity of daily allowance what will keep him reasonably the magazine 
cannot last one month, There being not past .^"500 worth of provisions 
in the Magazine, And 1500 soldiers having i8 d a piece in provision 
comes to ^na 10" o d , whereas 200 strike of corn at 3" 4 d per strike, 
which is 30 Ibs., will keep 1600 soldiers a week in bread, 8 men to 
a strike, and 6500 Cheese per week, which comes to, after 20" per cent., 


In all j86 per week to maintain them. And it were better to 
allow the soldier, as Commissary Pinkney apportioned at the siege of 
Gloucester, one pound of Biscuit and half a pound of cheese per diem, 
Than to run in this profuse way. 

That the Bakers appear before the Commissioners in the morning to 
confer and agree of taking corn and giving the Soldiers bread according 
to proportion and weight. 

About one of the Clock the enemy drew 40 foot down to the 
Sconce side in the Hedges, and played hard, and our men at them, 
none hurt. 

About 6 one of the Enemy's Horse shot. They keep strong Guards 
on every Hill, and line the Hedges with Musketeers. 

This day a new list and review of the Regiments given up to the 
Governor, and accordingly every Captain to receive such allowance for 
his men in provisions. So that this day the Magazine was opened first. 

No shooting by the Enemy. 

Whether Whalley did not satisfy the Parliament in the way he 
carried on the siege, or whether Raynsborough was his superior 
officer and was sent from Oxford to bring matters to an end 

Blank in MS. 


does not appear ; whichever it was, on the 8th July Raynsborough 
assumed the command of the besieging forces. 

9. About 3 in the afternoon Col. Rhaynborough had a general 
Rendezvous on Rainbow alias Wheeler's Hill. Where were drawn all 
his fresh Regiments, now come to him. Divers Censures and Judg- 
ments, Some that their number were not past 2000, others more, 
others less in foot. Most Reel coats. The new Supplies were 9 
Colours of yellow and 4 of black and white. Some say that he 
politictly intermingled his own Regiments for the greater Show, now 
the Warwicks and Northampton foot are gone away. There were 
beside 31 carriages, whereof ten are of ordnance; which did draw up 
all at Barbon house in the Close before the house. 

p. 587. 

We shot oft 4 pieces of ordinance from the Mount against them 
when they stood about Red hill Cross, and did fall amongst them. 

Very many unnecessary "sutes" of great and little shot made, and so 
much the more to be thought considering the scarcity of powder, But 
this is as well managed as the soldier doth other his charges, All so 

10. The Enemy began to draw a line on the top of Perry Wood 
Hill towards Red Hill Cross and planted 2 Sakers. The second shot 
hit the musket baskets on the South point of the great sconce, another 
fell in the water trench at the Castle Hill, and one more at the stables of 
Sir John Knutsford's at Priory Gate, being a long mile from their works 
or Battery. In the afternoon in pickering we had some horse shot by 
the enemy, who drew under the Hill next the mount 200 foot and lined 
the Hedges. Some 7 of our foot Hurt. Among whom M r Walton,* 
the parson of S' Nicholas, hath a flesh hurt in the face looking on 
in the Mount, and 6 mortally. At last Capt. Leech, with 3 more and 
some 20 foot, made a sally from the mount very resolutely upon their 
musketeers, beat them out of the Hedges, and made them run for it to 
their quarters at the Perry Wood. Took one footman, and hurt 
diverse. And all ours came off without hurt. 

p. 588. 

Col. Raynsborough wrote a civil letter to the Governor acquainting 
him That he was come thither by order from Sir Thomas Fairfax to 

* No such name appears in the list of the incumbents of St. Nicholas, but as John 
Halseter, who was instituted in 1636,15 described as " Schismaticus et rebellis " (sic), 
Walton may have taken his place, and not been legally instituted. 

ANNALS. 171 

command in chief the forces at the Leaguer before Worcester. That he 
understood he had several of their soldiers prisoners, desired that 
either they may be exchanged or have liberty to send them provisions. 
That he shall continue all civilities and be his Servant. To which the 
Governor returned a very civil answer, as being glad to deal with a 
gentleman who knew how to return civilities. As for Col. Whalley he 
could have none from him. That he would next morning send all his 
prisoners to him, And that he should be indebted to him for so many 
as he sent him more upon Account. 

About one of the Clock at night the Enemy from Perry Wood Hill 
drew out aoo foot or more and intended to raise a work at Wall's furlong, 
but our men sallied out with ao Horse and as many foot and beat them 
from their Guard, though they shot from their Guard from Windmill 
Hill freely at them, And by chance prevented the design of giving 
us an Alarm, they being drawn up into 3 great bodies. But all places 
were speedily well manned and provided for to entertain them, And 
our men " wifted " all their light matches over their Heads, which made 
a great show and light, and withal gave a cheerful and Courageous 
shout. And their muskets went off so readily that the fields were to be 
perceived as light as the day, Both parties giving fire very nimbly and 
readily. We lost Lieut. Lloyd who commanded the foot, only one 
soldier; what they lost we know not, some of them hurt by our Horse. 

p. 589. 

It is conceived the Enemy is at least 5000 foot and Horse. This 
Col. Raynsborough, a very active man, and we shall be at his work, 
and must expect alarms every day or night from him. Yet all are glad 
Col. Whalley is gone, Though he never attempted any alarm. And 
now we must have our business put in a better posture, or else we shall 
speedily find the smart. 

Some came from London, who told us that at London they thought 
we were mad to send such propositions. 

That there was a petition of the Independents presented to Major 
General Cromwell at Oxford, desiring his hand to accompany it to the 
parliament, who answered " You shall," and with both his hands tore 
their petition in pieces. 

That there are 4 Lords assigned to go with the propositions to the 
king, Earls of Pembroke and Suffolk being a. 

That no Gentleman, no not Sir Tho. Glenham, at London shall 
wear a sword which served the king. 

That the two princes, Rupert and Maurice, being not to come 


within 15 miles of London, lying at Oatlands, rode to a place nearer. 
The parliament presently put it to the vote, whether the princes breaking 
their Articles ought not to be arraigned of High Treason, and only a 
voices carried negatively. So they are gone to Dover, and so beyond 

That they pay no Taxes in London (only excise) and have denied it 
this 4 months. 

p. 590. 

n. The Governor sent Col. Raynsborough all his prisoners, being 
about 30, according to his desire by a Trumpet. Now is expected great 
civilities, Since Sir R. Pye and Col. Thomas Sheffield amongst them. 

The Governor sent to Col. Raynsborough to know of him whether 
he intended that all the old Commissioners of the Treaty should stand 
or would alter them. This was done upon another design, for we 
having heard nothing of our propositions of Treaty, being now 10 days 
since delivery, and a new General coming occasion was taken to sound 
them thoroughly by this civil way. 

Many at work to perfect and amend the line at Castle Hill, which 
is very weak, and most of the line too low and must be raised. Two 
brass sling pieces in the top of the College Steeple, which commands 
the Windmill Hill, and keeps the enemy close from working or stirring 
in Companies, And this day did execution among them. 

Some great shot from the Enemy at Perry wood. 2 shot fell in the 
Governor's garden, having hit the wall of the vestry of the College very 
lightly, the bullets being 6 Ib. weight spent, and the great guns at 
Roger's Hill begin to play again. The Enemy casting up a work upon 
the knoll beyond Windmill Hill nearer to M rs Andrews. 

Lieut.-Col. Bishop having the cock of his piece up ready to strike 
fire, a musket bullet came and hit the said cock and glanced along the 
side of his cheek without further harm. 

Orders to the Mayor to provide workmen daily. To provide 
mattocks, spades, etc., ready. To demolish the South buildings in 
Sidbury before the Gate. To work at the Avenues before the sconce. 

White Tents to hold 4 set up at Barbon house and on the side of the 
hill beyond the Windmill Hill looking towards M Andrews for the 
soldiery, and some Huts. Col. Raynsborough's quarters at M rs Andrew's 
of the Hill. 

He returned an answer to the Governor that he had received his 

ANNALS. 173 

men, would send back all his men the next day, desiring him to send 
his own Trumpet for them for that some of them were unwilling to 
come into the City.* That what the General resolves about the further 
Treating, as yet he is not certain, but shall suddenly know from him, 
Only he believes he will speedily send you the Terms upon which he 
will receive it, which being once come, you shall find no lawful Civility 
denied by him who is your humble servant. 

Fresh meat, especially Beef, mutton and veal sold at an extreme 
rate at 8 d per lb., a roasting piece of good Beef Sir John Knutsford gave 
above 30*. This fell out for want of providence and well managing 
our provisions which were brought in, And for want of " Hair " to keep 
them. And for want of providing up good store of Beef when it was 
cheap and might be had. As for corn, it holds the former Rates set 
down, and the Bakers provide their bread accordingly, yet want fuel 
very much, for which the outhouses pay for it, which are Rotten. 

P- 592. 

12. D r Gross made a second sermon and invective a very gross 
one, wherein he called women meddlers, open Arses, with much such 

Our prisoners being 17 sent home, among whom Darby the 
Governor's footman, which Col. Whalley threatened to hang. Our 
Trumpet went for them. 

The Ordnance from Roger's Hill played often with their great 
bullet, and especially in the High Street near the Hall and St. Helen's 
Church. None, God be praised, hurt. One great bullet did hit the lath 
or studds in the wall of the Townhall wall between the half timber, but 
being spent, went not through, only fell down, and rolled along the 
Channel of the Earl's post Inn, which is 40 yards off. And one at 
M r Street's house, hit his kitchen chimney and rebounded into his 
Court, he being hard by. 

The Enemy keep very strong guards near their posts and line the 
Hedges, that we cannot sally out without hazard of much loss and 
small benefit. 

13. They played from Roger's Hill with their Ordnance, and shot 
at the Foregate, but have missed it as yet, though came nigh it. Shot 
into the Town without hurt to any person. News came that the strong 
Close of Lichfield was to be delivered up on Thursday. 

* The following passage in the MS. is struck through : " That he had no orders from 
Sir Thomas Fairfax concerning the treaty or the proceeding of it. He expected to hear 
suddenly, and as soon as he doth we shall have notice." 

174 AfoNALS. 

The top of the Castle Hill strongly fortified, and a Tarras [Terrace ?] 
made some yards below to protect it and all the line near below, that if 
the Enemy should gain the line, he shall find himself " play " to win 
that place. A guard house set up there, and Gentlemen will look unto it. 

This day The Townsmen should have most come to work there, but 
not any came. They are as it were besotted and stupid concerning 
their own preservation, and will be the only persons that shall receive 
the worst conditions in the close of all. 

P- 593- 

The Commissioners attended the Governor and desired him to 
dispose of the Magazine as pleaseth him, That he sends so many 
orders for provisions to particular persons out, That it will be very 
suddenly spent unless a more strict course be taken ; when he knows 
what is there and how short a time it will continue if so disposed, the 
fault may not fall upon them. They must deny their consent for pro- 
visions so given. The Commissary, M r Berckley, can give him a note 
of all the Stores, what was there before it was broken up, what is 
already gone out by his warrants, And what remains. By which he 
may best judge how to moderate the same; And the soldiers cannot 
have no power, occasion or liberty to rail or speak against them when 
he is the only disposer of it. So that trouble is taken off them. 

Workmen, carpenters, and masons expect money now for their 
work, as though there were sieges, nor that their lives and estates 
were not concerned in it if the City be taken by Storm. It was truly 
said by one, " Though haply their persons may be saved as Round- 
heads, yet their goods will be taken as Cavaliers." They must not 
forget their old loyalty. 

This City was burnt down to the ground by king Hardicanute for 
killing his Tax Gatherers, and all the people destroyed.* Burnt 
twice in King Stephen the usurper's time, for standing with their 

P- 594- 

lawful princess Maud the Empress. t And stood with King Henry III. 
against his Rebellious Barons. J And it is recorded in ancient 
manuscript thus, "That King Henry III. in the 48 th year of his 
reign enlarged the liberties to the High Commendation of the City 
recorded and commended to posterity, for their great service unto him- 
self and his son Prince Edward. For when almost the whole Realm 
rising against them took them both with the Emperor, the king's brother, 

* Catnden. t 15 Anno. J Mr. Habington. 

ANNALS. 175 

prisoners, The Citizens of Worcester nevertheless continued even then 
faithful subjects and valiant soldiers, And endured for their loyalty to 
their king the spoil of the City being ransacked by the Barons ; And 
lastly when the Earl of Leicester, the Capital Adversary of the Crown, 
did lead the king prisoner to Kempsey near Worcester, they received 
the prince and never left him till he vanquished Leicester and the Barons 
at Evesham, delivered the king his father, and also redeemed the 
Emperor* his uncle out of captivity. Vide Pol. Vergil. Hist. Angl. 
10 1. de W. Rufo, concerning the prayer and efficacy thereof of S' 
Wulstan, Bishop of this City, when it was straitly besieged by Count 
Montgomery, And Florentius Wigorniensis Hist. 

One sergeant of the Governor's shot in the sconce between the 
baskets, in the head, a very stout man. 

14. A Chamber meeting of the City, where with much reluctance 
they agreed to assess every 24 man at 4 d per diem, 48 man at 3 d , and 
others at 2 d per diem towards payment of workmen ; And to 
advance 3 days' pay beforehand. And to levy 2 fifteenths, which 
is J^35 for powder ; And this pay to continue until the works be 

P- 59.5- 

About H at night our Guards began to play on the Castle hill side, 
and all night shot little or much to little purpose. The Enemy shot 
about one of the Clock their great Cannon of Roger's Hill ; and drew 
down some 60 foot towards Hanbury Sconce, wherein were not past 
14 men; gave fire upon them far oft" and approached no nearer. The 
Townsmen at last did rise and lined their walls very strongly. 

One of Major Moore's best soldiers shot cutting grass near the 
walls. Some will be foolhardy. 

15. A little piece of brass slinged up with its carriage to the top of 
the College Church about 9 of the clock, which will very much gall the 
enemy. One that looked to our Cows under the wall shot through the 
leg, and the bullet raised dust after against the bank, died within 
3 hours. 

The Enemy are very good marksmen. 

An extreme mist about 3 of the clock in the morning none the like 
this year, whereby the enemy might have taken too fair an advantage 
against the City for an assault. About 5 in the evening, a drummer 
from Col. Raynsborough brought in a letter to the Governor as by 

* A marginal note in MS. has, " Richard, King of Romans." 


way of answer to what we shall trust to Concerning our propositions for 
surrender this Garrison, As followeth : 

Sir, It seemeth good to the Genera! not to send any answer to 
your propositions. Which had it come, as was expected, might have 
saved myself and you further trouble. 

Your servant, 

July i5 lh , 1646. Tho. Raynsborow. 

The rest of the letter was for a protection for a Captain to come in 
to prosecute some men for damage received by them. 

p. 596. 

The Governor upon receipt hereof, called the Commissioners and 
officers of war to consult what answer to return and when to do it ? Upon 
debate his sense and some others was to return presently an answer. 

1. Because it shewed a gallant resolution in all Parties that so 
strange an answer did not awake them, nor distract their thoughts. 

2. It might make the enemy better consider how to fall upon so 
desperate a party, And yield to treat upon terms, though more moderate. 

3. They were able to answer them in an hour which they took 
14 days' consideration, and then made no answer at all. 

Others were wholly opposite not to do it but to consider of it 
thoroughly, It being a matter of that high Concernment wherein all lies 
at hazard. That sudden resolves are seldom without repentance ; If 
the parliament took 14 days to consider of returning no answer, we 
might very well take our night's thought how to make a reply. This 
carried it, and the Drummer was stayed all night, who only told by word 
of mouth the Governor that they desired an answer back by him. 

Then concerning the Letter itself sent. Some were of opinion that 
it was an absolute denial for any Treaty. Others that it was very 
obscurely written, And may be taken in a more strict sense with 
reference only not to treat upon such propositions as was delivered in to 
be treated with Col. Whalley, who now commanded not the army. 
That it was rather an Invitation to begin a Treaty with Col. Rayns- 
borough, for otherwise why should he desire a protection for Capt. 
Blissett to come now in to prosecute some men and to demand justice 
upon them, which was not likely to be granted nor fitting to be desired 
if they meant nothing but destruction. 

P- 597- 

16. This morn the Governor, Commissioners, and Gentry did agree 
upon debate of the ensuing letter by way of answer : 

Sir, This City was first summoned by your General upon promise 

ANNALS. 177 

of Honourable terms and hath been since invited to a Treaty by Col. 
Whalley. In order to which (upon assurance of the Rendition of 
Oxford, and evidence of his Majesty's printed letter) we of this City 
offered propositions, with this Reservation, That if any demand on our 
parts might seem too high, or any denial on yours to trench too much 
upon our Honour, neither side should so insist upon their own sense 
as not to submit to better reason ; which was mutually assented unto. 
On this foot we left them, Being assured upon the word and Honour 
of your Commissioners, we should receive an Account of them within 
few days. If that Resolution be altered, we shall desire to have a close 
and perfect answer, That the world may be the Judge between us, upon 
whose Score the effusion of so much innocent blood shall rest, since in 
conformity to his Majesty's commands, we do not decline the Rendering 
of this City upon Honourable and equal conditions. 

I am, Sir, your Humble Servant, 

Wore., July i6 th , 1646. Henry Washington. 

To Major-General Raynsborough. 

p. 598. 

" Post script. Lest by the Treaty begun by Col. Whalley might have 
been misrepresented by him, I shall desire you to grant a pass for 
M r Goodwin to come to you, who can particularly inform you of the 
progress of the Treaty, which gives me opportunity of sending this pass 
for Capt. Blissett." 

And this postscript was thought very necessary in respect that the 
propositions (as delivered in, before discussion of them by the Com- 
missioners) were not at all to be transmitted elsewhere : until by Argu- 
ment and result each proposition should have had his consent, or dissent, 
and in what part : But that they should be sent In ipsis Terminis to the 
General Sir Thomas Fairfax or to the parliament without any arguing 
was not in the thought of our Commissioners. And it is not unjustly 
suspected that the Parliament Commissioners did so, somewhat to put 
a gloss from discovering their want of power to Treat at all, much more 
not to conclude upon any Article. 

The Mayor called a Chamber this morn and to consider what to 
do or desire by reason of this answer; Some very little versed in Treaty 
proceedings and military passages would have a petition drawn to Sir 
Thomas Fairfax signifying in substance, what is before in the letter and 
to intreat him for a Treaty, And to this purpose the Draft of a Petition 
was read amongst them; which being presented to the Governor, Com- 
missioners and Gentlemen, it was utterly exploded, and as a thing so 

A A 

178 ANNALS. 

poor and base, as never was the like parallel, And all one, as to desire 
and beg of them asked to see what Conditions they pleased to give them, 

P- 599- 

And desires that the Chamber would consent that before them it might 
be torn in pieces, with a promise of Secrecy for none to discover such 
an Intention of those. There was presented to them the draft of the 
Governor's answer which being read was unanimously approved and 
commended by all, And their petition torn in pieces with an Oath of 
Secrecy of not divulging the same abroad by any. 

The Governor sent a trumpet with the drum to Col. Raynsborough 
with his letter about one of the clock. About 5 he returned with Capt. 
Blissett and a drummer, who brought this civil Reply from Col. Rayns- 
borough, as from a Gentleman that desired peace, rather than blood. 

Sir, I received yours, And accordingly as I have formerly writ to 
you, have oftentimes sent to the General for propositions, which at my 
coming from him he intended to send you, wholly declining to meddle 
upon yours. All the answer I have received hath been his expectation, 
that I should carry on the work according to my duty and place, yet 
that you may be assured that I do not pretend a Treaty, and in the 
meantime seek an Advantage against you, or a Surprise of you, I shall 
be contented to forbear all Acts of Hostility, so long as both sides shall 
keep within the works they now have, Till the messenger, which is now 
going to the General (being a Captain I send on purpose) returns with 
his full Resolution ; And this to begin, if you please, this Instant. 
Though I did before the Receipt of your letter really Intend something 

p. 600. 

more this night than hath hitherto been Acted. And, Sir, I am so far from 
desiring the ruin of yourself, or any other person of worth* (if you were 
wholly in my power) as that I should cordially endeavour the contrary, 
And this you shall be sure to find, wherein it shall lie in the power of 
him who is 

Your humble servant, 
July i6 th , 1646. Tho. Raynsborowe. 

I have sent a pass for M r Goodwin. 
For Col. Washington, Governor of Worcester. 

The Governor presently sent this answer to him. 
Sir, According to the Overture from you, I have given order through- 
out all my guards for a Cessation from all Acts of Hostility ; which 

* " Quality " struck out and " worth " substituted. 


I entertain ; not as I fear a surprisal, for I know you to be so much a 
soldier, as it makes me the more intent to muster up that little know- 
ledge I have gained in that way to prevent such Accidents. I have sent 
M r Goodwin unto you, who I suppose will give you better Information* 
concerning the passages of the Treaty than you hitherto received. To 
whose relation I leave it, And rest 

Your humble Servant, 

July i6 th , 1646. Hen. Washington. 

For Major General Raynsborowe. 

The Governor sent to the Commissioners and Gentlemen to meet 
him at Town Hall, where he did acquaint them what answer he had 
received from Col. Raynsborough and what he had replied, The which was 
exceedingly well approved ; and further told them that there hath been 
a private letter sent to M r Mayor from a friend, which hath been shewed 
to many before M r Mayor had received the same; which was of that 

p. 601. 

Consequence that it was fit the Chamber of the City should know the 
same, Otherwise it might be imputed (as it is already among many 
Reported) That were it not for the Soldier and some Gentlemen, The 
City could have good conditions, whereas both soldier and Gentlemen 
desires chiefly . . . . , that the City may receive good conditions by pre- 
serving them from plunder. As for themselves, they know what they 
are to trust unto here ; for they can lose nothing here, but a Horse, and 
some few clothes, Their estates must be compounded for elsewhere. 
The Citizens may lose all at once, small mercy coming from the needy 

Jealousy and distrusts accompany all sorts of people, each one fearing 
the other party should outwit or over reach them in their particular 
Ends. But the City have very little (I am sure no just cause or 
suspicion of soldier or gentry to leave the City to the mercy of the 
Enemy by making their own conditions through and advantageous ; since 
they may see daily That the City's protection and preservation is their 
only Aim and General Design. Yet the City of late hath given many dis- 
couragements in their careless and extreme neglect of sending or working 
at weak places to make it more defensible, In advancing no money to 
pay workmen or powder, though they are in arrear of Contribution. In 
a Careless keeping up of their Guards upon duty, though their own 
lives be at hazards; and all that may be called theirs; nor paying the 
soldier his weekly pay. 

* " Satisfaction " struck out and " information " inserted. 

l8o ANNALS. 

The letter was read which was to this effect that follows : 
i. That he understood by some that tender the welfare of the City 
That you may have Conditions, if speedily desired, as follow : 

/>. 602. 

i. That the Corporation be preserved, and as it was in times of 
peace governed. 

a. The City to be free from plunder. 

3. Quiet from any Delinquency, or questioning for bearing Arms, 
or any act done against the parliament in defence of the City, Lieut.-Col. 
Soley excepted. 

As for the Soldiery shall have Honourable terms, To march out 
with Colours flying, etc., as in all other places they have had. 

As for the Gentry : 

They to repair to their own houses and have convenient time 
allotted to compound with the parliament. 

That he would acquaint his fellow citizens with it, and advise 
among themselves in it. For the welfare of the City concerns them 
more in point of interest, than others merely in point of Honour. 

And in the post script : If it be much desired Lieut. Col. Soley may 
have the benefit of the Articles. 

A dangerous letter to procure a Division, though neither soldier 
or gentry expect better conditions. And had not a Cessation 
happily come, and our letter had a good reception, what conse- 
quences might have followed out none can tell, yet ill much feared. 
For though the middle and lowest sort of citizens be cordially bent for 
to stand it out courageously, yet many of the best rank draw very 
backward in their Actions than move one step of Advantage. Their 
conceived petitioning Sir Thomas Fairfax for a treaty in so humble a 
way shews the great Abjection they are fallen into, which if consented 
and presented, whereas they have and as yet do carry the Character of 
Heroic, resolute, and loyal spirits, they would have made themselves the 

p. 603. 

Hiss and Scorn of all, to go out at the Close like the SnufFof a Candle : 
But continuing in their Gallantry to the last, They have endeared their 
prince and his posterity never to forget so faithful a City, that both 
was the first and last of Cities, which continued in their fidelity. 
Nothing causing a surrender but only want and hopeless of Relief. 

17. M r Goodwin returned, And found that Col. Whalley did g 
beside his Commission, both by his shooting against the Town ana 
also by Treating, Having no Command or power from the General for 


either, only to make good Col. Morgan's quarters. That our passages 
have been not rightly presented concerning the Treaty itself. 

He was used with great Civility, And was told by Col. Raynsborough 
that within this 3 days he should hear from the General or see him or 
receive Instructions from him concerning the Treaty. That it was 
fitting all men of Honour should have Honourable Conditions as well 
on their side as other. And hoped there would be speedily an End, 
For there was no more to do but to disband. 

This day our Governor went only to meet some Commanders of 
his Acquaintance, and was desired to acquaint the Commissioners and 
Gentlemen that it would be taken very well of the Committee for the 
parliament it they would insert an Article That a Gentleman of their 
Country might be Governor of the City rather than a stranger, which 
would engage the Committee to be more pliable to serve them here- 
after, and he also which shall be Governor to protect them. 

p. 604. 

It was thought very necessary. Only if Col. Raynsborough should 
stand for it they then know not how to oppose it, being General. But 
if Col. Whalley expected it, then unanimously they would withstand it, 
hoping to have the Countenance and assent of the Committee with 

Though there went out express orders from the Governor and also 
from the officers of the Enemy that no soldier should come within 
carbine shot of the works, yet on all sides the soldiers came to the very 
stockades, One or other asking for his father, uncle, kinsman, friend, 
or fellow or countryman whether they be alive or dead. That both the 
Governor for the City and their officers were enforced to come up and 
drive them away. 

And surely if the Treaty should break now they are sufficiently 
acquainted with this interview of our strength and weakness, I know 
who must be the sufferers. 

They had a design to shoot Granados from their battery behind the 
sconce, and to storm the town likewise, that very night as the cessation 
was consented, which surely was the great blessing of God* in it for 
us and for our preservation, who, when we were left destitute of all 
human helps did notion such thoughts and work his secret pleasure 
instead of fighting, slaughter, and happily destruction to a sudden calm 
and quietness. And no question if we serve him will perfect it to an 
assured peace and protection. 

* In the margin : " God's protection our surest buckler. In this, man's weakness,, and 
God's greatness. God turns all to the best for the good of them that serve him." 

181 ANNALS. 

/> 605. 

Lieut. C. Clarke and Capt. Hadclon to M r Eascland, Capt. Osborne 
and others : 

Some officers of the Parliament being in discourse now with ours 
did wonder why we would stand out and not accept of Oxford condi- 
tions, which were sent to their knowledge by the Lords of the Council 
for us to accept. It was answered that there was no such Commands 
come to us at all, And if any such letters were, they were Intercepted 
by Col. Whalley or the Committee. It was wonder here how the 
Lords could forget us in their Treaty and neglect us as people not 
worth the looking after, who have been the main upholders of the royal 
cause. It was replied they knew it to be true, And we were abused 
extremely if we received no such directions. And further said, make 
as good Conditions as you can for yourselves, for the Citizens will do 
their endeavour to make their own peace, They Juggle both with you 
and us, but they will smart for it. And if ever we should come to 
storm or force an entry upon you, there is a very considerable party 
ready to assist us of them, we know your strength, your stores. You 
can do nothing, but within few hours we have it. 

The Townspeople during this Cessation, both men, women, and 
children, went into the General quarters of the Enemy, And it was 
affirmed that in S' John's there were nigh as many as were soldiers of 
the Enemy. Notwithstanding all proclamations and Commands on 
both sides none to come near to the others' quarters. And the Enemy 
in like manner to our stockades, and some to bathe them in Severn 
where they may know the Ebb and lowness of the River, which is 
very small. 

p. 606. 

1 8 Ju. This morn Col. Raynsborough sent the Governor the pro- 
positions, together with a letter to return his answer that night. 

The Governor conferring with the Commissioners, who desired him 
not to return any answer until night according as it was intimated in 
the letter, yet he would by no means condescend, but drew this answer 
instantly : That it was a business which required Consideration, and 
desired that those Gentlemen which were heretofore appointed Treators 
might meet with his and Debate on the propositions, and that he would 
appoint a time and place for that purpose. 

Whilst the Gentlemen were in debate about the propositions sent 

ANNALS. 183 

and what to demand on their parts to counterpoise, About 4 of the 
Clock Col. Raynsborough sent him a Reply as followeth : 

Sir, You may be assured the propositions sent in received a 
full debate before they came to you; and are such which you may 
accept, but I cannot recede from. Had not regard been had to your 
Honour, believe it such offers had not been made. I cannot herein serve 
you further than to be punctual, where I engage, and must, as before, 
expect your answer this night, and remain, 

Your humble servant, 

i8 th July, 1646. Tho. Raynsborough. 

This letter being read drove all men into a Maze that they would 

not have a Treaty at all nor recede from the propositions, which are 

so low and unworthy that almost had they been within the City could 

not have offered worse, and so obscure that they were as good as none 

p. 607. 

at all. And the time of our present answer so sudden (even that night) that 
it brought us to a great strait, some, and most, absolutely disavowing 
their consent to them as being good and more noble to deliver up them- 
selves prisoners, or fight it out and endure a storm, But the Governor 
said, if they came to storming, he had not powder to endure an hour's 
fight, though, for his part, he would hazard his own person. At last it 
was resolved of this answer. 

Sir, Your propositions are so obscure to me that I shall desire to 
grant a pass to M r Goodwin to receive a clear sense of them, who shall 
also acquaint you with my Judgment upon them, And upon his Return, 
you shall receive further answer from your humble servant, 

i8 th July, 1646. Hen. Washington. 

Col. Raynsborough returned him within 2 hours this Reply. 

Sir, Although I am not sensible of the least obscurity in the 
Articles, yet that I may not be wanting in anything which is Civility, I 
have sent a pass for M r Goodwin according to your desire, and remain 
your humble servant, Thomas Raynsborough. 

July IS'*. 

Upon the receipt of this M r Goodwin went to Col. Raynsborough. In 
the Interim M r Mayor called a Chamber to consider of their approbation 
of the Articles as far as belongs to them, which is chiefly the 5 th Article. 
After a hours they broke up, but would not discover their Results until 

p. 608. 

M r Goodwin's return, though it was resolved they would accept of them 
in the same way as are laid down, if they could have no better. So 

184 ANNALS. 

they make themselves liable to all fines and impositions and censures 
for all Acts done by the City against the parliament, which may amount 
to what sum please the conqueror. 
The propositions are as follows : 

1. That the City of Worcester, with all forts, Ordnance, Arms, 
Ammunition, stores and provisions of war thereto belonging shall be 
delivered up without wilful spoil or Embezzlement unto his excellency 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, or such as he shall appoint to receive the same upon 
the 21" day of this instant July at ten of the Clock in the morning in 
such manner and with such exceptions as are contained in the ensuing 

2. That on the said 2i 8 * of July the Governor and all officers and 
soldiers of the Garrison with all other persons therein that will, shall 
march out of Worcester with their Horses, Arms and Baggage, properly 
belonging to them, to any place within one mile of Worcester, which 
the Governor shall choose, where all their Horses and Arms, except 
what are in the ensuing Articles, shall be delivered up to such as his 
Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax shall appoint. All the soldiers shall 
be disbanded, And all such both officers and soldiers and others as shall 
engage themselves by promise never to bear Arms any more against the 

p. 609. 

Parliament of England, nor to do anything wilfully to the prejudice of 
their Affairs, shall have the benefit of these ensuing Articles. 

3. That all such as shall desire to go to their own Homes or 
private Friends shall have the General's passes and protections for their 
peaceable repair to, and abode at the several places they shall so desire 
to go unto. The Governor to pass with all Horses, Arms and Baggage 
properly belonging unto him, Each Colonel to pass with 3 Horses 
Each Lieut. -Colonel and Sergeant Major with a horses, Each Captain, 
Lieutenant and Cornett with one Horse, And every person not under 
the degree of Esquire with three Horses. And all of them with their 
Arms and Goods properly belonging to them to be carried upon their 
Horses, and all Soldiers with their Swords, and such Baggage that 
properly belongeth to them, which they can carry about them. 

4. That all persons who are to have the benefit of the precedent 
Articles shall, if they desire it, have passes to go beyond sea, provided 
they depart this kingdom within 2 months after the surrender of the 

5. That the City of Worcester and all the Inhabitants thereof shall 
be preserved from all plunder and violence of the soldiers. 

ANNALS. 185 

6. That Sir W. Russell, now Resident within the City of Wor- 
cester, shall be exempted from any benefit by these Articles.* 

p. 610. 

M r Goodwin took some heads for Remembrance to discourse upon. 

1. That credible information hath been given that It was consented 
by the Lords of Oxford. This Garrison should have the benefit of 
Oxford Articles, And had Sir Thomas Fairfax's pass to convey them 
hither. How the letters were embezzled ? 

2. No protection for any persons whilst they live at home for their 
persons and estates. No liberty for any to go on their private occasions. 
No mention of composition or liberty to compound for their delin- 
quency, nor for what time. No mention what shall become of the rest 
of their gootls, which they cannot carry away with 3 Horses. No 
mention for any Gentleman to take any Horses to go away or to 
carry their goods under the degree of Esquire, but must march on foot. 

No Act of Oblivion for any Act past or done against the parliament 
making their compositions, nor upon what terms they shall make com- 
position at all. 

Nor for the City of Worcester's freedom from being fined for their 
delinquency, which may be at the will of the Conqueror, which may be 
as much as any man's worth and as good endure the hazard of plunder, 
and stand to their mercy. 

That never it was known any officer as Sir William Russell to be 
delivered up by particular name, but to be excepted in general words, 
as all such whom the parliament hath excepted out of pardon. 

p. 611. 

M r Goodwin, after some 2 hours' discourse with Col. Raynsborough, 
departed, and brought this answer at 10 in night: 

Sir, I have fully declared myself to M r Goodwin in every of those 
particulars wherewith you were pleased to entrust him, wherein he hath 
so exceedingly pressed me as that I have not kept unrevealed from him 
the utmost of what power is in me as to the matters questioned. It 

* In the copy given by Nash, ii., Appendix ciii., the following article, which is not in 
the MS., is given: 

"That the garrisons of Worcester, Evesham, Strensham, Hartlebury and Madresfield 
be disgarrisoned, and the Bishop of Worcester, Sir William Russell and Col 1 Lygon be 
restored to their Houses and estates," 

B B 

l86 ANNALS. 

being now late I am contented to stay your positive Answer till 
to-morrow morning, And still am and shall to my utmost approve 

myself your humble servant, 

Thomas Raynsborough. 
July 1 8 th , 1646. 

Postscript. All that else is in me is to give liberty 
if we agree till Thursday morning. 

19. This morning the Governor at a general meeting desired M r 
Goodwin to acquaint the Gentlemen what answer Col. Raynsborough 
made. M r Goodwin told them That Col. Raynsborough acknowledged 
that this City was to have Oxford Articles and Lichfield and Walling- 
ford, so that they be all delivered up the same day, as Oxford. Which 
not being done, Sir Thomas Fairfax was at liberty to make new ones. 
To which M r Goodwin said, " We never were sent to from the Lords at 
Oxford for Rendition of this Garrison, only we heard there were letters 

p. 613. 

and a pass from Sir Thomas Fairfax for that purpose, and a Rumour 
that Col. Whalley or some other had intercepted them, and when we 
desired Col. Whalley to send to Oxford he denied the same." Col. 
Raynsborough then told him that when Sir Thomas Fairfax demanded of 
the Lords why they sent not to Worcester to deliver up their Garrison, 
They told him they could not get a messenger, Desiring that he would 
afford them the Articles of Oxford, who told them he could not now 
promise them that, or whether the parliament will think fit to grant them. 

As for to Recede from his Articles proposed, it was not in his power, 
for he was bound up. And some question, whether the General could 
alter them, having them from the parliament. 

That he was and will be ever ready to grant all reasonable Civilities, 
and had received a check from the General, who wrote to him to do his 
work, not to mediate. 

That the General himself had a Cloud cast over him for affording 
Oxford such large Conditions. 

That whatsoever he engageth himself by Articles, there shall not 
upon his Honour the least violation be of them. 

That there is nothing said or done amongst us but is known there 
within few hours, And they know the weakness of our Magazines, both 
of Ammunition and provision, to a Corn of powder or grain. 

That for the gentlemen to stay at home was intended for 2 months 
without any trouble or question. 

ANNALS. 187 

That he could only grant 2 days more to be added before the 
delivery up of the Garrison. 

p. 613. 

Then it was demanded of M r Town Clerk what was the Result of 
the Mayor and Chamber Concerning their propositions as far as belonged 
to them, or whether they will fight it out for better Articles. He told 
them, That the Chamber Resolution was : 

That if they could have no better Conditions from the Enemy, they 
would accept of these rather than endure or hazard a storming. 

The Governor and Gentlemen seeing the City draw back from their 
Assistance, And considering if they should oppose alone and maintain 
their posts, which is the great Sconce and line, The Citizens who by the 
several Cessations were grown extreme cool, and in their attendance on 
their Guards 14 for 60 men on guard and many extreme rotten 
hearted might let them in on their backs, and not relieving the soldier 
in his weekly pay neither money nor provisions, but very poorly cur- 
tailing, some half, some pay nothing. That also Townsmen broke the 
postern gate at the Foregate last night. And also finding upon exam- 
ination in the Magazine this day not past 3 barrells of great powder 
for Ordnance, and 5 barrells of musket powder and one of pistol powder, 
which will serve but one day's hot service and storming for 3000 men. 
And finding that many of our own soldiers listed themselves to go 
beyond sea during this Cessation, And that our magazine of provisions 
could not last above a fortnight longer, And lastly above all and for all, 
that his Majesty could not return nor succour us in any time, no hopes 
or least promise. 

p. 614. 

thereto having never heard from his Majesty since the beginning 
of the siege, nor from the Lords of the Council at Oxford, It was 
resolved by the Governor to deliver up the Garrison and take those 
Articles only, But first to try whether Col. Raynsborough will give way 
to send to Sir Thomas Fairfax for an Enlargement of them. To which 
purpose this letter was sent by the Governor to Col. Raynsborough : 

Sir, I have received so many great Civilities from you that I have 
no cause to doubt your continuance of them. Nevertheless since you 
have made such clear expressions of a limited power in you, I shall 
desire you not to interpret it as a diminution of your Honour or Jealousy 
in me, That I intreat you to grant a pass to M r Goodwin and M r Jo. 
Heath to repair to your General to endeavour the enlargement of the 



time for compositions, and moderating of them, with other circumstan- 
tial things, which I conceive may be admitted without contradiction to 
the Articles proposed. However, I do engage myself to march out 
upon Thursday according to your Articles (Yet I desire to reserve that 
as a Secret to yourself), hoping his Excellency will enlarge them. 

I am Sir, Your Humble Servant, 

Worcester, ig* July Henry Washington. 



But most of the Gentlemen protested against the last Article of the 
Exemption of Sir William Russell from receiving the benefit of the 
Articles, It being a thing extremely dishonourable to deliver up any 
Gentleman who hath so faithfully served his Majesty into the hands of 
his Enemies, nay, some one in his heat told the Governor it was as much 
as consenting to his murder if he should be put to death; that in all 
places was never any exception upon Surrender of any man's person, 
though far greater delinquents than he, except that of Bridgnorth 
in delivering M r Latham, which was not the like case neither. That he 
being one of the prime Commanders ought to have Soldier's Conditions 
upon delivery, as well as any. 

The Governor replied, That will you have a whole City and all the 
people therein destroyed for the preservation of one person, and will 
you have the City itself rise to cut him to pieces first rather than he 
shall be the only cause of their ruin ? 

But Sir William Russell himself carries out with a gallant reso- 
lution, like a Gentleman, this dangerous storm which may fall upon him. 
And whereas some of his friends were persuading him to retire himself 
in a disguise and not to run the hazard of enduring his Enemy's malice, 
wholly refused the same, and said he would tender himself to the 
Governor for him to deliver him to the hands of the General, Col. 

p. 616. 

Raynsborough. [He feared nor cared for anything he could do 
unto him.*] And when some Gentlemen came and told him that all 
the Gentlemen did intend to write to Sir Thomas Fairfax for him to 
have the benefit of the Articles, he very modestly refused it, yet reso- 
lutely told them That he neither feared nor cared what the Enemy 
could do unto him. He had but a life to lose, and it could not be 

* The words in brackets are struck through in the MS. 

ANNALS. 189 

better spent. Yet the Gentlemen did conceive themselves so much 
in honour obliged that there was a letter drawn and the hands of most 
of the Noblemen and gentlemen of worth subscribed to it to Sir 
Thomas Fairfax as follows : 


We have taken the Confidence by the Opportunity of this Gentle- 
man to become suitors to you, That you would be pleased to have so 
much regard to our honours as not to exempt Sir William Russell 
from the benefit of such Articles as you shall sign for the Rendering of 
this City, Assuring you that you cannot find a way to lay a greater 
Obligation upon 

Your Excellency's Humble Servants. 
Worcester, 1 9 th July 1646. 

This letter was sent by M r Heath. 

About 2 of the Clock there was a meeting appointed to draw up 
Heads for directions to M r Goodwin and M r Heath, if they went to 
Sir Thomas Fairfax in the Enlargement and Explanation of the Articles 
which are very obscure, That they may be more plainly expressed in the 

p. 617. 

passes and protections whilst it was in agitation. 

There resorted by Companies to the Hall of men and women 
amongst them, most of them weavers to the number of 100. Mur- 
muring and not well knowing what to have or desire, But at last some 
of them desired that they might have M r Alderman Heming, a discreet 
man and a good speaker, go with those Gentlemen to Sir Thomas 
Fairfax. Others would have M r Town Clerk, for say they, those 
Gentlemen who are sent will be to get good Conditions for the Gentry, 
and not for them, and why should not they send ? But during this 
tumult the Governor came and shewed Col. Raynsborough's answer, 
which denied the Gentlemen going to Sir Thomas Fairfax for that 
particular, but for seeing the Articles signed. Which being made 
known unto these Townsmen they all went away as wise as they came. 

His answer was this : 

Sir, I shall no ways remit my civilities to you. But can by no 
means admit the Gentlemen to go to the General with your message 
desired. Yet if you please to send them, or any other, to see the General 
sign the Articles accepted by you, They shall receive safe conduct to 
him. In the mean time I shall (in the presence of whom you please to 
appoint) sign those Articles myself (with engagement for the General's 

190 ANNALS. 

Confirmation thereof), And I do (together with such Hostages as you 
please to send me) expect the like from you, And for that end desire 
a pass for Col. Bridges and Col. Okey. I remain, 

Your humble servant, 
19 th July. Tho. Raynsborough. 

p. 618. 

M r Heath was appointed by the Governor to go to Sir Thomas 
Fairfax sign the Articles, and so went away about 9 at night. And if 
possible to be here on Wednesday night or Thursday morning or else 
to send a post to Col. Raynsborough to excuse it, and the reasons, 
with Sir Thomas Fairfax's consent. But about 1 1 returned from the 
Leaguer that Col. Raynsborough would not let him go until the 
Governor had signed the Articles, which he did before Col. Bridges 
and Col. Okey, and then M r Heath took his journey. 

The preamble of the Articles was: 

" Articles of Agreement for the surrender of the Garrison of Wor- 
cester, concluded the 19 th July between Col. Thomas Raynsborough, 
General on the behalf of Sir Thomas Fairfax, General of the forces 
raised by the Parliament, and Col. Henry Washington, Governor of 

The City began to grow so mutinous that many gave out, they 
will throw the soldiers over the walls or club them if they should oppose 
this Treaty, Being now, as all quiet people are [? weary] of war, desiring 
their trading may go on. But yet they will find the war is not so 
ended, but that they must ransom and fine for Actions past, and have 
still a Garrison which will cause payments. 

20. Horses bought np on all sides and begin to grow very scant. 
Many officers and soldiers of the Enemy came into the Garrison, so 
that Col. Raynsborough sent 6 officers desiring the Governor to have 
leave to search all houses for the soldiers, and to take them away, lest 
they might cause some mutiny and mischief. And hath commanded 
some Horse to attend every post, that no soldiers come into the City, 
yet many came in continually. 

The City privately sent a letter to Col. Raynsborough to excuse 
themselves, and desire his favour for a pass for 2 Citizens to go [to] 
the Parliament with a petition. 

To which he returned answer that it was neither convenient for him, 
nor advantageous for them to have it granted, the City being not 
delivered up. And sent the City the Covenant and the Negative 


p. 6ig. 

Sir Edward Littleton and Sir William Bridges went to the Leaguer 
to see Col. Raynsborough sign the Articles in the afternoon. 

Col. Raynsborough disbanded 1500 of the Welsh and Shropshire 

Garrison of Evesham slighting. 

The Organs were this day taken down out of the Cathedral Church. 
Some parliamenters, hearing the music of the church at service, walking 
in the Aisle, fell a skipping about and dancing as it were in derision. 

Others, seeing the workmen taking them down, said, " You might 
have spared that labour, we would have done it for you." " No," said a 
merry lad (about 10 years old), " for when the Earl of Essex was here, 
the first man of yours that plucked down and spoiled the organs broke 
his neck here, And they will prevent the like misfortune." 

21. Col. Raynsborough came to the Great Sconce this afternoon, 
and sent officers to take a view of all the magazines; And Major Moore 
.... [Mayor of the City very indiscretely delivered the keys of the 
Magazine of amunition to him*] before the City was delivered, and the 
soldier marched out and the Gentry : That if they be not very honest 
and just they may take us all prisoners and plunder the City. 

p. 620. 

22. That part of the Army which lay at S' John's burnt their Huts 
this morn and marched towards Kidderminster. Some 7 barrells of 
powder in the Magazines, 3 in the Tower of the Gate, and 12 in the 

No provisions left in the Magazine [all being given out to the 
soldiers this day, which is contrary to the Articles*], for the soldiers 
broke open the doors thereof, there being no sentinel, and took what 
was left, which is such a breach of Articles for not embezzlement, that 
they may plunder us without injury. 

The Committee for the parliament! took up their quarters, which 
were in some gentlemen's houses, who were their friends, and, as it is 
hoped, to preserve them from plunder. 

M r Heath came from Sir Thomas Fairfax, and assured us that we 
should have very large passes sent to us by 10 of the clock the next day 
and protections. That Sir William Russell should be used like a 
Gentleman, and Major-General Raynsborough should have him as his 
prisoner. This night divers Gentlemen's stables by the parliament 
soldiers, who were suffered to come into the City by numbers, were 

* The words in brackets are struck through in the MS, 
f See these names post, p. 197, 

192 ANNALS. 

broke, and their Horses taken out, and no Redress. All things being 
in a confused manner, nor Order nor Discipline, but Discontent and 

23. This day at 6 of the Clock prayers, many Gentlemen went to 
take their last farewell and meeting at the College at the Common 
prayers of the Church, and to receive the Bishop's blessing, saying 
"The Grace of our Lord, etc." 

This day the Governor and his Regiment, Sir William Russell's 
Regiment, and the Remainder of Col. Sandys', under Major Moore, 
marched forth to the Rendezvous at Rainbow Hill. And all the 
Gentlemen with their baggage at 10 of the Clock in the morn. But 
some few officers and others that stayed somewhat later, the parliament 
soldiers seized on their Horses, Arms and money. 

p. 621. 

About one of the clock the passes came for us. And M r Peters, 
the reverend preacher of theirs, marshalled the manner of receiving 
the passes. First he called the Governor and all Colonels and Majors. 
And assigned to another to call all the Captains and Lieutenants, and 
soldiers and other persons. Then he called all the Gentlemen of the 
County and persons of quality. Upon the delivery of the passes he 
asked every one whether they would promise not to bear Arms against 
the Parliament of England, who must answer " Yes," or " I do," if 
they had their passes delivered unto them. 

Concerning which Engagement of not bearing Arms, many did very 
much stumble, both gentlemen and soldiers of honour. But upon a 
serious survey by their wisest it was conceived a just promise and 
ought to be done, for the king being chief in the parliament, if you take 
up Arms against him you take it as against a part of the parliament, 
and so commit Treason ; and if on the other side you take up Arms 
against the Representative body, the king not disavowing them as his 
two Houses of Parliament, and engaging himself of late by his several 
Declarations to comply with the joint desires of the parliament of both 
kingdoms for the peace thereof, doth oblige and engage us not to dis- 
sent what he please to consent unto with them. 

p. 622. 

All the passes run, according to the quality of the persons, in this 
manner : 

" Sir Tho. Fairfax, K', General of the forces raised by the Parliament. 

Suffer the bearer hereof [Henry Townshend, Esq re ], who was in the 
City and Garrison of Worcester at the surrender thereof And is to 


have the full benefit of the Articles agreed unto upon the same, quietly 
and without let or Interruption to pass your Guards with his servants, 
three Horses, Arms, Goods and other Baggage on Horseback, and to 
repair to Elmley Lovet within this County of Worcester, London or 
elsewhere upon his necessary occasions. And in all places where he 
shall reside, or whereto he shall remove, to be protected from any 
violence to his person or goods, according to the said Articles ; And to 
have full liberty at any time without two months to go to any con- 
venient port, and to transport himself with his servants and neces- 
saries beyond the seas. And in all other things to enjoy the benefit of 
the said Articles, He having engaged himself not to bear arms against 
the Parliament of England. 

Hereunto due obedience is to be given by all persons whom it may 
concern, As you will answer the contrary. Given under my hand and 
seal the 23 rd of July 1646. 

T. Fairfax. 

To all officers and soldiers under my command 
and to all others whom they may concern." 

The Gentlemen having received their passes and having a small 
Convoy for them according to those parts of England they were to go, 
went their way in bodies, and that closely, for there were several parties 
of the parliament soldiers which followed our Rear and seized upon all 
Scatterers, which were plundered of all they had, Notwithstanding all 
passes and protections. An Appendix to all conquered people by the 

pp. 623 and 624 deal with other matters not relating to the Siege. 

p. 625. 

About 5 of the Clock entered the Major General Raynsborough 
into the City. Several Regiments on foot marched in before, and 
others dispersed into several quarters. And so to lie in several Counties 
to be ready upon orders. That there is not to remain in this County 
but one Regiment of foot and 100 Horse and some dragoons as the 
Sheriff's guard. 

Col. Raynsborough made Governor of Worcester and of the Sconce 
by Sir Thomas Fairfax. 

Thus this Ancient of Cities, famous in former Ages for their 
loyalty to their Native princes against either Foreign Tyrants, Home 
usurpers, or Domestic Insurrections, which suffered under Harclicanute 

c c 

194 ANNALS. 

the Dane concerning the Denial of Danish Tribute and killing his 
officers, Both the sword in destroying man, woman and child ; and the 
fire, being burnt down to the ground. 

In William Rufus' time, the Suburbs being burnt, opposed the host 
of Roger Earl of Shrewsbury of the Norman race, who came to surprise 
;t, And by the prayers and encouragement of their Holy Bishop 
Wulstan, the Citizens made a gallant sally (as Polydore Vergil writes)* 
upon their Enemies, and God's special assistance being with them, they 
did kill and take 5000 men and forced them away. 

In the time of King Stephen it suffered another martyrdom, being 
consumed to Ashes by King Stephen in standing in the just right of 
Maud the Empress and her son. And in the Baron's wars before the 
battle of Evesham when Simon the great Earl of Leicester led about 
King Henry the 3rd to Kempsey within 3 miles of the City, they received 
Prince Edward into the City and assisted him against his false Barons, 
for which Henry 3 in 48 th annum enlarged their privileges. 

p. 626. 

Thus this Ancient City was delivered up into the hands and use of 
the parliament, which was the first of Cities that declared for the Crown 
and the upholding the just rights thereof, And the last which held out 
in the defence thereof, All being reduced into the Obedience of the 

It received his first summons from Sir W. Brereton 25 th March, 
which refused : He drew off. And Col. Whalley gave it a second 
summons ao th of May, being now closely beleaguered round above one 
.... fortnight by Major-General Raynsborough ; yet small store of pro- 
visions came in except some butter and cheese by the water. Their 
Loyalty and Honour made them hold out until they understood the King, 
by his printed declarations and letters, had commanded all other forts to 
be delivered, and the Governor saw his name in the list, though it never 
came but accidentally to his hand ; And had he received any Encourage- 
ment of Relief, there would have been far more care had before a 
surrender. But all giving as it were a careless eye upon them, and 
never looking upon their resolutions, left to the mercy of the Enemy; 
If they had been far more stronger in all particulars they must have 
yielded at the last. 

And one thing never to be forgotten, That when Sir Thomas Fairfax 
moved the Lords at the Treaty of Oxford that the City of Worcester 
might be delivered up and involved in their conditions, It is reported by 

* In margin, " Histor, Angli." 

ANNALS. 195 

those of the parliament side they refused the same, And when it was 
pressed to them that howsoever they would send to them to know 
whether they would deliver the City upon Oxford Conditions, and Sir 

p. 627. 

Thomas Fairfax sent to them 3 several passes 3 several times to the 
Lords, and moved the Lords hard to it, they told Major Salwey they 
could not get a messenger to go thither, and returned the passes back. 

By which ignoble means this poor City was glad to take such con- 
ditions as pleased their Enemy to give, And for the saving of a mes- 
senger's charge of io A gallant City is like utterly to be impoverished 
and cost them 10,000. They never denying a surrender, only 
expected a Command therein from his Majesty or the Lords of the 
Council. And for their punctilio both of Honour and Loyalty therein, 
They now lie exposed to all the miseries which an Insulting Conqueror 
may Impose upon them. 

24. M r Peters preached at the College in the morning. 

25. Col. Raynsborough commanded all the Citizens to bring in 
their Arms upon pain of death. That all the King's soldiers should 
depart the city within 2 days. That none of the King's party are to 
wear a sword in the Garrison. They begin to Inventory men's estates, 
Demand great Arrears of Contribution. Then 5 and 2O th part of every 
man's estate, which paid, then making him a delinquent and so squeeze 
him, unless some particular persons find by favour, courtesy and mercy. 
That in an age he shall not recover. 

p. 638. 

The Names of the Gentlemen of this County which were in the 
Garrison of Worcester at the surrender thereof: 

Grafton : Earl of Shrewsbury. 
Lord Talbot his son. 
Shelsley : Sir Edward Littleton, Bart. 
Droitwich : Sir Edward Barrett. 
Elmley Lovet : Henry Townshend, Eq. 
Woodgreen : Edward Perrott, Esq re . 
Sedgeberrow : Anthony Langston, Eq. 
Beoley : Edward Sheldon, Eq. 
Ralph Goodwin, Esq re .* 
Civitas Worcester : Sir Martin Sandys. 
Abberley : Joseph Walsh, Eq re . 
Malvern : Russell de Malvern, Eq. 

* Struck out in MS, 

196 ANNALS. 

Hindlip : William Habington, Eq. 

Col. Herbert Price, Pedmore. 
D r John Prideaux, Bishop of Worcester. 
Henry Ingram, Eq re , High Sheriff, Earl's Court 
Sir William Russell, Bart., Strensham. 
Sir Rowland Berkeley, Cotheridge. 
Sir John Winford Astley. 
Henry Bromley, Eq re , of Holt. 
Thomas Acton, Eq re , of Burton. 
Thomas Hornyold, Eq re , Blackmore Park. 
Robert Wylde de Commanders, Eq re . 
John Cockes de Crowle, Eq. 
Major Thomas Wylde. 
Major Jo. Ingram. 
George Acton, gent. 
Abberley : William Walsh, gent. 

George Walsh, gent. 
Spetchley : Thomas Berkeley, gent. 
Hanley : William Langston, gent. 
Pershore : French, gent. 

John Lund, geut., quarter-master of the City. 
Many Gentlemen went out before the siege and to stay at home. 

p. 629. 

Names of those Gentlemen which were in Hartlebury Garrison at 
Surrender thereof: 

Hewcll Grange : Lord Windsor. 
Ombersley : Col. Samuel Sandys. 

Capt. William Sandys, Governor of Hartlebury. 
Capt. Martin Sands. 

Names of those Gentlemen that went up to compound with the 
parliament some 3 months since : 

Hampton Lovet : Sir John Pakington, Bart., of the House of 

Ribbesford : Sir Henry Herbert, K', of the House of Commons. 

p. 630. 

Names of those Gentlemen which were taken prisoners by the 
parliament forces and enforced to compound : 

Salwarp : Sherington Talbot, Esq re . 
Hanbury : Edward Vernon, Eq. 


Ooverdale : Philip Brace de Dardale, Eq. 

Wichenford : John Washbourne, Eq. 

Rushock : Francis Finch, Eq re . 

Hagley : Sir Thomas Littleton, K> and Bart., prisoner in the 

Tower for this 2 years past. 
Beoley : William Sheldon, Eq re , of Beoley compounded to live at 

Harvington : M" Pakington of Harvington to live at home. 

p. 631. 

July 36 th , 1646. Names of the Committee for the Parliament which 
came to Worcester upon surrender thereof : 

Sir Thomas Rous de Rons Lench, Bart. 

Nicholas Lechmere, Eq re , de Hanley. 

Daniel Dobyns, Eq r % de Kidderminster. 

Col. William Lygon de Madresfield, Eq. 

John Egiock de Feckenham, Eq re . 

Major Richard Salwey second son to Humphrey Salwey of 

Stanford, Eq te . 

Capt. Thomas Milward of Alvechurch. 
Thomas Cooks of Bentley, gent. 
William Moore of Alvechurch. The Bishop of Worcester's 

Bailiff there. 
Major Edward Smith. 
Wm. Collins of Kingsnorton, Tanner. 
Wm. Yonge of Evesham, draper. 
Jo. Yonge, servant to Lord Brooke. 
M r Browne of .* 

John Fownes of Dodford, gent. 
John Giles of Astley. 
Col. Wm. Dingley, Governor of Evesham. 

pp. 632, 633, Hank. p. 634, see ante p. 23. 

* Blank in MS. 


VHOH 89 

'NC 1 "